Bragantia, Volume: 27, Issue: 1, Published: 1968
  • Cytoplasmic influence on the determination of fruit position in Gossypium hirsutum

    Gridi-Papp, Imre Lajos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Um estudo genético do caráter "fruto pendente" em algodoeiros da espécie alotetraplóide Gossypium hirsutum revelou que êle é determinado pela ação de dois pares de fatores Ph e Pr, provenientes respectivamente das espécies diplóides ancestrais G. herbacenme G. raimondii.Os dados conduziram à conclusão de que existe uma interação entre cromossomos e citoplasma complicando a segregação nas populações híbridas obtidas com formas de fruto ereto. As fórmulas À, PhPhPrPr, e (0), phphprpr, são propostas para as formas de capulhos pendentes e eretos, respectivamente, c um mecanismo citogenético é sugerido para explicar o fenômeno.

    Abstract in English:

    A genetic study of the "pendent fruit" character, carried out on varieties of the tetraploid species Gossypium hirsutum,revealed that its inheritance is determined by two pairs of factors, which came from the ancestors G. herbaceumand G. raimondii.Segregating hybrid populations obtained with "erect fruit" varieties showed that there is an interaction between chromosomes and cytoplasm interfering in the phenomenon. The quality of the cytoplasm in the "pendent fruit" phenotype was designated by À.The formulae PhPh and prpr are proposed for the ancestors G. herbaceumand G. raimondii,À, PhPhPrPr and (0), phphprpr for the pendent and erect fruit types of G. hirsutum,respectively. A cytogenetic mechanism is suggested to explain the inheritance of the character.
  • Electron microscopical comparison of tissues of plants infected with different strains of potato virus Y which occur in São Paulo

    Montenegro, Maria José; Kitajima, E. W.; Camargo, I. J. B.; Costa, A. S.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Exames, ao microscópio electrônico, de secções ultrafinas de tecidos, principalmente foliar, de plantas de diversas espécies, infetadas por uma das 17 estirpes do vírus Y da batata que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo, mostraram: a)Ocorrência de inclusões citoplasmáticas, lamelares, do tipo descrito por Edwardson, e ocasional presença¹, no citoplasma, de partículas similares àquelas encontradas in vitroe em tecidos de plantas infetadas por qualquer uma das estirpes estudadas; b)aparecimento esporádico de agregados de partículas filamentosas e grossas (ca. 50-60 m¼ de diâmetro), no citoplasma de tecidos de plantas infetadas pelas estirpes Yc e YeI; c)ocorrência sistemática de inclusões citoplasmáticas, constituídas por membranas, empilhadas ou dispostas concêntricamente, consideradas como estrutura de Golgi hipertrofiada, em tecidos de plantas infetadas pelas estirpes Yp e Ynt.

    Abstract in English:

    Comparative electron microscopy of tissue sections of different plants, infected with one of the 17 different strains of potato virus Y (PVY) found in São Paulo state was carried out. Infection of plants, with any of the strains utilized, was always followed by the appearance of characteristic inclusions in the cytoplasm. These inclusions appeared as linear elements (6-7 m¼ thick) arranged in a loose parallel array, or forming curled, ring- or pin-wheel-like structures. Similar inclusions are described in tissues infected with other viruses morphologically similar to PVY. The role of these structures in the virus infection is still not known. Occasionally, particles resembling those found in vitroappeared scattered randomly in the cytoplasm or sometimes associated with the cylindrical inclusions. Infection with strains Yc and Yel resulted in occasional appearance of aggregates of thick and elongated particles, abt- 50-60 m¼ in diameter. On the other hand, in tissues infected with strains Yp and Ynt, membraneous structures were found conspicuously in the cytoplasm, which consisted of a pile of flat cisternae. It seems that these structures might represent hypertrophied Golgi elements.
  • Competition among potato varieties

    Machado, Archimedes De Assis; Boock, Olavo José

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    São relatados os resultados de três ensaios de campo, dois dêles instalados no município de Pindamonhangaba, e o terceiro no município de Caçapava, regiões produtoras de batatinha (Solarium tuberosumL) do Estado de São Paulo. Os dois primeiros referem-se a uma competição entre variedades nacionais e alemãs, e pelo terceiro estudaram-se só variedades nacionais, com a inclusão, como testemunha, de uma variedade tradicionalmente cultivada na região. Os dados de produção apresentaram as variedades Aracy (IAC-2), Jacy (IAC-474) e Feldeslohn como altamente produtivas, havendo suplantado todas as demais variedades sob as condições dessas localidades. As variedades nacionais apresentaram elevada propensão a produzir tubérculos graúdos. Em relação à parte aérea, notou-se ausência de moléstias de folhagem (Phytophthora infestans) em tôdas as variedades, fazendo exceção a Condea, com extrema suscetibilidade a êsse fungo.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper reports the results of three field trials installed in the district of the Rio Paraíba Valley, a large potato producing area of the State of São Paulo, and they were carried out with a view of studying - in two of them - the behavior of six varieties of German origin, confronting two created by the Instituto Agronômico; the third one was intended for a competition among national varieties, in which was included, for comparison purposes, the "Delta A" variety, rather much cultivated in the area. From the results it became evident that varieties Aracy (IAC-2), Jacy (LAC-474), Piraquara (IAC-391) and Feldeslohn, were highly productive, with a marked tendency to produce large tubers. As for the leaf diseases, varieties IAC, with special reference variety Aracy (IAC-2), showed to be the most resistant to "Requeima", caused by Phytophthora infestans de Bary, and to "Pinta Preta", caused by Alternaria solani Kuhn.
  • Breeding for resistance to leaf rust disease in C. arabica

    Bettencourt, A. J.; Carvalho, A.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A ferrugem alaranjada, uma das mais graves moléstias do cafeeiro, ainda não foi observada no continente americano. Com a mais freqüente e rápida ligação entre os países africanos e o Brasil, tem aumentado consideràvelmente o perigo de introdução neste continente. No presente trabalho, são fornecidos elementos sôbre a especialização fisiológica da H. vastatrix,fontes de resistência ao fungo, hereditariedade dessa resistência e dados já obtidos sôbre os fatôres de resistência que ocorrem nos cafeeiros existentes no Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas. Apresentam-se também as diretrizes para o prosseguimento do plano de melhoramento visando a obtenção de linhagens portadoras de fatôres genéticos que lhes proporcionem resistência ao maior número possível de raças da ferrugem.

    Abstract in English:

    Coffee leaf rust, one of the most destructive diseases of this crop plant, does not occur in the American continent. However, the frequent commercial flights and the ever increasing speed of the planes that connect Africa and Brazil increase the probability of introduction of the disease into this continent. This paper reviews the characteristics of the coffee leaf rust fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, its physiological races and their geographic distribution, and the main sources of resistance already determined in Coffea spp.The genetic basis of the disease resistance is discussed and the collected, data indicate the presence of five pairs of genes for resistance in the imported coffee plants of the: Campinas collection. The breeding program which is being carried on at the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, is discussed in regard to the isolation of coffee progenies resistant to the most known races of Hemileia vastatrix.
  • The use of some herbicides for weed control in field corn

    Alves, Aldo; Gregori, Romano

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Em experimento de contrôle de ervas daninhas na cultura do milho foram comparados três herbicidas (Atrazina, Lorox e Ramrod), aplicados individualmente e em mistura, em várias doses e em diferentes épocas de aplicação. Aplicados em pré-emergência tiveram ação mediana no combate às monocotiledôneas os herbicidas Lorox e Atrazina. A mistura Lorox + Ramrod mostrou-se a mais promissora contra as gramíneas. O tratamento Lorox + Atrazina, em aplicação dirigida, pós-emergência ao milho e pré-emergência ao mato, foi o mais satisfatório, particularmente no combate às dicotiledôneas. O tratamento Lorox + Atrazina, aplicado em cobertura total, em pós-emergência ao milho prejudicou a cultura do cereal.

    Abstract in English:

    In experiments to control weeds in corn, conducted on purple latosol soil, of the Chapadão series, three herbicides (Atrazine, Lorox and Ramrod) were compared, by applying them individually or in mixtures, in various doses and at different stages of the culture. As pre-emergent treatment, Atrazine was the most efficient in controlling annual broad leaf weeds. Lorox and Atrazine had a moderate action in the control of monocotyledonous weeds. The combination Lorox and Ramrod (1 kg/ha + 2 kg/ha) was the most promising in the reduction of grass weed species. The treatment Lorox + Atrazine (1 kg/ha + 1 kg/ha), in direct application, post-emergent in regard to corn and pre-emergent in regard to weeds, was the most satisfactory, in particular in the control of dicotyledonous weeds. This was the most long-lasting control of weeds. However, the same treatment Lorox + Atrazine, in broadcast application, post-emergent for the corn and for the weeds, was harmful for the corn crop.
  • Effect of spacing between bulbs in the production of onion seeds

    Campos, Humberto Ribeiro de; Camargo, Leocádio de Souza; Abramides, Eduardo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Ensaio de campo foi conduzido em solo latossolo vermelho-amarelo fase argilosa, série Barão, para estudar o efeito do espaçamento dos bulbos de cebola (Allium cepaL.), visando a produção de sementes. Compararam-se quatro espaçamentos em que os bulbos de cebola, na linha de plantio, foram distanciados entre si de 40 cm, 30 cm, 20 cm e 10 cm. O espaçamento menor, de 10 cm entre os bulbos, superou os demais em produção de sementes por área. Como implica na diminuição da área para um mesmo número de bulbos a serem plantados e em menor gasto de adubos e de água para irrigação torna-se ainda mais vantajoso.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper reports the results of a spacing experiment with bulbs of onion (Allium cepaL.) where production of seed was considered. Four spacings were compared in a line, i.e., a) 40 cm; b) 30 cm; c) 20 cm and d) 10 cm. The spacing of 10 cm between bulbs showed to be superior to the others in seed production by area. Some other advantages of this spacing are that less space is needed for the same number of bulbs to be planted and that less expenses are incurred in fertilizers, irrigation water and workmanship.
  • The effect of ramrod herbicide on onion seedling development

    Alves, Aldo; Forster, Reinaldo; Campos, Humberto Ribeiro de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Experimentos foram conduzidos, em solo areno-argiloso da formação Glacial, em Campinas, para estudar os efeitos da aplicação do herbicida «Ramrod» em canteiros para formação de mudas de cebola. Foram testadas as doses de 1,30, 1,95, 2,60, 3,90 e 5,20 kg/ha de ingrediente ativo. Em relação ao combate às ervas más dicotiledôneas, apenas a dose de 1,30 kg/ha não foi superior à da testemunha. Para qualquer das doses utilizadas não se verificaram sintomas visuais de fitotoxicidade nas plantas. Pequeno efeito residual do produto foi constatado em todas as doses, aos 50-60 dias após a aplicação.

    Abstract in English:

    Two experiments to determine the effect of various rates of Ramrod herbicide on the development of onion seedlings were conducted on sandy-clay soil type, of Glacial formation, at the «Theodureto de Camargo» Experiment Station, Campinas. The results may be summarized as follows: 1 - Ramrod herbicide as pre-emergence application may be used for weed control on onion seedling formation. No apparent damage was noted with the application of the different rates of the herbicide. 2 - The comparison between Ramrod at 1.30 kg per hectare a. i. with the check treatment revealed no significant difference in the control of dicotyledoneous species that were found 22 days after sowing. 3 - The comparison of Ramrod at 1.95 and 2.60 kg per hectare a.i. of experiment 1, and 2.60, 3.90 and 5.20 kg per hectare a.i. of experiment 2 with the check treatment, showed highly significant differences in the control of dicotyledoneous species after 22 and 34 days. 4 - After 8 weeks no residual effect was observed from any rate of application of Ramrod. There was a regrowth of weeds after that period. 5 - Based on these experiments Ramrod at 1.95 up to 3.90 kg per hectare a.i., depending on soil type, could be recommended for weed control in onion seedbeds.
  • Responses of ramte to NPK fertilizer, manure and residues from ramie decortication

    Castro, G. A. de Paiva; Igue, Toshio; Freire, E. S.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Em solo do arenito Bauru recém-desbravado foram estudados, em oito sucessivas colheitas, os efeitos de várias adubações sôbre a produção de rami. Somente a partir da sexta colheita foram obtidas respostas satisfatórias a alguns dos tratamentos. No conjunto das três últimas, os aumentos determinados, na produção de fibras brutas sêcas ao ar, pelas adubações com resíduos de desfibragem (de rami), estêrco de curral e NPK mineral + resíduos não alcançaram signi-ficância estatística; os proporcionados por NPK e NPK + estêrco, porém, foram significativos e se elevaram a, respectivamente, 45 e 51 por cento da produção sem adubo.

    Abstract in English:

    The effects of some fertilizing materials on the yield of ramie (Boehmeria niveaGaud.) grown on a recently broken fertile soil were studied through eight consecutive cuts. Satisfactory responses to some treatments were obtained only after the fifth cut. In the three last cuts, the increases in the yield of air-dried, crude fibers due to the applications of residues from mechanically descorticated ramie stalks, manure or mineral NPK + residues were not significant, whereas those due to NPK alone and NPK + manure corresponded to 45 and 51%, respectively, and were significant.
  • Behavior of soybean varieties inoculated wtth different mixtures of Rhizobiumstrains in latosol soils of the State of São Paulo

    Mascarenhas, H. A. A.; Miyasaka, Shiro; Weber, D.; Freire, E. S.; di Sordi, Guido; Hiroce, Rúter; Tango, J. S.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Em solo Latosol Roxo, estudou-se o comportamento de cinco variedades de soja cujas sementes foram inoculadas, ou não, com diferentes misturas de estirpes de Rhizobium. Na produção de sementes, a variedade Hardee foi equivalente à IAC-1 e superior às variedades E-2006, L-571 e Bienville. IAC-1 também foi superior a Bienville. A adubação nitrogenada não aumentou a produção, e as pequenas respostas aos inoculantes não foram significativas. Conquanto a área experimental nunca tivesse cultura de soja, a nodulação foi intensa em todos os canteiros, e não se notou aumento em conseqüência da inoculação experimental.

    Abstract in English:

    The performance of five soybean varieties whose seeds were inoculated with four different mixtures of Rhizobiumstrains was studied at Ribeirão Prêto, State of São Paulo. In the seed yields, Hardee was statistically equivalent to IAC-1 and superior to L-2006, L-571 and Bienville. Mineral nitrogen did not increase the seed yields and the small responses to the inoculants were not significant. Although the experimental field had never been cropped with soybeans, the nodule formation was very good in all of the plots, so that no increase due to the experimental inoculants was observed.
  • New strawberry cultivars for the «Paulista» plateau area conditions

    Camargo, Leocádio de Souza; Alves, Sebastião; Scaranari, Hélio; Abramides, Eduardo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    São apresentados os resultados de ensaios de cultivares de morangueiro sob as condições climáticas de duas regiões de clima sub-tropical do Estado de São Paulo. Estudaram-se a produção total do ano e a parcial dos primeiros meses de colheita, quando é maior a cotação do produto. Em uma das localidades a colheita se estendeu de julho a dezembro, e na outra, de junho a dezembro. Em ambas as condições a maior produção (total e parcial) foi obtida com a variedade Monte Alegre TAC-3113. Produções também elevadas foram obtidas com as variedades Campinas IAC-2712, Camanducaia IAC-3530, Híbrido IAC-3592 e outros. Com relação às características comerciais e qualidades do produto, como tamanho, paladar, coloração e firmeza dos frutos, destacaram-se os cultivares: Campinas, Monte Alegre e Camanducaia.

    Abstract in English:

    At the Central Experiment Station «Theodureto de Camargo», in Campinas, since 1941, as well as at the Experiment Stations of Monte Alegre do Sul and Jundiai, starting 1952 and 1964, respectively, 49 cultivars were studied and nearly 2,000 «seedlings» obtained from crossings made in the three localities, and also from imported «seeds». In this paper the results of trials made in 1965 at the Experiment Stations of Monte Alegre do Sul and Jundia! are presented. In all of them, variety «Dr. Morère», also known as «Comum», formerly the most cultivated in the State of São Paulo, was used as check plant. At the Experiment Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, 9 varieties were studied. The total yield from July up to December and also the partial one of July-August was studied at a time when prices of strawberry are at the highest, because harvest begins then and also because fruits are bigger. The statistical analysis of data obtained, showed the following results: a) concerning the total yield, cultivar Monte Alegre, without differing from cultivars Camanducaia, Hybrid IAC-3592, Hybrid IAC-3432, Campinas and Hybrid IAC-2747, was superior to all the others (Hybrid IAC-2746, Hybrid IAC-3431 and Dr. Morère) on the level of \%;b) considering the partial yield, cultivar Monte Alegre was superior to all the others to the level of 5% and cultivar Campinas IAC-2712 was superior on the same level, only with regard to variety Dr. Morère or «Comum». At the Experiment Station of Jundiai, the following 5 cultivars entered the competition trial; Monte Alegre, Campinas «Comum». The yield of June up to December was studied and that of June to August as well, the following observations having been made: a) with regard to total yield, Monte Alegre was superior to all the others on the level of 5%; concerning productivity, variety Dr. Morère or «Comum» was inferior to all others on the level of 1%; b) as to partial yield, Monte Alegre nad Campinas with no differences between them, were superior to the Hybrid IAC-2747 and «Comum» on the level of 5%. The yields of the same varieties were better at the Experiment Station of Jundiai, where the acidity of soil, pH = 5.40, which is the best for strawberries, might have influenced. On the other hand, the soil at the Experiment Station of Monte Alegre do Sul showed an acidity equal to 4.30, which is harmful to the plant.
  • The development of the root system of pineapple, planted in the beginning of the dry season, in a red latosol

    Inforzato, Romeu; Giacomelli, Eloys Jacskmolley; Rochelle, Luiz Antônio

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Estudou-se o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular do abacaxizeiro, var. Branco de Pernambuco, após 4, 8 e 12 meses do plantio de filhotes em solo Latosol Vermelho Escuro-Orto. Aos 4 meses de idade, as plantas não haviam emitido raízes. Aos 8 e aos 12 meses, respectivamente 96% e 94% do pêso das raízes foram localizadas nos primeiros 20 cm do solo. e alcançaram a profundidade máxima de 1,30 m. Nas condições do experimento (sem irrigação) obtiveram-se resultados satisfatórios com o plantio no início da estação sêca.

    Abstract in English:

    A study was made on the development of the root system of pineapple, var. «Branco de Pernambuco», at 4, 8 and 12 months after the slips were planted and kept without irrigation in a red latosol. After 4 months, although alive, the plants have not rooted. At the 8th month, root system was developed and reached a depth of 1.30 m. This deepness did not increase, but the root weight doubled between the 8th and 12th month. About 95% of the root weight concentrated in the first 20 cm of the soil. The results indicated that although insuitable, the planting of the slips at the beginning of the dry season is possible.
  • Experiments on methods of applying fertilizers to cassava

    Normanha, Edgard S.; Pereira, Araken S.; Freire, E. S.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Experiências preliminares em terra roxa e em solos arenosos, para comparar métodos de aplicação de adubos minerais em cultura de mandioca, foram conduzidas no Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados mais promissores foram proporcionados pela aplicação dos três nutrientes essenciais em sulcos laterais, no momento do plantio, e pela adubação com fósforo e potássio nessa mesma ocasião, completada, mais tarde, com a aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura.

    Abstract in English:

    In four preliminary experiments comparing some methods of applying mineral NPK fertilizer to cassava (Manihot esculentaCrantz), the best results were obtained by the lateral placement of the three nutrients at planting time, as well as by the placement of PK at that time, completed with N applied later as top dressing.
  • Behavior of new varieties and hybrids of strawberry in trials conduced in Monte Alegre do Sul, in 1966

    Camargo, Leocádio de Souza; Bernardi, José Botter; Alves, Sebastião; Abramides, Eduardo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    São apresentados os resultados de ensaio em que se compararam novas variedades e híbridos de morangueiro. Foi realizado na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul, com altitude aproximada de 800 m e latitude de 22° e 40', para estudar a produção total do ano e a parcial dos dois primeiros meses de colheita, quando é maior a cotação. A colheita se estendeu de junho a dezembro. As maiores produções, total e parcial, foram obtidas com a variedade Monte Alegre IAC-3113. Produções totais também elevadas foram obtidas com as variedades Camanducaia IAC-3530 e Campinas, IAC-2712, e híbridos IAC-3432, IAC-2748 e IAC-2529. Desses, apenas a Campinas IAC-2712 e a Camanducaia IAC-3530 deram produções precoces satisfatórias. Com relação às características comerciais e qualidades do produto, como tamanho, paladar, coloração e firmeza dos frutos, destacaram-se as variedades Campinas IAC-2712, Monte Alegre IAC-3113 e Camanducaia IAC-3530.

    Abstract in English:

    In this paper the results obtained in 1966 at the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul are presented about strawberry variety trials. In all of them, variety «Dr. Morère», also known as «Comum», formerly the most cultivated in the State of São Paulo, was used as check plant. Nine varieties were studied. The total yield of June to December and also the partial one of June-July was studied, when the prices of strawberry are the highest, because harvest is beginning and also because fruits are bigger. The statistical analysis of data obtained showed the following results: a) concerning the total yield, variety Monte Alegre IAC-3113 without differing from varieties Camanducaia IAC-3530, Hybrid IAC-3432 and Hybrid IAC-2748, was superior to all the others (Campinas IAC-2712, Hybrid IAC-2529, Hybrid IAC-2747, Hybrid IAC-3592 and Dr. Morère I-699) to the level of 5%; b) considering the partial production, variety Monte Alegre IAC-3113 was superior to all the others to the level of 1% and variety Campinas IAC-2712, without differing from variety Monte Alegre IAC-3113, was superior to all the others to the level of 1%. Among the varieties studied the following have shown the best qualities: Monte Alegre IAC-3113, Campinas IAC-2712 and Camanducaia IAC-3530.
  • Part I: behaviour of national (IAC) varieties of potato in the State of São Paulo

    Machado, Archimedes de Assis; Boock, Olavo Josk

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    São relatados os resultados de três ensaios de campo, instalados em região com características de clima e solo diferentes, para estudar o comportamento, em relação à Bintje, de oito variedades de batatinha (Sohmum tuberosumL.) criadas na Seção de Raízes e Tubérculos, do Instituto Agronômico. As variedades Aracy, Iaiquara e Jacy mostraram-se significativamente mais produtivas que a testemunha Bintje. Por outro lado, as variedades Irai, 1AC-4183 e Aracy apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de tubérculos grandes, do tipo "espacial". A variedade IAC-4183 produziu o melhor tipo de tubérculo. Em relação à moléstia de folhagem, causada por "Phytophthora infestans"(Monte) de Bary e "Alternaria solani"Kuhn, as variedades nacionais, com especial referência à Aracy (IAC-2), apresentaram maior resistência do que a Bintje, incluída nos ensaios como testemunha, por ser uma das mais cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo.

    Abstract in English:

    In this article the authors report about the results of field trials, carried out in the districts of Socorro, Tatuí and Porangaba, in the State of São Paulo, with a view to study the behaviour of national (IAC) varieties of potato (Solatium tuberosumL.). According to results obtained, varieties Aracy (IAC-2), Itaiquara (IAC-3551) and Jacy (IAC-474) showed to be highly productive, whereas varieties IAC-4183, Irai (IAC-S67) and also Aracy (IAC-2) presented high percentages of Special type tubers. With regard to leaf diseases, Aracy (IAC-2) stood out among the others due to the marked resistance shown to «Requeima da batatinha» which is caused by the fungus "Phytophthora infestans"(Mont) de Bary, as well as to nematodes which produce «galhas» in the tubers.
  • Leaf analyses in corn plant nutrition: III - Correlations of leaf analysis with yield

    Gallo, J. Romano; Hiroce, Rúter; Miranda, Luiz T. de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Análises de folhas de milho (híbrido H-6999B) foram correlacionadas com as produções em 31 ensaios de adubação em diferentes localidades e solos do Estado de São Paulo. Num total de 24 ensaios para nitrogênio e 26 para o fósforo foram encontradas as correlações: nitrogênio, r = 0,51++, y = - 4,26 + 28,66 x; e fósforo, r =0,47++, y = 43,21 + 160,83 x. As correlações para nitrato não foram consistentes. A omissão de enxofre na presença de NPK resultou em decréscimo variável na produção e no teor de S-S0(4) nas folhas. Com base nos resultados foram estabelecidos os seguintes níveis limiares nas folhas: nitrogênio (N) = 2,90%; fósforo (P) = 0,230%; potássio (K), latossolo roxo = 1,70%; solos podzolizados com cascalho = 2,80%; outros solos = 2,10 a 2,70%.

    Abstract in English:

    A correlation between foliar analysis and yield of corn was established, based on 31 fertilizer experiments conducted during the period of 1962-64, at 16 different localities of the State of São Paulo. In these trials five levels each of N, P2O5 and K2O were used; plots with and without sulfur were also included. Arranging in groups all the trials showing positive coefficients of correlation for total nitrogen (24 trials) and phosphorus (26 trials), the following correlations for total nitrogen (24 trials) and phosphorus (26 trials), the following correlations were found in each case: nitrogen, r = 0.51**, y - 4.26 + 28.66 x; phosphorus, r = 0.47**, y = 43.21 + 160.83 x. As the K content of levaves was affected mainly by soil type, the correlations for leaf potassium were obtained separately special consideration being given to this circumstance. The nitrate content of midribs, required for best yields, varies in the same year from locality to locality and in the same site, from year to year. This uncontrollable variability, of course, makes the interpretation of nitrate data difficult. The plants not receiving sulfur averaged low yields and had lower sulfate--sulfur content in the leaves. [The normal ones had 40 kg S per hectare but all plots received a central dose of 60 kg per hectare of each N or P2O5, and 30kg per hectare of K2O] . It seems that the mean values for calcium and magnesium in leaves, obtained from the range of levels which provides high yields, may be indicative of normal composition. Limiting leaf nutrient values associated with 80 per cent maximum yields in the field are as follows: nitrogen (N), 2.90%; phosphorus (P), 0.230%; potassium (K) - latosolic B terra roxa type of soil, 1.70%; gravelly podzolized soils, 2.80%; other soil types, 2.10- 2.70%.
  • Control of weeds in snap beans with herbicides

    Alves, Aldo; Bernardi, José Botter

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Visando eliminar as práticas convencionais de cultivo, nas lavouras de feijão-vagem (Phaseolus vulgarisL.), fêz-se uso, no combate às ervas daninhas, dos herbicidas EPTC, cloroxuron, trifluralin e DNBP. Quanto à produção total de vagens, não houve diferença significativa entre os diversos tratamentos. Todos os herbicidas experimentados revelaram eficácia no combate às ervas daninhas, sendo que o cloroxuron e o DNBP tiveram ação mais duradoura. O herbicida cloroxuron revelou-se fitotóxico para essa cultura, causando clorose pronunciada e consequent? morte de muitas plantas.

    Abstract in English:

    Four herbicides were tested ot control weeds in snap bean (Phascolus vulgarisL.) cultures, in pre-emergent conditions. EPTC and Irifluralin were incorporated before, whereas cloroxuron and DNBP after planting, but without incorporation iu the soil. A plot was cultivated by usual practices as check. Under the conditions of this experiment, there was no appreciable increase in the bean yield, but all the herbicides tested were efficacious in controlling the weeds. Those applied after planting showed better residual effects. Some toxicity of cloroxuron on snap beans was noted.
  • Relationship between pH and base saturation of soils

    Raij, Bernardo van; Sacchetto, Maria Thereza Dovichi; Igue, Toshio

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Estudando amostras superficiais e amostras do B2 de perfis com B textural e B latossólico, verificou-se em cada caso a existência de correlação altamente significativa entre o pH e o grau de saturação em bases. A uma mesma saturação em bases, o pH mostrou-se mais elevado para as amostras do horizonte B2 de solos com horizonte B latossólico, mais baixo para o B2 de solos com horizonte B textural e intermediário para as amostras superficiais dos dois grupos de solos.

    Abstract in English:

    Upon studying the surface samples and samples for B2 horizon of soils with an argillic or latosolic B horizon, it was stated that in either case the relationship between pH and the base saturation degree was highly significant. However, the calculated regression equations were different and showed that, at the same base saturation degree, pH is higher for the B2 horizon of the latosols and lower for the B2 horizon of the soils with an argillic B horizon; for surface samples, the pH values were intermediate.
  • Soil recovering in sugar cane culture: III - 1958-61 period and general considerations

    Wutke, Antônio Carlos Pimentel; Alvarez, Raphael

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    São apresentados novos resultados de um ensaio de restauração de solo para cultura de cana-de-açúcar iniciado em 1954 para avaliação dos efeitos da calagem e das adubações verde e mineral. Verificaram-se efeitos notáveis da calagem e da adubação potássica. A leguminosa Crotularia junceaL. e a adubação nitrogenada foram inócuas em presença da calagem e depressivas quando o corretivo foi omitido. A produtividade do solo elevou-se mais ainda, no período indicado, o que se atribui à melhoria da fertilidade. Análises químicas do solo revelaram efeitos sensíveis da calagem e da adubação mineral sôbre a acidez e sôbre o teor de Ca, Mg e PO4.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper reports the data obtained in the third period of an experiment which was started in 1954, to study the recovering for sugar cane culture of an original low fertility and impoverished soil (Humic Red-Yellow Latosol) . At the same time with the results of the two harvestings of this third planting one discusses the soil productivity and fertility variations which had occurred up to the first planting. In a randomized blocks design eight treatments with four replications were compared. They are as follows: a) control; b) P + lime + leguminous cover crop; c) PK + cover crop; d) PK + lime + cover crop; e) NPK; f) NPK ++ lime; g) NPK + cover crop; h) NPK + lime + cover crop. In this period the cover crop still used was the sun hemp (Crotalaria junceaL.) and the sugar cane variety planted was CB 41/76. In the planting time the fertilization applied was at the rates of 90-80-120 kg per hectare of N, P2O5 and K2O respectively and as ammonium sulfate, plain superphosphate and potassium chloride. After the first harvesting other applications of Nitrogen and Potassium were made, at the rates of 60 kg and 90 kg per hectare respectively, using the same sources of fertilizers in top-dressing application. The yields of sugar cane obtained in this period showed appreciable effects due to lime and Potassium and a considerable increase in soil productivity as compared with the data corresponding to the other ones. This result is attributed to the soil fertility increase, on account of favorable variations in soil acidity and Ca, Mg and PO4 levels, as shown by chemical analyses. In spite of the leguminous cover crop usage and chemical fertilizations, no increase in Carbon, Nitrogen and Potassium soil levels were detected.
  • Morfologia do virus da necrose branca do fumo: uma correção

    Kitajima, E. W.; Matiello, J. B.; Camargo, I. J. B.; Silva, D. M.; Oliveira, A.R.; Costa, A. S.
  • Morfologia das partículas do vírus do mosaico da berinjela

    Kitajima, E. W.; Costa, A. S.
  • Morfologia do vírus do mosaico amarelo do salsão

    Kitajima, E. W.; Costa, A. S.
  • Inclusões fibrosas intranucleares em plantas infetadas pelo vírus do mosaico amarelo do salsão

    Kitajima, E. W.; Costa, A. S.
  • Morfologia do vírus do mosaico da cenoura

    Kitajima, E. W.; Camargo, I. J. B.; Costa, A. S.
  • Formas e níveis de manganês em alguns solos com e sem calagem

    Küpper, Alfredo; Sacchetto, Maria Thereza Dovichi; Raij, Bernardo van
  • Efeitos da umidade e de tratamentos com inseticidas sôbre a conservação do poder germinativo de sementes de aboboreira-de-moita

    Zink, Eduardo; Mendonça, Nelson Teixeira de
  • Produtividade de clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis,Muell. Arg,) na região de Campinas

    Cardoso, Mário
  • Ensaios de competição de variedades de feijoeiro em Monte Alegre do Sul

    Mascarenhas, H. A. A.; Almeida, Luiz D'Artagnan de; Miyasaka, S.; Igue, T.; Alves, S.
  • Resultados preliminares da análise foliar em tomateiro, com referência ao fósforo

    Hiroce, Rúter; Gallo, J. Romano; Campos, Humberto Ribeiro de; Camargo, Leocádio de Souza
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