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Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in horses from Santarém, Pará

Abstract

Leptospirosis is an endemic zoonotic disease that is distributed worldwide, which has the potential to have health and economic impacts. Leptospira spp. is spiral-shaped and capable of infecting mammals, including horses, which may result in asymptomatic or clinical forms. Therefore, the current study aimed to analyze the frequency of anti-Leptospira antibodies in serum samples from horses from Santarém, Pará, Brazil. For that purpose, 88 blood samples from horses without a history of leptospirosis vaccination were serologically evaluated through the microscopic agglutination technique (MAT) with a 13 serovars, belonging to ten different serogroups. There were 58 samples that were seropositive (65.90%), which included 28 samples seropositive for Pyrogenes (48.3%), 24 for Autumnalis (41.4%), 18 for Icterohaemorrhagiae (31.0%), and 16 for Grippotyphosa (27.6%). Even without clinical suspicion of leptospirosis or a history of vaccination, the horses showed different frequency of seropositivity. Considering the well-known impact of leptospirosis in human and animal health, our results are important to establish preventive measures to reduce the economic loss in equine production as well as a reduction in public health risk.

Keywords:
Leptospira spp.; horses; epidemiology; public health; Pará

Resumo

Leptospira spp. é a bactéria causadora da leptospirose, uma doença endêmica, distribuída mundialmente, de caráter zoonótico responsável por gerar impacto sanitário e também econômico. Esse microrganismo, com característica espiralada, infecta mamíferos, dentre eles, os equinos. Estes animais, podem apresentar a doença na forma assintomáticos ou clínica. Desta forma, o atual estudo objetivou analisar amostras equinas na região de Santarém- Pará. Analisou-se 88 amostras de animais que não apresentavam histórico de vacinação contra a leptospirose, através da técnica da Microaglutinação Microscópica (MAT), utilizando um painel de13 sorovares, pertencentes a dez diferentes sorogrupos. Desses animais, 58 foram soropositivos (65,90%), distribuídos em 28 (48,3%) amostras soro reagentes para Pyrogenes, 24 (41,4%) para Autumnalis, 18 (31%) para Icterohaemorrhagiae e 16 (27,6%) para Grippotyphosa. Mesmo não havendo suspeita de leptospirose, os animais apresentaram diferentes frequências sorológicas. Considerando-se o conhecido impacto da leptospirose na saúde humana e animal, nossos resultados apontam que é de suma importância estabelecer medidas de prevenção para reduzir perdas econômicas e não oferecer riscos à saúde pública.

Palavras-chave:
Leptospira spp; equídeos; epidemiologia; saúde pública; Pará

1. Introduction

Leptospirosis is an infectious zoonotic bacterial disease that affects domestic and wild mammals and humans(11 Haake DA, Levett PN. Leptospirosis in humans. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 2015;387:65-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45059-8_5
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45059-...
,22 Cilia G, Bertelloni F, Fratini F. Leptospira Infections in Domestic and Wild Animals. Pathogens. 2020;9(7):573. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070573
https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070573...
). It presents with a high worldwide distribution and has considerable economic and public health impact(33 Schneider MC, Jancloes M, Buss DF, Aldighieri S, Bertherat E, Najera P, et al. Leptospirosis: a silent epidemic disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(12):7229-7234. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10127229
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10127229...
). There are more than 260 identified serovars, each with their preferred host(s) which can harbor one or more serovars(44 Browne ES, Callefe JLR, Jesus ERS, Zeppelini CG, Cremonese C, Costa F. A Systematic Review of the geographic distribution of pathogenic Leptospira serovars in the Americas, 1930-2017. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2022:94(3).).

Leptospira spp. can be found in different epidemiological contexts, such as urban, rural, and wild(55 Adler B, De La Peña-Moctezuma A. Leptospira and leptospirosis. Vet. Microbiol.. 2010;140: 287-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.03.012
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.03...
). Among mammals, horses can develop the disease as a clinical or asymptomatic form; its evolution may be an acute or chronic disease(66 Bezerra DC. Pesquisa de aglutininas antileptospira em soros sanguíneos de auninos (Equus Asinus) e de condutores de veículos de tração animal na cidade de São Luís, MA, Brasil. Ciênc. Anim. Bras. 2010;11(4):931-937.), and clinical signs such as fever, anorexia, and breathing difficulty may be observed. In addition, jaundice, hematuria, miscarriage, stillbirth/premature foals, uveitis, and liver and kidney dysfunction can be present(77 Deano ACO, Souza MSB. Uveíte recorrente eqüina (cegueira da lua). Cienc. Rural. 2000;30(2):373-380.,88 Hamond C, Martins G, Lawson-Ferreira R, Medeiros MA, Lilenbaum W. The role of horses in the transmission of leptospirosis in an urban tropical area. Epidemiol Infect 2012;141(1):33-35. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268812000416
https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026881200041...
).

In horses, Leptospira spp. is mostly caused by the serovars Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae(88 Hamond C, Martins G, Lawson-Ferreira R, Medeiros MA, Lilenbaum W. The role of horses in the transmission of leptospirosis in an urban tropical area. Epidemiol Infect 2012;141(1):33-35. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268812000416
https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026881200041...
), however, the prevalence may vary according to region(99 Neta EIB, de Brito Neto J, Aragão CPM, de Melo Leite AKR. Leptospirose em equino: Uma revisão. Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal 2016;10(4):841-857. http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1981-2965.20160069
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1981-2965.2016...
). Accordingly, in some studies that were conducted in northern Brazil the seroprevalence of other serovars such as Australis, Autumnalis, and Pyrogenes, in addition to Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae, were observed(1010 Aguiar DM, Cavalcante GT, Lara MCCSH, Villalobos EMC, Cunha EMS, Okuda LH et al. Prevalência de anticorpos contra agentes virais e bacterianos em equídeos do município de Monte Negro, Rondônia, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci. 2008;45(4):269-276.

11 Moraes CCG, Kuroda RBS, Pinho APVB, Ywasaki F, Meneses AMC, Martins IV, et al. Pesquisa de anticorpos para sorovares de Leptospira interrogans patogênicas em equídeos criados na ilha de Algodoal, Estado do Pará. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Agrar. 2010;53(2):188-194.
-1212 Sousa IKF, Silva RLC, Sousa RS, Vieira CEM, Melo S, Quevedo GP, et al. Frequency of leptospirosis in horses in Manaus and metropolitan region in Amazonas State, Brazil. Braz J Vet Anim Sci. 2020;57(4):e172607.). However, in northern Brazil, there are fewer studies regarding the current prevalence of leptospirosis in horses. Therefore, our study aimed to perform a seroepidemiological survey of leptospirosis in horses from the region of Santarém-Pará, Northern Brazil.

2. Materials and methods

The samples of this study were obtained from 88 horses raised in 15 rural farms of Santarém-Pará, Northern Brazil. Blood samples were drawn via venipuncture using sterile tubes without anticoagulant. Among the 88 animals, 51 were males and 37 females, aged between 2 and 16 years, with no recent history of leptospirosis vaccination.

Serum samples were tested for anti-Leptospira antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT)(1313 Cole JR, Sulzer CR, Pursell AR. Improved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test. Appl Microbiol. 1973;25(6):976-80.,1414 Galton MM, Sulzer CR, Santa Rosa CA, Fields MJ. Application of a microtechnique to the agglutination test for leptospiral antibodies. Appl Microbiol. 1965;13(1):81-5.), using live antigens grown in a liquid Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris medium free from contamination or self-agglutination, as recommended by the World Health Organization(1515 World Health Organization - WHO. Leptospirosis. Geneva: WHO; 2012. Available in: http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs_13082012_leptospirosis/en/. Accessed in: 25/03/2022.
http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/fact...
). A 1:100 dilution was used as the cutoff point.

A complete panel of 10 serogroups (including 13 reference serovars) was used as the test antigens. This panel included: serogroup Sejroe (serovars Hardjo [subtype Hardjo-prajitno] and Wolffi), serogroup Grippotyphosa (serovar Grippotyphosa), serogroup Canicola (serovar Canicola), serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae (serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Copenhageni), serogroup Australis (serovar Bratislava), serogroup Pomona (serovar Pomona), serogroup Autumnalis (serovar Butembo), serogroup Pyrogenes (serovar Pyrogenes), serogroup Ballum (serovar Ballum), and serogroup Tarassovi (serovar Tarassovi).

Briefly, live suspensions of leptospires representing the 13 serovars were added to series dilution of the serum samples in a microtiter plate (96 wells), incubated at temperature of 36 degrees celsius for 2-4 h. The presence or absence of agglutination was determined using dark field microscopy at 100× magnification. Titers were obtained from the sequence of double dilutions and expressed as the reciprocal of the highest serum dilution that agglutinated at least 50% of the Leptospira spp.(1313 Cole JR, Sulzer CR, Pursell AR. Improved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test. Appl Microbiol. 1973;25(6):976-80.,1414 Galton MM, Sulzer CR, Santa Rosa CA, Fields MJ. Application of a microtechnique to the agglutination test for leptospiral antibodies. Appl Microbiol. 1965;13(1):81-5.).

Data were recorded in Excel spreadsheets and subsequently used for descriptive data analysis through the use of frequency tables. Means were compared using the Chi-Square test, with a statistically significant level of 5% (P > 0.05). Experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use at the Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of Amazonas (Brazil), with the approval reference number CEUA.008.02.1417.2404/2020.

3. Results

From the 88 serum samples, 58 (65.9%) were seropositive and 30 (34.1%) were seronegative. The seroprevalence for single infections (considering only 1 reagent serogroup) is shown in Table 1, and Table 2 presents the results of mixed infections, i.e., seropositivity for more than 1 serogroup.

Table 1
Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. serogroups in single infections (considering only in one serogroup) in horse serum samples from Santarém, Pará.
Table 2
Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. serogroups in mixed infections (considering more than one serogroup) in horse serum samples from Santarém, Pará.

In the single infection results (Table 1), it is observed that the seroprevalence included the serogroup Pyrogenes [28 horses (48.3%)], followed by Autumnalis serogroup [24 horses (41.4%)], Icterohaemorrhagiae [18 horses (31.0%)], and Grippotyphosa [16 horses (27.6%)]. In the same manner for the mixed infections, the serogroups for Pyrogenes, Atumunalis, and Icterohaemorrhagiae were predominant and notably three horses (14.3%) were seropositive for the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and serovar Copenhageni. No statistically significant differences were obtained regarding infection by sex or age, with a mean age of 8,5 years.

4. Discussion

Our results demonstrated that 58 horses (65.9%) were seropositive, indicating that these horses had direct or indirect contact with Leptospira spp. Research conducted in the last decade in Brazil showed considerable variation regarding the leptospirosis seroprevalence in horses(99 Neta EIB, de Brito Neto J, Aragão CPM, de Melo Leite AKR. Leptospirose em equino: Uma revisão. Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal 2016;10(4):841-857. http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1981-2965.20160069
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1981-2965.2016...
,1212 Sousa IKF, Silva RLC, Sousa RS, Vieira CEM, Melo S, Quevedo GP, et al. Frequency of leptospirosis in horses in Manaus and metropolitan region in Amazonas State, Brazil. Braz J Vet Anim Sci. 2020;57(4):e172607.). The observed frequency in this study (65.9%) was similar to that found in studies performed in the State of Paraná (Brazil), which reported a 66.88% seropositivity(1616 Hashimoto VY, Gonçalves DD, Silva FG, Oliveira RC, Alves LA, Reichmann P, et al. Occurrence of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in horses of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo. 2007;49(5):327-330.). However, another survey performed in Maranhão, northern Brazil, showed an 85% of serological frequency(66 Bezerra DC. Pesquisa de aglutininas antileptospira em soros sanguíneos de auninos (Equus Asinus) e de condutores de veículos de tração animal na cidade de São Luís, MA, Brasil. Ciênc. Anim. Bras. 2010;11(4):931-937.).

A higher seroprevalence was observed for the serogroups Pyrogenes (48.3%) and Autumnalis (41.4%), which differs from what is generally observed in serologic studies of horses in Brazil, where a high frequency of the serogroups Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae is observed(88 Hamond C, Martins G, Lawson-Ferreira R, Medeiros MA, Lilenbaum W. The role of horses in the transmission of leptospirosis in an urban tropical area. Epidemiol Infect 2012;141(1):33-35. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268812000416
https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026881200041...
). In a study performed in Bahia State, northeast Brazil by Gomes et al.(1717 Gomes AHB, Oliveira FCS, Cavalcanti LA, Conceição IR, Santos GR, Ramalho EJ, et al. Ocorrência de aglutininas anti-leptospira em soro de equinos no estado da Bahia. Rev. Bras. de Saude e Prod. Anim. 2007;8(3):144-151.) also observed a higher prevalence of the serogroup Pyrogenes (24.0%), demonstrating the equal importance of this serogroup in serologic surveys of horses in different Brazilian regions. Moraes et al.(1111 Moraes CCG, Kuroda RBS, Pinho APVB, Ywasaki F, Meneses AMC, Martins IV, et al. Pesquisa de anticorpos para sorovares de Leptospira interrogans patogênicas em equídeos criados na ilha de Algodoal, Estado do Pará. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Agrar. 2010;53(2):188-194.), in Pará, and Sousa et al.(1212 Sousa IKF, Silva RLC, Sousa RS, Vieira CEM, Melo S, Quevedo GP, et al. Frequency of leptospirosis in horses in Manaus and metropolitan region in Amazonas State, Brazil. Braz J Vet Anim Sci. 2020;57(4):e172607.), in Amazonas, also observed, as in this study, a high prevalence of the serogroup Pyrogenes in horses, which may suggest the maintenance of this serogroup in some domestic or wild animals of the Amazonic region. Abroad, the Pyrogenes serogroup has also been identified, with the highest seroprevalence in horses from Switzerland(1818 Blatti S, Overesch G, Gerber V, Frey J, Hüssy D. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in clinically healthy horses in Switzerland. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2011;153(10):449-56. https://doi.org/10.1024/0036-7281/a000247
https://doi.org/10.1024/0036-7281/a00024...
).

Within the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup, the serovar Copenhageni showed predominance when compared with the serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae, which is generally not the most frequently observed result in horses. However, a study by Hamond et al.(88 Hamond C, Martins G, Lawson-Ferreira R, Medeiros MA, Lilenbaum W. The role of horses in the transmission of leptospirosis in an urban tropical area. Epidemiol Infect 2012;141(1):33-35. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268812000416
https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026881200041...
), in Rio de Janeiro, also reported a higher prevalence of the serovar Copenhageni in horses. In the Netherlands, Houwers et al.(1919 Houwers DJ, Goris MGA, Abdoel T, Kas JA, Knobbe SS, van Dongen AM, et al. Agglutination antibodies against pathogenic Leptospira in healthy dogs and horses indicate common exposure and regular occurrence of subclinical infections. Vet. Microbiol. 2011;148:449-451.) also found a major predominance of the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup in horses, which suggests that seropositivity in these animals was not the result of a vaccine, but rather as a result of a greater exposure to the serovars, and the horses developing subclinical leptospirosis. Considering the public health issues in Brazil, the serovars Icterohaemorraghiae and Copenhageni are related to the most severe cases of leptospirosis in humans(2020 Ministério da Saúde. Guia de vigilância em saúde. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde; 2014:652. Available in: https://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/guia_vigilancia_saude_3ed.pdf. Accessed in: 13/03/2022.
https://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicaco...
), with approximately 1% of patients developing the most severe form and being fatal in 1-5% of these patients(2121 Fiocruz- Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Novo protocolo para leptospirose. Rio de Janeiro: IOC/ Fiocruz; 2013. Available in: http://www.fiocruz.br/ioc/cgi/cgilua.exe/sys/start.htm?infoid=1737&sid=32. Accessed in: 15/03/2022.
http://www.fiocruz.br/ioc/cgi/cgilua.exe...
). Considering that infection in humans usually occurs after direct or indirect contact with the urine of an infected animal(55 Adler B, De La Peña-Moctezuma A. Leptospira and leptospirosis. Vet. Microbiol.. 2010;140: 287-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.03.012
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.03...
), the high prevalence of the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup in our study may require attention as a public health concern.

Our results, for a single infection, showed that 16 horses (27.5%) were seropositive for Grippotyphosa serogroup, which is usually related to environmental contamination, as this group is harbored by wild animals(2222 Hamond C, Pinna MH, Martins G, Medeiros MA, Lilenbaum W. Infection by Leptospira spp. in Cattle in a Tropical Region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;92(1):210-210.), and affect horses in an incidental manner(2323 Morais DA, Costa DF, Nunes BC, Santos CSAB, Alves CJ, Azevedo SS. Seroepidemiological survey for leptospirosis in equines from semiarid region of Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil. Semin Cienc Agrar. 2019;40(5):2079-2086.). The serological reaction for this serogroup stresses the probable infection in horses through contact with wild animals, since the region where our study was conducted had suitable environments for wild animals and favorable conditions for the survival and spread of the infectious agent.

Ballum seropositivity was observed in 13 samples (22.4%), while the serogroups Sejroe and Canicola each had 12 seropositive results (20.7%). Seroprevalence results for the Ballum serovar are less frequent, and it has rarely identified as the most prevalent serovar in equine studies(2424 Bastiani MP, Lovato LT, von Laer AE, Pötter L, Rodrigues RO, Souza BC, et al. Occurrence of Leptospira spp. and factors associated with the infection in horses from a military contingent in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci. 2021;58:e180884.). In Brazil, there is a study showing its seroprevalence in 11.76% of horses in Rio Grande do Sul(2525 Hack JD, Mousquer MA, Ries AS, Dewes C, de Souza RP, Ferreira NO, et al. Soroprevalência de Leptospira interrogans e flaviviroses em equinos da cidade de Pelotas e região, no Rio Grande do Sul. Science and Animal Health, 2018; 6(3): 228-246. https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n8-302
https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n8-302...
). Equine infections with Sejroe or Canicola serogroups are not considered common in Latin America(2626 Pinto PS, Libonati H, Lilenbaum W. A systematic review of leptospirosis on dogs, pigs, and horses in Latin America. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 2017;49:231-238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1201-1208
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1201-...
), but regional and international sero-reactivity for these serogroups have been reported(2727 Da Silva AS, Jaguezeski AM, Laber IF, von Laer AE, Lovato LT, da Silva MO, et al. Leptospira spp. in horses in southern Brazil: Seroprevalence, infection risk factors, and influence on reproduction. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.. 2020;73: 101552.

28 Finger MA, de Barros Filho IR, Leutenegger C, Estrada M, Ullmann LS, Langoni H, et al. Serological and molecular survey of Leptospira spp. among cart horses from an endemic area of human leptospirosis in Curitiba, southern Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo. 2014;56:473-476. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0036-46652014000600003
https://doi.org/10.1590/s0036-4665201400...
-2929 Vera E, Taddei S, Cavirani S, Schiavi J, Angelone M, Cabassi CS, et al. Leptospira seroprevalence in Bardigiano horses in Northern Italy. Anim. 2019;10(1):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010023
https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010023...
). High titers, with a titer equal to or greater than 400, is correlated with acute leptospirosis infection in horses; however, low titers from 100 to 200 may represent a chronic infection due to the curve after seroconversion, or an early acute infection with an ascending antibody curve (seroconversion)(3030 Meny P, Iglesias T, Menéndez C, Quintero J, Ríos C, Ashfield N, et al. Seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in equines and associated workers-Isolation of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Canicola from equine urine. Zoonoses Public Health. 2022;69(5):526-536. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12942
https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12942...
).

It is worth noting that there are risk factors of leptospirosis epidemiology(2424 Bastiani MP, Lovato LT, von Laer AE, Pötter L, Rodrigues RO, Souza BC, et al. Occurrence of Leptospira spp. and factors associated with the infection in horses from a military contingent in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci. 2021;58:e180884.) and that these risk factors may are different in the various regions of Brazil. Due to the wide territory of northern Brazil and the vast animal diversity of this region may provide particular conditions, especially regarding the reservoirs and environmental conditions for Leptospira spp. maintenance. Thus, it is necessary to establish, evaluate, monitor, and attend to these risk factors, as well as performing field studies on the reservoirs to be able to provide preventive measures and, thus reduce the risks to humans and horses.

5. Conclusion

Our study reported on horses from Santarém-Pará, Brazil. A higher seroprevalence for the serogroups Pyrogenes and Autumnalis was observed, which is different from the generally observed serology in horses from Brazil. Considering the environmental peculiarity of northern Brazil, the results may occur due to the maintenance of these serogroups by some domestic or wild animals from the Amazonic region.

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank the Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa, Pós- Graduação e Inovação Tecnológica of Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas (IFAM). Funding for the study was provided by IFAM through the program “Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e à Inovação Tecnológica (PADCIT)”, editals 001/2019-PPGI/ IFAM and 001/2018/PR-PPGI/IFAM.

References

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    Haake DA, Levett PN. Leptospirosis in humans. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 2015;387:65-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45059-8_5
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  • 2
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    » https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070573
  • 3
    Schneider MC, Jancloes M, Buss DF, Aldighieri S, Bertherat E, Najera P, et al. Leptospirosis: a silent epidemic disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(12):7229-7234. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10127229
    » https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10127229
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    Browne ES, Callefe JLR, Jesus ERS, Zeppelini CG, Cremonese C, Costa F. A Systematic Review of the geographic distribution of pathogenic Leptospira serovars in the Americas, 1930-2017. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2022:94(3).
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    Adler B, De La Peña-Moctezuma A. Leptospira and leptospirosis. Vet. Microbiol.. 2010;140: 287-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.03.012
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.03.012
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    Bezerra DC. Pesquisa de aglutininas antileptospira em soros sanguíneos de auninos (Equus Asinus) e de condutores de veículos de tração animal na cidade de São Luís, MA, Brasil. Ciênc. Anim. Bras. 2010;11(4):931-937.
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    Deano ACO, Souza MSB. Uveíte recorrente eqüina (cegueira da lua). Cienc. Rural. 2000;30(2):373-380.
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    Hamond C, Martins G, Lawson-Ferreira R, Medeiros MA, Lilenbaum W. The role of horses in the transmission of leptospirosis in an urban tropical area. Epidemiol Infect 2012;141(1):33-35. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268812000416
    » https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268812000416
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    Neta EIB, de Brito Neto J, Aragão CPM, de Melo Leite AKR. Leptospirose em equino: Uma revisão. Revista Brasileira de Higiene e Sanidade Animal 2016;10(4):841-857. http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1981-2965.20160069
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1981-2965.20160069
  • 10
    Aguiar DM, Cavalcante GT, Lara MCCSH, Villalobos EMC, Cunha EMS, Okuda LH et al. Prevalência de anticorpos contra agentes virais e bacterianos em equídeos do município de Monte Negro, Rondônia, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci. 2008;45(4):269-276.
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    Moraes CCG, Kuroda RBS, Pinho APVB, Ywasaki F, Meneses AMC, Martins IV, et al. Pesquisa de anticorpos para sorovares de Leptospira interrogans patogênicas em equídeos criados na ilha de Algodoal, Estado do Pará. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Agrar. 2010;53(2):188-194.
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    26 June 2023
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    17 Dec 2022
  • Accepted
    27 Feb 2023
  • Published
    04 May 2023
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