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Occurrence of foot diseases in cattle attended at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns: Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and economic aspects

Abstract

The objective was to study the occurrence of foot disorders in cattle treated at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns, campus of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco from 1999 to 2021. A retrospective study of the medical records was carried out, with a total of 334 cases, in which 613 lesions were diagnosed. A frequency distribution, with simple mean and standard deviation was performed to evaluate the data. Interdigital dermatitis was more frequent in 12.4% (76/613), double sole in 9.79% (60/613), chronic laminitis in 8.81% (54/613), sole ulcer in 7.83% (48 /613), and interdigital hyperplasia in 7.24% (45/613). Laminitis and its consequences accounted for 45% of the total injuries identified, followed by 36% of injuries of secondary or uncertain cause, and 19% from infectious diseases. The distribution of lesions between the limbs was 68% in the pelvic and 32% in the thoracic limbs. Females, raised in a semi-intensive system, Holstein, with a body score of III, and large size were more affected. Lameness was present in 78% (260/334), while 10% (33/334) did not present lameness. The case fatality and recovery rates were 9% (31/334) and 73% (243/334), respectively. In total, 51% of cases occurred in the rainy season and 49% in the dry season. The main cities of origin were Bom Conselho 22.75% (76/334), Garanhuns 18.86% (63/334), and Brejão 12.57% (42/334). The estimated cost of treatment was US$ 150.13/case. Diseases are probably directly linked to management failure on the property due to the nature of the diagnosed diseases, in addition to the significant cost of the treatment of these animals, with the need for prophylactic measures in order to avoid the economic losses associated with foot diseases.

Keywords:
hoof diseases; bovine podiatry; digital disorders; digital horny case

Resumo

Objetivou-se estudar a ocorrência das afecções podais em bovinos atendidos na Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns, Campus da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, no intervalo de 1999 a 2021. Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários, com total 334 casos, dos quais foram diagnosticadas 613 lesões digitais. Foi realizada a distribuição de frequência, média simples e desvio padrão para avaliação dos dados. A dermatite interdigital foi a mais frequente, sendo observada em 12,4% (76/613) dos casos, seguida por sola dupla 9,79% (60/613), laminite crônica 8,81% (54/613), úlcera de sola 7,83% (48/613) e a hiperplasia interdigital 7,24% (45/613). A laminite e suas consequências representaram 45% do total de lesões identificadas, acompanhadas por 36% das injúrias de causa secundárias ou incertas e de doenças infecciosas com 19%. A distribuição das lesões entre os membros foi de 68% nos pélvicos e 32% nos torácicos. As fêmeas criadas em sistema semi-intensivo, holandesas, com escore corporal III e porte grande eram mais acometidas. A claudicação estava presente em 78% dos animais, enquanto 10% não claudicavam. As taxas de letalidade e recuperação foram de 9% (31/334) e 73 % (243/334), respectivamente. No período chuvoso foram 51% dos casos e 49% na época seca. Os principais municípios de origem foram Bom Conselho 22,75% (76/334), Garanhuns 18, 86% (63/334) e Brejão 12,57% (42/334). O custo estimado com tratamento foi de US$ 150,13/caso. Provavelmente falhas de manejo nas propriedades foram importantes fatores de risco para as doenças. Sugere-se a implementação de medidas profiláticas para evitar as perdas econômicas associadas às enfermidades podais.

Palavras-chave
doenças de casco; podologia bovina; afecções digitais; estojo córneo digital

Introduction

Among the main health challenges that cattle herds face, lameness stands out in properties with intensive production systems (11 Greenough PR. Bovine Liminitis and Lameness. 1. ed. Philladelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. 328p. English.). The economic losses are from milk production, decrease in weight gain, involuntary culling, and increases in calving interval, treatment costs, and labor (22 Blowey R. Cattle Lameness and Hoofcare. 3ª ed. Sheffield: 5M Publishing; 2015. 177p. English.,33 Ózsvári L. Economic cost of lameness in dairy cattle herds. J Dairy Vet Anim Res, 2017;6(2)283-289. Available from: https://doi.org/10.15406/jdvar.2017.06.00176. English.
https://doi.org/10.15406/jdvar.2017.06.0...
), as well as compromises to well-being (44 Nicoletti JLM. Manual de podologia bovina. Brasil: editora Manole; 2004.130p. Portuguese.,55 Amaral JB, Trevisan G. Aspectos da dor e sofrimento no bem-estar de bovinos leiteiros acometidos por podopatias. [Pain and suffering aspects held by podopathies in dairy cattle welfare]. PUBVET. 2017;11(11)1074-1187. Available from: https://www.pubvet.com.br/artigo/4175/aspectos-da-dor-e-sofrimento-no-bem-estar-de-bovinos-leiteiros-acometidos-por-podopatias. Portuguese.
https://www.pubvet.com.br/artigo/4175/as...
).

Foot disorders can be classified into three groups: infectious diseases, laminitis and its sequelae, and diseases of uncertain or secondary origin (66 Borges JRJ. Doenças digitais dos bovinos: considerações gerais. In Riet-Correa Doenças de ruminantes e equinos. 3ª ed. São Paulo: Editora Varela; 2007. 532p. Portuguese.). Lesions are multifactorial in origin and include environmental, genetic, nutritional, and infectious factors. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the genus Treponema spp, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Dichelobacter nodosus are highlighted (77 Amstel SRV, Shearer J. Manual for Treatment and Control of Lameness in Cattle. 1st ed. Iowa: Blackwell; 2006. 216p. English.,88 Alsaaod M, Locher I, Jores J, Grimm P, Brodard I, Steiner A, Kuhnert P. Detection of specific Treponema species and Dichelo bacter nodosus from digital dermatitis (Mortellaro’sdisease) lesions in Swisscattle. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2019;161(4): 207-215. Available from: https://doi.org/10.17236/sat00201. English.
https://doi.org/10.17236/sat00201...
).

In Brazil, several studies have reported the prevalence of foot disorders in dairy herds. In Rio Grande do Sul, the occurrence of sole ulcers was highlighted (99 Ebling RC, Krummenguer A, Machado G, Zeni D, Carazzo LP, Leal MLR. Prevalência e distribuição de lesões podais em vacas leiteiras criadas em freestall. [Prevalence and distribution of feet lesions in dairy cows raised in the Freestall] Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 2019; 40(1): 239-248. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2019v40n1p239. English.
https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2019v4...
); in Minas Gerais and the Federal District, heel horn erosion (1010 Moreira TF, Nicolino RR, Andrade LS, Filho EJF, Carvalho AU. Prevalence of lameness and hoof lesions in all year-round grazing cattle in Brazil. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2018;50 (8):1829-1834. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1626-3. English.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1626-...
, 1111 Dias MS. Souza YL, Camargo FN, Porto MR. Levantamento das Afecções Podais em Bovinos de Leite na Região do Distrito Federal e entorno. [Survey of podiatric conditions in milk cattle in the region of the Federal District and Surroundings]. Braz J Health Rev. 2020; 3 (2):3137-3151. Available from: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv3n2-15. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv3n2-15...
); in Pará, interdigital hyperplasia and interdigital necrobacillosis (1212 Silveira JAS, Albernaz TT, Oliveira CMC, Duarte MD, Barbosa JD. Afecções podais em vacas da bacia leiteira de Rondon do Pará. [Foot disorders in cows from basin milk of Rondon do Pará] Pesq Vet Bras. 2009;29(11)905-909. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2009001100007. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X200900...
); and in Pernambuco, chronic laminitis (1313 Alves CGT. Análise comparativa das afecções podais em fêmeas bovinas adultas das raças holandesa, parda alpina e Girolanda, no agreste setentrional de Pernambuco. 2007. 89 p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciência Veterinária) - Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, 2007. Available in: http://www.tede2.ufrpe.br:8080/tede2/handle/tede2/5293.
http://www.tede2.ufrpe.br:8080/tede2/han...
). In beef cattle raised extensively in southeastern Pará, septic pododermatitis was the most frequent foot disorder (1414 Silveira JAS, Silva NS, Albernaz TT, Bomjardim HA, Reis ASB, Oliveira CMC, Duarte MD, Barbosa JD. Estudo epidemiológico e clínico de afecções podais em bovinos de corte manejados extensivamente no sudeste do Pará. [Epidemiological and clinical study of foot diseases in beef cattle extensive management in southeastern Pará, Brazil] Pesq.Vet. Bras. 2018;38(3)367-373. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-5150-PVB-4411. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-5150-PVB-44...
).

Some retrospective studies have been carried out in hospital care units; Gargano et al. (1515 Gargano RG, Benesi FJ, Birgel Junior EH, Libera AMRPL, Gregory L, Sucupira MCA, Ortolani EL, Gomes V, Pogliani FC. Estudo retrospectivo das afecções locomotoras em ruminantes atendidos na Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo entre 2000 e 2012. [Retrospective study of locomotor disorders in ruminants attended in the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo from 2000 to 2012] Braz J vet Res Anim Sci, 2013;50 (4):286-293. Available from: https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-3659.v50i4p286-293. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-3659....
) at the University of São Paulo described that interdigital hyperplasia was the most recurrent disease. Similarly, Oliveira et al. (1616 Oliveira MC, Ramos AT, Cunha IM, Nunes GS, Chenard MG, Nogueira VA, Caldas SA, Helayel MA. Enfermidades de bovinos e ovinos diagnosticadas no Estado do Tocantins. [Cattle and sheep diseases diagnosed in the state of Tocantins - Brazil] Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2019;47(1676):1-8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.95717. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.95717...
) pointed to interdigital hyperplasia as the most common digital lesion in cattle treated at the Federal University of Tocantins. In Brazil, the estimated cost of treatments associated with cows with foot diseases, added to the deficit in milk production was US$95.80/cow, which totaled US$52.69 per housed cow/year in animals reared in a free stall confinement system (1717 Souza RC, Ferreira PM, Molina LR, Carvalho AU, Facury Filho EJ. Perdas econômicas ocasionadas pelas enfermidades podais em vacas leiteiras confinadas em sistema freestall. [Economic losses caused by sequels of lameness in free-stall-housed dairy cows]. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 2006;58(6).982-987. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352006000600002. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-0935200600...
).

In view of the above and the scarcity of studies that address foot disorders in the Agreste region of Pernambuco, mainly in the Garanhuns microregion, the objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of foot disorders in cattle treated by the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (CBG-UFRPE).

Materials and methods

The retrospective study took place at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns Campus of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (CBG-UFRPE). Information contained in the individual clinical care records (253 cattle) and from visits to properties (81 cattle) of animals affected with foot diseases from January 1999 to July 2021 was retrieved, totaling 334 documented cases.

The clinical data collected in this study were: diagnosis of the disease, age, weight, sex, body score, size, number of deliveries, pregnancy, gestation period, lactation, dry period, rectal temperature, comorbidities, degree of lameness, affected limb and claw (lateral and medial claw), treatment (conservative or surgical), number of bandage changes, use of hoof blocks, length of stay, exicosis, and final outcome of the case (discharge, slaughter, or euthanasia). Considering the management and origin of the animals, information was collected on food (forage, concentrate, mineral supplement, and/or agro-industry residue), type of management, municipality of origin, and the annual climatic period (dry and rainy). Information regarding management and clinical data were absent from some medical records, and as a consequence there is a percentage of cases with information not provided. Lameness degree and body score were evaluated according to Dirksen et al. (1818 Dirksen G, Grunder HD, Stober M, Exame clinico dos Bovinos. 3ed. Editora Guanabara Koogan S.A.; 1993. 402p. Portuguese.)

It was established that the dry season corresponds to the months of September to February (average rainfall of less than 75 mm) and the rainy season between March and August (average of rainfall of more than 75 mm). This standardization was based on meteorological data (Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia)1919 INMET, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia , Ministério da agricultura, pecuária e abastecimento. Available from: https://bdmep.inmet.gov.br/. Portuguese.
https://bdmep.inmet.gov.br/...
. The fasting bovines were contained in the lateral decubitus position in the Götze equipment, where the hooves were cleaned with soap and water. The exploration of the hooves was then carried out to identify the lesions, and after the diagnosis, the treatment was established according to the severity of the lesion. Clinical examinations of the animals were performed according to Dirksen et al., (1818 Dirksen G, Grunder HD, Stober M, Exame clinico dos Bovinos. 3ed. Editora Guanabara Koogan S.A.; 1993. 402p. Portuguese.).

In cases of conservative treatment, a paste consisting of an ointment based on penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin (Ganadol®) was applied, combined with copper sulfate topically on the lesion, in addition to protecting claw with hydrophilic cotton dressings wrapped in strips to make the bandages; corrective trimming was performed when necessary. The entire claw was covered up to the distal portion of the metatarsal or metacarpal and then waterproofed with asphalt emulsion (tar).

The hoof block was used to relieve pressure on the injured claw. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatories were prescribed according to the severity of the lesion. Surgical procedures consisted of amputation of digits in situations of bone involvement, removal of interdigital hyperplasia and surgical debridement of necrotic claw tissue. In cases where there was no economic viability for the treatment or poor prognosis, slaughter or euthanasia was recommended. On the properties, containment of the animals was carried out with the aid of the bovine containment tipper trunk mobile.

Due to the huge number of terms applied to digital diseases, it was necessary to standardize the nomenclature of diagnoses according to the classification proposed by the International Committee for Animal Recording (2020 ICAR. ICAR Atlas claw health. Technical Series. 2ª ed. 2020, 43p. Available from: https://www.icar.org/index.php/publications-technical-materials/technical-series-and-proceedings/atlas-claw-health-and-translations/. English.
https://www.icar.org/index.php/publicati...
) and adapted by Borges et al. (2121 Borges JRJ, Camara ACL, Moscardini ARC, Rodrigues CA, Pitombo CA, Graça Soares FA, Silva LAF, Silva PCAR, Cunha PHJ, Vianna RB, Rabelo RE, Ollhoff RD. Doenças dos dígitos dos bovinos: nomenclatura padronizada para o Brasil. Revista CFMV, 2017 ;23 (73):45 -52. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319423876_Doencas_dos_digitos_dos_bovinos_nomenclatura_padronizada_para_o_Brasil. Portuguese.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...
) The data were tabulated in Microsoft Excel 2016® spreadsheets and then a descriptive statistical analysis of the variables collected was performed for the calculation of absolute frequencies, simple mean, and standard deviation.

Lethality was calculated considering the number of deaths over the total number of sick animals, with the result expressed as a percentage. The deaths occurred due to complications of the foot disorders that led to euthanasia, depending on the cost-benefit of the treatment, or the death of the animal according to the severity of the injury and impairment of the animal's general condition. The recovery rate was obtained through the quotient between the total number of recovered individuals and the number of sick cattle. The effect of seasonality on the occurrence of foot diseases was analyzed using a time series. The cost of treatment was estimated through the amounts charged for veterinary services provided by CBG-UFRPE, with drug prices updated considering only cases of hospital care (253 cattle).

Results and Discussion

During the evaluated period, 11,471 cattle were treated at the CBG-UFRPE, of which 334 presented foot disease, corresponding to 2.91% of the hospital care series. In total, 613 foot injuries were identified. The animals originated from properties that adopted semi-intensive production management (38.02% [127/334]), and intensive (35.63% [119/334]) and extensive regimes 11.08% (37 /334). The semi-intensive management regime is the most commonly adopted in the properties in the region and predominates due to the low supply of roughage in the pastures as the dry season approaches. Of the cattle treated, 52.4% (175/334) received concentrate, consisting of corn, soybean, and wheat bran, while 8.7% (29/334) did not receive concentrate in the diet. An excess of fast-fermenting carbohydrates in the diet predisposes to ruminal lactic acidosis and, consequently, to secondary diseases such as laminitis, which may be a possible cause of stratum corneum lesions (2222 Lima CL, Martins WC. Acidose láctica ruminal em bovinos: aspectos clínicos, métodos diagnósticos e terapias de tratamento [Rumen lactic acidosis in cattle: clinical aspects, diagnostic methods and treatment therapies]. Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública; 2017; 4:184-189. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4025/revcivet.v4i0.37138. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.4025/revcivet.v4i0.37...
).

All animals (100%) received roughage in the diet, of which elephant grass, native pasture, signal grass, palm, and corn silage were the most widely used. Palm was used in 24.25% (81/334) of cattle with foot problems. Due to its low fiber content, when mixed with the concentrate and supplied to lactating cows, forage palm reduces fiber consumption, and as a consequence, there is shorter chewing and rumination time (2326 Berchielli TT, Pires AV, Oliveira SG. Nutrição de ruminantes. Jaboticabal: Funep; 2006, 583p. Portuguese.). Berchiell, Pires and Oliveira (2423 Sosa MY, Brasil LHA, Ferreira MA, Véras ASC, Lima LE, Silva Pessoa RA, Silva de Melo AA, Lima RMB, Azevedo M, Silva AEVN, Hayes GA. Diferentes formas de fornecimentos de dietas à base de palma forrageira e comportamento ingestivo de vacas da raça holandesas em lactação. [Effects of distinct strategies of feeding forage cactus based dients on the ingestive behavior of lactating Holstein cows]. Acta Sci Anim Sci. 2005;27(2):261-268. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1232. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v...
) highlight the importance of effective fiber intake for saliva production, providing buffering and dilution of rumen content. Other ingredients used in the diet were cassava husks and agro-industrial residues (e.g., brewery residues). Domingues and Meneghetti, (2524 Berchielli TT, Pires AV, Oliveira SG. Nutrição de ruminantes. Jaboticabal: Funep; 2006, 583p. Portuguese.) reiterated the importance of agricultural by-products, due to their economic viability and reduced environmental impact, however, the authors address the need for rational use without exceeding the recommended limits.

Mineral supplement was provided to 51.2% (171/334) of the cattle, while 7.49% (25/334) did not have access to this component, and in 41.31% (138/334) this information was not provided. Minerals such as sulfur, zinc, copper, and selenium and vitamins E, A, and biotin are known to be essential for maintaining claw health (44 Nicoletti JLM. Manual de podologia bovina. Brasil: editora Manole; 2004.130p. Portuguese., 2222 Lima CL, Martins WC. Acidose láctica ruminal em bovinos: aspectos clínicos, métodos diagnósticos e terapias de tratamento [Rumen lactic acidosis in cattle: clinical aspects, diagnostic methods and treatment therapies]. Revista de Ciência Veterinária e Saúde Pública; 2017; 4:184-189. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4025/revcivet.v4i0.37138. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.4025/revcivet.v4i0.37...
, 2625 Meneghetti CC, Domingues JL. Características nutricionais e uso de subprodutos da agroindústria na alimentação de bovinos. Rev Eletro Nutri. 2008;5(2):512-536. Available from:https://www.nutritime.com.br/arquivos_internos/artigos/052V5N2P512_536_MAR2008.pdf. Portuguese.
https://www.nutritime.com.br/arquivos_in...
), justifying the importance of mineral supplementation as a preventive measure. The cattle mainly originated from the municipalities of Bom Conselho (22,75% [76/334]), Garanhuns (18.86% [63/334]), Brejão (12.57% [42/334]), Pedra (9.58% [32/334]), São João (6.59 % [22/334]), Venturosa (5.39% [18/ 334]), São Bento do Una (3.89 % [13/334]), and Canhotinho (2.4% [8/334]). Figure 1 presents the spatial distribution of cattle and their cities of origin.

Figure 1
Spatial distribution of cases of foot diseases treated by the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns (Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Brazil) and their respective municipalities of origin from January 1999 to July 2021.

In the rainy season, the occurrence of cases of foot disorders was 51% (170/334), and in the dry season it was 49% (164/334). Figure 2 shows the distribution of the number of cases per month and the average monthly rainfall in the region. Although the highest percentage of cases was in the rainy season, it should be noted that the month of January (dry season) was the month with the highest attendance. During the dry season, the occurrence of infectious digital lesions was more frequent in cows housed in properties located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. During this period, there is greater food supplementation and the animals spend more time inside, exposing them to the accumulation of waste on the floor of the pens, making them susceptible to infectious agents (2726 Queiroz, PJB, Ávila Filho SH, FerreirA KD, Santos TP, Silva LAF. Suplementação e metabolismo de biotina em bovinos [Biotin supplementation and metabolism in cattle]. Enciclopédia Biosfera, Centro Científico Conhecer. 2015; 11(22):2589-2618. Goiânia Available from: https://www.conhecer.org.br/enciclop/2015c/agrarias/Suplementacao.pdf. Portuguese.
https://www.conhecer.org.br/enciclop/201...
). This condition occurs in the region of the current study; however, forage scarcity is more intense due to lower rainfall.

Figure 2
Distribution of the number of cases treated by the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns (Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Brazil) in relation to the rainfall in the period from January 1999 to July 2021.

The main breed affected was Holstein (39.02% [127/334]), followed by mixed breed (Holstein and Zebu) (32.93% [110/334]), Swiss Brown (11.08% [37/334]). 334]), Girolando (7.78% [26/334]), Gir (2.10% [7/334]), Nelore (2.10% [7/334]), Guzerat (0.9% [ 3/334]), Jersey (0.9% [3/334]), Sindhi (0.9% [3/334]), and Marchigiana (0.30% [1/334]). In the northern region of Pernambuco, female Holstein cows presented 14.05% of the total lesions identified in relation to females of the Brown-Swiss (3.68%) and Girolando (3.10%) breeds (1313 Alves CGT. Análise comparativa das afecções podais em fêmeas bovinas adultas das raças holandesa, parda alpina e Girolanda, no agreste setentrional de Pernambuco. 2007. 89 p. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciência Veterinária) - Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, 2007. Available in: http://www.tede2.ufrpe.br:8080/tede2/handle/tede2/5293.
http://www.tede2.ufrpe.br:8080/tede2/han...
). Males represented 11% (38/334) of the total number of visits, and females 89% (296/334). In total, 17% (51/296) of the females had a pregnancy diagnosis at different stages of fetal development, while 21% (62/296) were not pregnant, and for 62% (206/296) this information was not recorded. The Agreste Meridional de Pernambuco is characterized by holding 70% of the state's milk basin (2827 Mauchle U, Carvalho AU, Alzamora Filho F, Ferreira PM, Facury Filho EJ, Cavalcante MP. Efeito da sazonalidade sobre a ocorrência de lesões podais em vacas de raças leiteiras. [Season effect in the occurrence of claw diseases in dairy cattle] Rev Bras Saúde Prod An, 2008;9(1): 109-116. Available from: http://www.repositorio.ufba.br/ri/handle/ri/1963. Portuguese.
http://www.repositorio.ufba.br/ri/handle...
).

The most frequent body score was grade III (45.81% [153/334]), followed by grade II (20.36% [68/334]), IV (8.08% [27/334]), I (29% [11/334]), and grade V (0.90% [3/334]). Regarding the size of the cattle, the lesions were more present in large animals, with 76.05% (254/334), while medium and small animals represented 11.38% (38/334) and 2.99% (10/334), respectively. Body weight is an important risk factor for foot diseases (Table 1). Pérez-Cabal and Charfeddine (2928 Brasil. Ministério do Desenvolvimento Agrário. Plano Territorial de Desenvolvimento Rural Sustentável do Agreste Meridional de Pernambuco, MDA. 2011. Available from: http://sit.mda.gov.br/download/ptdrs/ptdrs_qua_territorio002.pdf. Portuguese.
http://sit.mda.gov.br/download/ptdrs/ptd...
) emphasized that the heavier the cows, the greater the probability of acquiring diseases such as sole ulcer or white line disease. The mean age of the animals in this study was approximately 57 months ± 31 months (Table 1). Old age is one of the predisposing factors for digital diseases. A 10-year-old cow is four times more likely to have a horny case lesion (44 Nicoletti JLM. Manual de podologia bovina. Brasil: editora Manole; 2004.130p. Portuguese.).

Table 1
Parameters evaluated in cattle affected with foot disorders from January 1999 to July 2021 at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns - Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco.

The mean calving number verified in this study was approximately 3 (±1.51) per cow. The increase in the number of deliveries is an important component for foot diseases, especially for the occurrence of sole ulcer and white line disease (3029 Perez-Cabal MA, Charfeddine N. Short communication: Association of foot and leg conformation and body weight with claw disorders in Spanish Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci, 2016;99(11)9104-9108.Available from: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11331 English.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11331...
). In the parameter non-lactating females (dry period), only 7% (20/296) had lesions on the hooves, while 29% (86/296) were in other stages of lactation, and 64% (106/296) had no information recorded on this factor. Although the frequency is low, this is a high risk phase for cows (3130 Solano L, Barkema HW, Mason S, Pajor EA, LeBlanc SJ, Orsel K. Prevalence and distribution of foot lesions in dairycattle in Alberta, Canada. J Dairy Sci, 99, (8): 6828-6841, 2016. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-10941. English.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-10941...
). Table 2 presents the productive and reproductive parameters of sick females.

Table 2
Reproductive and productive parameters of bovine females affected with foot disorders from January 1999 to July 2021 attended at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns - Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco.

Table 3 presents the occurrence of foot disorders recorded during the study period in descending order, in which interdigital dermatitis was the most frequent (12.4%), followed by double sole (9.79%), chronic laminitis (8, 81%), sole ulcer (7.83%), and interdigital hyperplasia (7.24%). Oliveira et al., (1616 Oliveira MC, Ramos AT, Cunha IM, Nunes GS, Chenard MG, Nogueira VA, Caldas SA, Helayel MA. Enfermidades de bovinos e ovinos diagnosticadas no Estado do Tocantins. [Cattle and sheep diseases diagnosed in the state of Tocantins - Brazil] Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2019;47(1676):1-8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.95717. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.95717...
) and Gargano et al., (1515 Gargano RG, Benesi FJ, Birgel Junior EH, Libera AMRPL, Gregory L, Sucupira MCA, Ortolani EL, Gomes V, Pogliani FC. Estudo retrospectivo das afecções locomotoras em ruminantes atendidos na Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo entre 2000 e 2012. [Retrospective study of locomotor disorders in ruminants attended in the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo from 2000 to 2012] Braz J vet Res Anim Sci, 2013;50 (4):286-293. Available from: https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-3659.v50i4p286-293. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-3659....
) described that interdigital hyperplasia was the most frequent condition seen in their respective hospital units. It was observed that in the medical records there were foot injuries that do not fit the nomenclature proposed by the ICAR (2020 ICAR. ICAR Atlas claw health. Technical Series. 2ª ed. 2020, 43p. Available from: https://www.icar.org/index.php/publications-technical-materials/technical-series-and-proceedings/atlas-claw-health-and-translations/. English.
https://www.icar.org/index.php/publicati...
) and by Borges et al., (2121 Borges JRJ, Camara ACL, Moscardini ARC, Rodrigues CA, Pitombo CA, Graça Soares FA, Silva LAF, Silva PCAR, Cunha PHJ, Vianna RB, Rabelo RE, Ollhoff RD. Doenças dos dígitos dos bovinos: nomenclatura padronizada para o Brasil. Revista CFMV, 2017 ;23 (73):45 -52. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319423876_Doencas_dos_digitos_dos_bovinos_nomenclatura_padronizada_para_o_Brasil. Portuguese.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...
) these being the subsolar abscess, heel abscess, interdigital abscess, and corkscrew claws. It is worth mentioning the need to expand the nomenclatures, contributing to more specific diagnoses and more accurate treatments.

Table 3
Occurrence of foot disorders treated at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns-UFRPE from January 1999 to July 2021.

Diseases associated with laminitis accounted for 45% (276/613) of the diagnosed lesions, while 36% (218/613) consisted of lesions of secondary or uncertain cause, and 19% (119/613) were of infectious origin. Correa-Valência et al., (3231 Daros RR, Eriksson HK, Weary DM, Keyserlignk MAG. Lamenes during the dry period: Epidemiology and associated factors. J Dairy Sci. 2019;102 (12): 11414-11427. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16741. English.
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16741...
) identified that in 94.4% of the lesions found in their study, the cause was non-infectious, while 5.6% had an infectious origin. Possibly, the high occurrence of metabolic-traumatic diseases (laminitis) is associated with the precarious conditions and lack of technical assistance in a large number of properties in the Agreste region of Pernambuco (3332 Correa-Valencia NM, Castaño-Aguiar IR, Shearer JK, Arango-Sabogal JC, Fecteau G. Frequency and distribution of foot lesions identified during cattle hoof trimming in the Province of Antioquia, Colombia (2011-2016). Trop Anim Health Prod. 2019; 51(1):17-24. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1652-1. English.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1652-...
).

Of the total number of affected cattle, 44.91% (150/334) had a single lesion in the stratum corneum, 34.13% (114/334) had two, 15.27% (51/334) three, 4.19% (14/334) four, 1.20% (4/334) five, and 0.30% (1/334) had six different lesions. The average number of lesions diagnosed per patient observed in this study was approximately two (Table 1). In patients with more than one diagnosed claw lesion, the most common combinations are described in Table 5. Due to the chronicity of foot diseases, during the examination of the limbs it is possible to identify lesions from different causes, making it difficult to determine which lesions are primary or secondary (44 Nicoletti JLM. Manual de podologia bovina. Brasil: editora Manole; 2004.130p. Portuguese.).

Figure 3 illustrates the distribution of the number of foot injuries per affected limb. Pozzati et al., (3433 Monteiro AL, Tmanini R, Corrêa da Silva LC, Mattos MR, Magnani DF, d’Ovidio L, Nero LA, Barros MAF, Pires EMF, Paquereau BPD, Beloti V. Características da produção leiteira da região do agreste do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil [Characteristics of the milk production of the agreste region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil]. Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 2007;28 (4):665-674. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2007v28n4p665. Portuguese.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2007...
) also found that injuries were more frequent in the pelvic limbs (82.10%) than in the thoracic limbs (17.90%). The high frequency of injuries to the pelvic limbs is due to the coxofemoral joint being a rigid structure with a reduced capacity to absorb biomechanical shock during locomotion, compared to the thoracic limbs (3534 Pozzatti PN, Casagrande FA, Dórea MD, Borges LFNM, Porfírio LC, Pinheiro HB, Ribeiro da Silva PCA. Prevalência das afecções podais em vacas leiteiras da Região sul do estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. [Prevalence of foot diseases in dairy cattle in the southern region of Espírito Santo state, Brazil] R Acad Cienc Anim. 2018;16(3):163003. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7213/981-4178.2018.163003. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.7213/981-4178.2018.16...
). According to Martins et al., (3635 Ferreira PM, Carvalho AU, Filho EJF, Ferreira MG, Ferreira RG. Afecções do sistema locomotor de bovinos. In: Simpósio Mineiro de Buiatria, 2. 2005, Belo Horizonte. Anais. Minas Gerais, p.26. Available from: http://bichosonline.vet.br/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/claudica%C3%A7%C3%A3o.pdf. Portuguese.
http://bichosonline.vet.br/wp-content/up...
) the proximity of the limbs to environmental contaminants such as feces and urine contributes to the increase in the number of lesions in the stratum corneum of these limbs.

Figure 3
Distribution of the number of foot injuries according to the affected limbs of cattle treated at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns- UFRPE from January 1999 to July 2021. LTL (Left thoracic limb), RTL (Right thoracic limb), LPL (Left Pelvic Limb) and RPL (Right Pelvic Limb).

Figure 4 illustrates the distribution of the number of lesions according to the affected claws. Machado et al. (3736 Martins FC, Sarti E, Busato I, Pires PP, Fiori CH, Moreira C, Soares K, Betini B, Velasquez M. Prevalência e classificação das afecções podais em vacas lactantes na bacia leiteira de Campo Grande (Capital) e municípios arredores - MS. Ensaios e Cienc. 2002;6(2):113-137. Available from: https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=26060209. Portuguese.
https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=2...
), reported that claw involvement occurred mainly on the lateral digits (41.7%). As described by Ebling et al., (99 Ebling RC, Krummenguer A, Machado G, Zeni D, Carazzo LP, Leal MLR. Prevalência e distribuição de lesões podais em vacas leiteiras criadas em freestall. [Prevalence and distribution of feet lesions in dairy cows raised in the Freestall] Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 2019; 40(1): 239-248. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2019v40n1p239. English.
https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2019v4...
) the lateral digits of the hind limbs and the medial digits of the forelimbs bear most of the weight, so are more likely to be injured.

Figure 4
Distribution of the number of foot injuries according to the claws of the affected limbs in cattle treated at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns-UFRPE from January 1999 to July 2021. MC (medial claw), LC (lateral claw), LTL (left thoracic limb), RTL (right thoracic limb), LPL (left pelvic limb), RPL (right pelvic limb).

Lameness was present in 78% (260/334) of the patients seen, while only 10% (33/334) were not lame. Of the lame animals, 20% (67/334) had grade II lameness, 19% (65/334) III, 15% (50/334) IV, 13% (45/334) I, and 5% grade V (18/334). Souza et al., (3837 Machado PP, Pereira HM, Santos HP, Oliveira RA, Guerra PC, Teixeira WC. Prevalência e classificação de afecções podais em fêmeas bovinas destinadas à produção de leite na bacia leiteira do município de Itapecuru Mirim-MA [Establishment and classification of dairy cow podal diseases at Itapecuru Mirim dairy basin, State of Maranhão, Brazil]. Rev. Bras. Saúde Prod. An. 2008 out/dez; 9 (4): 777-786. Available from: https://docplayer.com.br/71463207-Prevalencia-e-classificacao-de-afeccoes-podais-em-femeas-bovinas-destinadas-a-producao-de-leite-na-bacia-leiteira-do-municipio-de-itapecuru-mirim-ma.html. Portuguese.
https://docplayer.com.br/71463207-Preval...
) reported that they did not observe a direct correlation between the clinical sign of lameness and foot injuries in Jersey cattle raised in a free stall and semi-confinement system, that is, a bovine with a stratum corneum lesion is not necessarily lame. This result is possibly related to the nosocomial origin of the data, in which the producers bring the animals when they perceive a change in posture.

Table 6 presents the number of cases and the period of lameness reported by the producers on the properties since they noticed a change in posture. The clinical evolution (Table 1) of the animals comprising the period of hospitalization was approximately 23 days, and the duration of lameness was approximately 20 days. The severity of the lesions directly interferes with the clinical evolution of stratum corneum diseases and the lameness period in cattle (44 Nicoletti JLM. Manual de podologia bovina. Brasil: editora Manole; 2004.130p. Portuguese., 3938 Souza FAA, Goulart JC, Patelli THC, Porto EP, Rosa VBB, Correio BFM, Barreto JVP, Pértile SFN, Queiroz GR, Cunha Filho LFC. Ocorrência de lesões podais e graus de claudicação em vacas lactantes da raça Jersey mantidas em sistema free-stall e semiconfinamento. [Occurrence of foot injuries and degrees of claudication in lactating Jersey cows kept in a free-stall and semi-confinement system] Rev Acad Cienc Anim. 2018;16:e163006. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7213/1981-4178.2018.163006. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.7213/1981-4178.2018.1...
, 4039 Leão MA, Silva LAF, Fioravanti MCS, Jayme VS, Silva MAM, Cunha PHJ, Silva OC, Rabelo RE, Silva OC, Rabelo RE, Silva LM, Trindade BR. Dermatite digital bovina: aspectos relacionados à evolução clínica [Bovine digital dermatitis: aspects related to clinical evolution]. Ciência Animal Brasileira. 2005 out./dez. ; 6 (4): 267-277. Available from: https://www.revistas.ufg.br/vet/article/view/374.
https://www.revistas.ufg.br/vet/article/...
).

The majority of the animals presented alterations in the degree of dehydration, in which the most frequent degree of exicosis was I, 25% (83/334), with the degrees II with 21% (70/334) and III with 5% (16 /334), in addition, in 24% (81/334) of the animals there was no change in the degree of dehydration. This condition is related to the decrease in water intake, due to the difficulty of locomotion arising from the pain caused by the hoof injuries (4140 Silva LAF, Moraes RR, Romani AL, Fioravanti MCR, Cunha PHJ, Borges JRJ, Macedo SP, Damasceno AD, Rabelo RE, Garcia AM. Pododermatite séptica em bovinos: evolução clínica da fase inicial [Pododermatitis septicus in cattle: clinical evolution of the initial phase]. Braz. J. vet. Res. anim. Sci. 2006; 43 (5): 674-680, São Paulo. Available from: https://www.bvs-vet.org.br/vetindex/periodicos/brazilian-journal-veterinary-research-and-animal-s/43-(2006)-5/pododermatite-septica-em-bovinos-evolucao-clinica-da-fase-inicial/. . Portuguese.
https://www.bvs-vet.org.br/vetindex/peri...
). The mean rectal temperature in that study was 39.0°C. (1818 Dirksen G, Grunder HD, Stober M, Exame clinico dos Bovinos. 3ed. Editora Guanabara Koogan S.A.; 1993. 402p. Portuguese.)

Among the intercurrent conditions, the most frequent was clinical mastitis (12.57% [42/334]), followed by displacement of the abomasum to the left (1.2% [4/334]), papillomatosis (1.2% [4/334]), vagal indigestion (1.2% [4/334]), metritis ([0.60% 2/334]), and reticulitis (0.60% [2/334]). Foot diseases force cattle to spend more time lying down and reduce the teat cleaning interval, thus increasing contact with the ground, leading to an increase in mastitis cases (4241 Albuquerque PI, Ximenes FHB, Moscardini ACR, Gouvêa LV, Mota ALAA, Godoy RF, Borges JRJ. Caracterização das afecções podais em rebanho de gado Holandês confinado [Characterization of foot disorders in confined Holstein cattle]. Ciência Animal Brasileira - Anais do VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Buiatria. 2009, Suplemento 1. Available in: https://www.revistas.ufg.br/vet/article/view/7712. Portuguese.
https://www.revistas.ufg.br/vet/article/...
). According to Refaai et al., (4342 Soares AKAL, Bernieri EM, Fragoso TL, Pimentel MML. Impacto das doenças podais na criação de vacas leiteiras: Revisão de Literatura. [Impact of foot diseases on dairy cattle: A Review]. Braz J Hyg Anim San. 2019;13(2): 304-319. Available from: http://www.repositorio.ufc.br/handle/riufc/55810. Portuguese.
http://www.repositorio.ufc.br/handle/riu...
) digital diseases characterized as infectious are associated with increases in cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Mastitis is an important cause of endotoxemia that can contribute to damage to the claw chorion (22 Blowey R. Cattle Lameness and Hoofcare. 3ª ed. Sheffield: 5M Publishing; 2015. 177p. English.).

The lethality in this study was approximately 9% (31/334), a result lower than that estimated by Gargano et al., (1515 Gargano RG, Benesi FJ, Birgel Junior EH, Libera AMRPL, Gregory L, Sucupira MCA, Ortolani EL, Gomes V, Pogliani FC. Estudo retrospectivo das afecções locomotoras em ruminantes atendidos na Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo entre 2000 e 2012. [Retrospective study of locomotor disorders in ruminants attended in the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo from 2000 to 2012] Braz J vet Res Anim Sci, 2013;50 (4):286-293. Available from: https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-3659.v50i4p286-293. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-3659....
) which was 21.5% (26/121). Deaths occur due to complications linked to the severity of the injury and in situations in which the treatment was not successful, and the animal are submitted to euthanasia (4443 Refaai W, Gad M, Mahmmod Y. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows. Vet World. 2017;10(3)358-362. Available from: https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2017.358-362. English.
https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2017.3...
).

Table 4
Distribution of the number of foot injuries according to the etiological category of digital diseases 1 1 Borges et al. (10). .

The recovery rate of cattle was approximately 73% (243/334), close to that reported by Gargano et al., (1515 Gargano RG, Benesi FJ, Birgel Junior EH, Libera AMRPL, Gregory L, Sucupira MCA, Ortolani EL, Gomes V, Pogliani FC. Estudo retrospectivo das afecções locomotoras em ruminantes atendidos na Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo entre 2000 e 2012. [Retrospective study of locomotor disorders in ruminants attended in the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo from 2000 to 2012] Braz J vet Res Anim Sci, 2013;50 (4):286-293. Available from: https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-3659.v50i4p286-293. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-3659....
) who observed 78.5% (95/121). Considering the treatment, both surgical and conservative were used. Surgical cases were the most frequent and corresponded to 56% (187/334) of the case series, while 38% (126/334) of the animals received conservative treatment.

Given the need for surgical resolution, the main procedures performed were surgical debridement, performed in 38.32% (128/334) of cases, followed by digit amputation, with 8.38% (28/334), and excision of the interdigital hyperplasia in 8.68% (29/334) of situations. In two patients, 0.60% (2/334), in addition to the amputation of the digit, the hyperplastic tissue was removed. Thus, surgical debridement was the most commonly practiced procedure. Weaver et al. (4544. Terrell SP, Reinhardt CD, Larson CK, Vahl CI, Thomson DU. Incidence of lameness and association of cause and severity of lameness on the outcome for cattle on six commercial beef feedlots. JAVMA. 2017;250 (4):437-445. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.250.4.437. English.
https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.250.4.437...
), emphasize that debridement of necrotic tissue contributes to maximizing the effect of antimicrobials and assists in injury recovery.

Conservative treatment consisted of the use of injectable drugs associated with topical treatment or not. Parenteral antibiotics were used in 49% (163/334) of patients, while 43% (145/334) did not require their use. The main drugs used were florfenicol, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, quinolones, and amoxicillin, as recommended by Greenough (11 Greenough PR. Bovine Liminitis and Lameness. 1. ed. Philladelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. 328p. English.) and Constable et al. (4645 Weaver AD, Atkinson O, St. Jean G, Steiner A. Bovine Surgery and Lameness. 3. ed. Hoboken: John Willey Sons; 2018. 378p. English.).

Table 5
Association of the most frequent multiple lesions in cattle affected with foot disorders treated at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns-UFRPE from January 1999 to July 2021.

Regarding anti-inflammatory drugs, 41% of patients received some type of drug in order to reduce pain, however, in 53% of cases there was no record of administration, probably due to mild or less severe conditions. Among the most commonly used drugs were phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, dipyrone, and meloxicam. Marçal et al. (4746 Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Done S, Gruenberg W.Veterinary Medicine. A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs, and Goats. 11. ed. Missouri: Elsevier; 2017. 2356p. English.) point out that phenylbutazone is effective in controlling intense pain and inflammatory processes in animals diagnosed with lameness, regardless of the lesions in the horny case.

Topical treatment was used in 90% (300/334) of patients and consisted of applying a mixture of penicillin-based ointment (Ganadol®) with copper sulfate to the lesion site (surgical or not), covered by dressings and bandages. In only 5% (18/334) of the cases, this type of treatment was not applied, with local wound cleaning or application of Formoped® spray (monomethylol dimethyl hydantoin). Copper sulfate is an astringent product that degrades the granulation tissue of lesions, however, its prolonged use can damage the healing of the corium and delay the growth of new corneal tissue (22 Blowey R. Cattle Lameness and Hoofcare. 3ª ed. Sheffield: 5M Publishing; 2015. 177p. English.).

Table 6
Numbers of cases and the period of lameness of bovines on the properties according to the reports of rural producers before attendance at the Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns

Bandages were applied in 71% (238/334) of the cattle, while in 21% (69/334) there was no need, with the average number of bandage changes used in the treatments being approximately four per animal. Greenough (11 Greenough PR. Bovine Liminitis and Lameness. 1. ed. Philladelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. 328p. English.) highlights that the bandage has the function of protecting the wound and fixing the antimicrobial agents. The hoof block is another device used to promote the recovery of foot disorders, however, it was only used in 13% (43/334) of the animals and in 68% (228/334) of the cases it was not used. This device has the function of relieving the pressure on the diseased claw, applying it to the healthy claw (4847 Marçal WS, Oliveira-Junior BC, Ortunho VV. Avaliação Clínica da Fenilbutazona em Bovinos. [Clinical evaluation of Fenilbutazone in cattle]. Ciência Animal Brasileira. 2006;7(4): 399-405. Available from: https://www.revistas.ufg.br/vet/article/view/869. Portuguese.
https://www.revistas.ufg.br/vet/article/...
). Presumably, the hoof block was used in cases where it was deemed necessary to raise the healthy claw in order to reduce the pressure of the weight on the compromised claw due to the severity and extent of the injuries.

The mean total cost associated with animal treatments was estimated in this study at US$104.19. Ferreira et al. (4948 Dias ROS, Marques JRAP. Atlas cascos em bovinos: identifique as lesões, as novas técnicas de tratamento e os principais métodos de controle. 1º ed. Lemos editorial, 2001, 63p. Portuguese.) estimated the costs of treating the sequelae of laminitis at US$ 44.68 per cow. Hoof diseases impact the total costs on the property due to the loss of milk production, reduced weight gain, early disposal, and cost with additional labor (77 Amstel SRV, Shearer J. Manual for Treatment and Control of Lameness in Cattle. 1st ed. Iowa: Blackwell; 2006. 216p. English., 4847 Marçal WS, Oliveira-Junior BC, Ortunho VV. Avaliação Clínica da Fenilbutazona em Bovinos. [Clinical evaluation of Fenilbutazone in cattle]. Ciência Animal Brasileira. 2006;7(4): 399-405. Available from: https://www.revistas.ufg.br/vet/article/view/869. Portuguese.
https://www.revistas.ufg.br/vet/article/...
, 33 Ózsvári L. Economic cost of lameness in dairy cattle herds. J Dairy Vet Anim Res, 2017;6(2)283-289. Available from: https://doi.org/10.15406/jdvar.2017.06.00176. English.
https://doi.org/10.15406/jdvar.2017.06.0...
). According to Bonita, Beaglehole and Kjellstrom, (4948 Dias ROS, Marques JRAP. Atlas cascos em bovinos: identifique as lesões, as novas técnicas de tratamento e os principais métodos de controle. 1º ed. Lemos editorial, 2001, 63p. Portuguese.) descriptive studies are the first step in the epidemiological investigation process with the intention of detailing the health status of communities, although studies of this aspect do not analyze the association between the exposure and the effect. Descriptive epidemiology is an important tool for tracing the epidemiological profile of populations, establishing patterns of disease distribution, and listing the possible causes that lead to the involvement of individuals, in addition, these studies make it possible to propose preventive and corrective measures. (5049 Ferreira PM, Leite RC, Carvalho AU, Facury Filho EJ, Souza RC, Ferreira MG. Custo e resultados do tratamento de sequelas de laminite bovina: relato de 112 casos em vacas em lactação no sistema free-stall. [Results and costs of treatment for bovine laminitis sequelae: study of 112 lameness cases in lactating cows in free-stall system] Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 2004;56(5) 589-594. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352004000500004. Portuguese.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-0935200400...
).

Conclusion

The current study allowed us to identify the main foot disorders of the treated cattle and the clinical and epidemiological profile, in addition, to identifying the negative economic impact that this entity causes on a dairy farm. Interdigital dermatitis was the main cause of foot lesions, however, diseases associated with laminitis had a high occurrence. Studies of this nature are important for understanding the dynamics of foot diseases in populations and are the first step towards understanding the situation in cattle affected with foot problems in the southern Agreste region of Pernambuco.

Acknowledgment

The present work was carried out with the support of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel - Brazil (CAPES) with funding of the research grant.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    24 Oct 2022
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    05 May 2022
  • Accepted
    05 July 2022
  • Published
    13 Sept 2022
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