Insecticidal effect of from three Hypericum species extracts against Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium confusum

Efeito inseticida dos extratos de três espécies de Hypericum contra Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae e Tribolium confusum

Cennet Yaman Şeyda Şimşek About the authors

ABSTRACT

The search for new plant natural products with insecticidal properties to control insect pests in agriculture has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the study was to investigate the insecticidal activity of extracts derived from flower, leaf, and stem of three Hypericum species (Hypericum heterophyllum, Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum scabrum) against the adults of three important stored grain insect pests namely; Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae), Rhyzopertha dominica (Bostrichidae) and Tribolium confusum (Tenebrionidae). The insects were incubated with the food under 10% concentration of Hypericum extracts and the mortality was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure. The extracts of the Hypericum species and exposure time were found to have statistically significant effective against the three insect pests. After 72 h exposure, the mortality ranged from 4.3 to 94.1 % for all insects. Among tested insects, R. dominica was more susceptible than T. confusum and S. oryzae. Although desirable insecticidal effect against the insects were recorded from all the three Hypericum species, the leaf extract of H. perforatum was more effective on R. dominica, while the flower and stem of H. scabrum displayed high toxic effect on T. confusum and S. oryzae, respectively. The leaf extracts, of H. perforatum, in particular, may be used as source of new potential botanical insecticides against R. dominica in stored grains.

Index terms:
H. heterophyllum; H. scabrum; H. perforatum; stored grain; insects.

RESUMO

A busca por novos produtos vegetais com propriedades naturais inseticidas para o controle de insetos nocivos à agricultura têm ganho relevância nas últimas décadas. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a atividade inseticida extraída dos extratos derivados da flor, folha e caule de três espécies de Hypericum (Hypericum heterophyllum, Hypericum perforatum e Hypericum scabrum) contra os adultos de três importantes insetos nocivos aos grãos armazenados: Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae), Rhyzopertha dominica (Bostrichidae) e Tribolium confusum (Tenebrionidae). Os insetos foram incubados com o alimento sob a concentração de 10% dos extratos de Hypericum e a mortalidade foi registrada após 24, 48 e 72 horas de exposição. Os extratos das espécies de Hypericum e o tempo de exposição foi considerado estatisticamente significativo e eficaz contra os três insetos nocivos. Após 72 horas de exposição, a mortalidade variou de 4,3 a 94,1% para todos os insetos. Entre os insetos testados, R. dominica foi mais suscetível do que T. confusum e o S. oryzae. Embora, o efeito inseticida desejável contra os insetos tenha sido registrado em todas as três espécies de Hypericum, o extrato da folha de H. perforatum foi o mais eficaz em R. dominica, enquanto que a flor e o caule de H. scabrum exibiram alto efeito tóxico sobre T. confusum e S. oryzae, respectivamente. Os extratos da folha de H. Perforatum, em particular, pode ser usado como fonte de novos inseticidas botânicos com potenciais contra R. dominica em grãos armazenados.

Termos para indexação:
H. heterophyllum; H. scabrum; H. perforatum; grãos armazenados; insetos.

INTRODUCTION

The Hypericum genus has about 500 species divided into 36 taxonomic sections using morphological characters (Robson, 2003ROBSON, N. K. B. Hypericum botany. In: ERNST, E. Hypericum: The genus Hypericum. New York, United States: CRC Press, 2003. p.1-22.; Zhou et al., 2020ZHOU, W. et al. Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3-MYB family in Hypericum perforatum under diverse abiotic stresses. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 145:341-354, 2020.) and adapted to different climatic and ecological conditions (Sarrou et al., 2018SARROU, E. et al. Metabolomics assisted fingerprint of Hypericum perforatum chemotypes and assessment of their cytotoxic activity. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 114:325-333, 2018.). The genus including a large number of medicinal and aromatic species contain a wide variety of the important chemical compounds such as napthodianthrones (hypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin), phenolic acid (chlorogenic acid), flavonoids (hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, campherol, luteolin, hyperin), phloroglucinols (hyperforin, furohyperforin), essential oils and xanthones (Napoli et al., 2018NAPOLI, E. et al. Phytochemical profiles, phototoxic and antioxidant properties of eleven Hypericum species- A comparative study. Phytochemistry, 152:162-173, 2018.). Hypericum plant extracts exhibit many pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, antidepressant, antitumor, antibacterial, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects. Some Hypericum species have active usage in traditional and modern medicine due to very important biological activities including antioxidant, antidepressant, antitumor, antibacterial, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects (Zorzetto et al., 2015ZORZETTO, C. et al. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro biological activity of three Hypericum species from the Canary Islands (Hypericum reflexum, Hypericum canariense and Hypericum grandifolium). Fitoterapia, 100:95-109, 2015). Herbal samples of H. perforatum (St. John’s Wort) are widely utilized for the treatment of mild to moderate depression in Europe and the US, which also indicates that the drug has advantages compared to synthetic antidepressants by several studies (Kasper et al., 2010KASPER, S. et al. Efficacy and tolerability of Hypericum extract for the treatment of mild to moderate depression. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 20(11):747-765, 2010.; NG et al., 2017NG, Q. X.; VENKATANARAYANAN, N.; HO, C. Y. X. Clinical use of Hypericum perforatum (St John’s wort) in depression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 210:211-221, 2017.; Marrelli; Stattı; Confortı, 2020MARRELLI, M.; STATTI, G.; CONFORTI, F. Hypericum spp.: An update on the biological activities and metabolic profiles. Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, 20(1):66-87, 2020.).

Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae), Rhyzopertha dominica (Bostrichidae) and Tribolium confusum (Tenebrionidae) are the major insects that cause significant damage to many products during the storage. The larvae and adults of S. oryzae feed on rice, wheat, barley, corn, sorghum and other grain products (Mason; McDonoug, 2012MASON, L.; MCDONOUG, M. Biology, behavior, and ecology of stored grain and legume insects. In: HAGSTRUM, D. W.; PHİLLİPS, T. W.; CUPERUS, G. Stored Product Protection. Manhattan, Kansas, United States: Kansas State University, 2012. p.7-20.; Mishra; Pandey, 2014MISHRA, R. C.; PANDEY, R. K. Comparative evaluation of different insecticides against damage caused by Sitophilus oryzae L. in stored wheat seed. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management, 5(3):404-408, 2014.) Similarly, R. dominica feed on all kinds of cereal grains (wheat, corn, rice, sorghum), products made from grains, flour-made ingredients, walnuts, hazelnuts, dried figs and legume products (Dissanayaka et al., 2020DISSANAYAKA, D. M. S. K. et al. Effects of aggregation pheromone concentration and distance on the trapping of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) adults. Journal of Stored Products Research , 88:101657, 2020.). Tribolium confusum feeds on spills of grains, flour and flour products, bran, semolina, spices, dried fruits, vegetables and legumes (Ajayi; Oladıpupo; Ajısafe, 2019AJAYI, E. O.; OLADIPUPO, S. O.; AJISAFE, O. Influence of processing and substrate variety on survival and development of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 52(3-4):356-370, 2019.). These insects cause both qualitative and quantitative losses to cereal grains. Insect damage in stored products may cause losses of 5-10% in developed countries and up to 20-40% in developing countries (Hernandez Nopsa, 2015HERNANDEZ NOPSA, J. F. et al. Ecological networks in stored grain: Key postharvest nodes for emerging pests, pathogens, and mycotoxins. BioScience, 65(10):985-1002, 2015.). In addition, it creates serious problems for the food industry due to food contamination (Wu et al., 2019WU, L. et al. A deep learning model to recognize food contaminating beetle species based on elytra fragments. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 166:e105002, 2019.).

Synthetic chemical pesticides and insecticides have been actively used to effectively control of stored grain insects for many years (Kostyukovsky; Shaaya, 2013KOSTYUKOVSKY, M.; SHAAYA, E. Advanced methods for controlling insect pests in dry food. In: ISHAAYA, I.; PALLİ, S. R.; HOROWİTZ, A. R. Advanced technologies for managing ınsect pests. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2013. 328p.). However, scientists have begun to search for new and natural products to combat against stored product insects due to some adverse effect such as toxicity to mammals, development of resistant strains of insect populations, change of ecological balance and high costs (Rouhani et al., 2019ROUHANI, M. et al. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on common Pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae burckhardt and lauterer (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection , 52(1-2):45-53, 2019.; Lampiri et al., 2020LAMPIRI, E. et al. Insecticidal effect of Dittrichia viscosa lyophilized epicuticular material against four major stored-product beetle species on wheat. Crop Protection, 132:e105095, 2020.). Low-cost organic sources that are less harmful to the environment and human health are very valuable. Many researches have investigated insecticidal affects of different plant species (Guru-Pirasanna-Pandi et al., 2018GURU-PIRASANNA-PANDI, G. et al. Toxicological effect of underutilized plant, Cleistanthus collinus leaf extracts against two major stored grain pests, the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 154:92-99, 2018.; Lampiri et al., 2020LAMPIRI, E. et al. Insecticidal effect of Dittrichia viscosa lyophilized epicuticular material against four major stored-product beetle species on wheat. Crop Protection, 132:e105095, 2020.). Since plants are natural products, they are safer agricultural products, and cause less pollution (Sodaeizadeh; Rafıeıolhossaını; Van Damme, 2010SODAEIZADEH, H.; RAFIEIOLHOSSAINI, M.; VAN DAMME, P. Herbicidal activity of a medicinal plant, Peganum harmala L. and decomposition dynamics of its phytotoxins in the soil. Industrial Crops and Products, 31(2):385-394, 2010.).

Many studies have shown that H. perforatum is effective as a larvicidal, insecticide, acaricides, antimicrobial, growth-inhibitory activity, as well as antifeeding and repellent properties (Da Silva et al., 2013DA SILVA, F. C. et al. Larvicidal activity of lipophilic extract of Hypericum carinatum (Clusiaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and benzophenones determination. Parasitology Research, 112:2367-2371, 2013.; Binias; Gospodarek; Rusın, 2016BINIAS, B.; GOSPODAREK, J.; RUSIN, M. Effect of aqueous extract of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) on the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) behaviour. Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering, 61(3):25-29, 2016.; Erdoğan; Yıldırım, 2016ERDOĞAN, P.; YILDIRIM, A. Insecticidal activity of three different plant extracts on the green peach aphid [(Myzus persicae Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)]. Journal of the Entomological Research Society, 18(1):27-35, 2016.; Lazzara; Carrubba; Napolı, 2019LAZZARA, S.; CARRUBBA, A.; NAPOLI, E. Variability of hypericins and hyperforin in Hypericum species from the sicilian flora. Chemistry & Biodiversity , 17(1):1900596, 2020.; Keser et al., 2020KESER, S. et al. Phytochemical compounds and antiradical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the extracts from Hypericum scabrum L. flowers. Natural Product Research, 34(5):714-719, 2020.). Also, many researchers reported the toxic effects of many Hypericum extracts against several insects or their larvaes in previous studies. For example, Da Silva et al. (2013)DA SILVA, F. C. et al. Larvicidal activity of lipophilic extract of Hypericum carinatum (Clusiaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and benzophenones determination. Parasitology Research, 112:2367-2371, 2013. recorded that hexane extract derived from flowering aerial parts of H. carinatum was highly toxic on larvaes of Aedes aegypti. Erdoğan and Yıldırım (2016)ERDOĞAN, P.; YILDIRIM, A. Insecticidal activity of three different plant extracts on the green peach aphid [(Myzus persicae Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)]. Journal of the Entomological Research Society, 18(1):27-35, 2016. found that ethanolic extract of H. calycinum (12%) caused mortality against nymph and adult of Myzus persicae Sulzer under both leaf dipping and spraying methods. Puthur et al. (2019PUTHUR, S. et al. Synergistic control of storage pest rice weevil using Hypericum japonicum and deltamethrin combinations: A key to combat pesticide resistance. Environmental Sustainability, 2(4):411-417, 2019.) reported that of 2000 mg/L concentration of H. japonicum methanol extract caused 85% mortality on S. oryzae. Hypericum extracts have been shown to exhibit potent toxic effect on insects, particularly against coleopteran insects (Tozlu et al., 2011TOZLU, E. et al. Chemical compositions and insecticidal effects of essential oils isolated from Achillea gypsicola, Satureja hortensis, Origanum acutidens and Hypericum scabrum against broadbean weevil (Bruchus dentipes). Scientia Horticulturae, 130(1):9-17, 2011.; Dastagir; Ahmed; Shereen, 2016DASTAGIR, G.; AHMED, R.; SHEREEN, S. Elemental, nutritional, phytochemical and biological evaluation of Hypericum perforatum linn. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 29(2):547-555, 2016.; Puthur et al., 2019PUTHUR, S. et al. Synergistic control of storage pest rice weevil using Hypericum japonicum and deltamethrin combinations: A key to combat pesticide resistance. Environmental Sustainability, 2(4):411-417, 2019.). It has therefore been hypothesized that the extracts of these Hypericum species could potentially exhibit insecticidal activity against adults of the stored grain insects such as S. oryzae, R. dominica and T. confusum. But, there have been unsufficiently researched the insectidisal effect of H. perforatum, H. heterophyllum, H. scabrum species on these insects. Type and quantity of plant phytochemicals can vary according to different parts of the plant, which causes differences in effectiveness (Sarrou et al., 2018SARROU, E. et al. Metabolomics assisted fingerprint of Hypericum perforatum chemotypes and assessment of their cytotoxic activity. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 114:325-333, 2018.). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of flower, leaf and stem extracts of three Hypericum species against on important stored product insects such as R. dominica, S. oryzae and T. confusum.

MATERIAL AND METODS

Plant material

The plant species were identified by Prof. Dr. OsmanTugay (Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Selçuk University). Voucher specimens are kept in KNYA Herbarium of the Selçuk University, Faculty of Science, Konya, Turkey (Herbarium numbers: 28281, 28282, and 28283, respectively). Hypericum heterophyllum Vent., H. scabrum L., and H. perforatum L. were collected at 100% flowering period from their natural habitats in Turkey (Table 1). Collection of plants was done between 11:00 and 13:00 hours. The flowers, leafsves and stems of the plants were separated, and dried under shade at 20 ± 2 ºC.

Table 1:
Habitat and collection status of the Hypericum species.

Preparation of samples for analysis

The flower, leaf and stem of the Hypericum species were used for the extraction. The plant materials were dried under shade and mechanically ground with a blender. About 4 g of each grounded plant materials were extracted individually in 40 mL of 100% acetone at 40 °C for 24 h. The resulting solutions were filtered through whatman paper and the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator at temperature bellow 40 °C. The extracts were dissolved with acetone. Finally, the concentration of the extracts was adjusted to 10%, and all samples were stored at 4 ºC until used.

Test insects

Stock cultures of insects were obtained from the Department of Plant Protection, Yozgat Bozok University. Wheat grains were used for feeding of S. oryzae and R. dominica adults, and crushed wheat grains were used for feeding of T. confusum adults. In order to feed the insect species used in the study, 1-liter jars were filled with 1/3 food. Adult individuals were taken into these jars and left to feed. These stock cultures were incubated at 27±2 ºC in dark conditions. Within 45 days, a new generation of adults emerged, and randomly selected adult individuals were used in the study (Abay et al., 2012ABAY, G. et. al. Insecticidal activity of Hypnum cupressiforme (Bryophyta) against Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 51:6-10, 2012.).

Contact toxicity

The 10% concentration of Hypericum extracts were used for contact effect according to method used by Gökçe et al. (2010GÖKÇE, A. et al. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of selected plant extracts against larval obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris). The Open Entomology Journal, 4(1):18-24, 2010.). About 1 µl of the extracts was applied topically to each insect by micro-aplicator (Figure 1). For control, insects were topically treated with 1 μl of acetone solvent. The experiment was set up in complete randomized block design with six replications of ten insects pre replicate in a petri dish containing food. Insect mortality was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure. The mortality rates were calculated as %.

Figure 1:
Application of Hypericum extracts on stored product insects (HP:H. perforatum, HH: H. heterophyllum, HS: H. scabrum).

Data analysis

No mortality was observed in the control applications of all species. The same vials were examined for mortality at the different exposure intervals (24, 48, and 72 hours), so mortality data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Hypericum specie, plant part and exposure time as the main effects. Percent mortality data were expressed as mean values and standard error (±SE). It was used Levene’s test to check homogenity of variances before ANOVA tests. Also, data given in percentages were subjected to arcsine (√X) transformation before statistical analysis. Differences between the means were compared by Duncan’s multiple range tests using SPSS 20.0 Statistical software at 0.01 level.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Mortality of R. dominica treated with the Hypericum extracts

The results from the individual effect of each factor (Hypericum specie, plant part and exposure time) had a statistically significant effect against R. dominica adults (P < 0.01) (Table 2). In terms of the interactions of these main factors, all interactions within exposure time had no statistically significance (P > 0.80), whereas the interaction between Hypericum specie and plant part shown a highly significant effect (F=38.96, P < 0.01).

Table 2:
Repeated measures ANOVA parameters for main effects and associated interactions leading to mortality rates of the three stored-product insects tested (for R. dominica, T. confusum and S. oryzae).

According to the results obtained in Table 3, mortality of R. dominica was recorded the highest in leaf of H. perforatum (88.0%), and found to increase with the exposure of application in all extracts. After 72 h of exposure, the leaf of H. perforatum was exhibited the highest mortality with 94.1% against this pest.

Table 3:
Mean mortality (%±SE) of R. dominica adults after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure on wheat treated with different solvent extracts of the Hypericum species.

In screening bioassays of different Hypericum species, H. perforatum (42.3%) were found to be more effective against R. dominica than H. scabrum (31.4%) and H. heterophyllum (31.0%). When the difference between plant parts is examined, the leaf exhibited the highest toxicity on R. dominica (48.8%) (Figure 2).

Figure 2:
Toxicity rate of plant parts on the mortality of R. dominica.

Mortality of T. confusum treated with Hypericum extracts

Mortality of T. confusum adults was significantly affected by the Hypericum species and exposure time which were found statistically significant effect at P < 0.01. The other main factor (plant part) and all interactions were no statistically significant (P > 0.05) (Table 2).

Among the Hypericum species, H. scabrum (29.2%) and H. perforatum (22.4%) were found to be more effective against T. confusum, and there was no statistically significant difference between them (Table 4). Mortality rate was recorded to increase with the exposure time of application in all extracts (Table 4). After 72 h of exposure, the flower of H. scabrum had the highest mortality with 42.1% on this pest.

Table 4:
Mean mortality (%±SE) of T. confusum adults after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure on wheat treated with various solvent extracts of the Hypericum species.

Mortality of S. oryzae treated with Hypericum extracts

Hypericum specie and exposure time were statistically found to be effective on the mortality of S. oryzae (P <0.01) whereas plant part were no significant (P > 0.06) (Table 2). Similarly, there was no different to all interactions except Hypericum specie x plant part interaction (F = 2.63, p = 0.04).

The mortality of S. oryzae increased with exposure up to only 48 h with each extract application, and there was no statistically significant difference between 48 h and 72 h exposures (Table 5). Among Hypericum species, H. scabrum (14%) had the highest mortality against S. oryzae, but statistically similar as compared to H. perforatum (13.0%). After 72 h of exposure, the stem of H. scabrum was exhibited the highest mortality with 19.3%.

Table 5:
Mean mortality (%±SE) of S. oryzae adults after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure on wheat treated with various solvent extracts of the Hypericum species.

To our knowledge, this is the first work that has examined the insecticidal properties of the Hypericum species and their plant parts against R. dominica, T. confusum and S. oryzae. Our results showed that the Hypericum extracts caused higher mortality in less time against these insects. But, adult mortality of these insects did not perform similarly and their efficacy depended on exposure time, the Hypericum species and plant parts used in the experiment.

The mortality of R. dominica and T. confusum was found to increase with the exposure of application in all extracts, whereas that of S. oryzae increased with exposure up to only 48 h with each extract application.

Hypericum species tested on these insects exhibited strong toxic effect, especially, H. perforatum caused the highest mortality to R. dominica adults, whereas H. scabrum showed the highest mortality for T. confusum and S. oryzae. But, H. heterphyllum exhibited the lowest toxic effect for all insects tested. H. heterphyllum, an endemic species to Turkey, were investigated first time toxic effects on these insects, had very little literature about this issue. In an earlier study, dichloromethane extract of H. heterophyllum displayed higher inhibiton zone against Paenibacillus larvae than that of H. perforatum and H. scabrum, and other many Hypericum species (Hernández-Lõpez et al., 2014HERNÁNDEZ-LÕPEZ, J. et al. In vitro growth inhibition by Hypericum extracts and isolated pure compounds of Paenibacillus larvae, a lethal disease affecting honeybees worldwide. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 11:695-708, 2014.). Our results clearly indicated that the efficacy of Hypericum extracts varied among the insect species. This may be based on that H. perforatum and H. scabrum contain higher amount napthodianthrones, phloroglucinols and some flavonoids than H. heterophyllum (Smelcerovic et al., 2008SMELCEROVIC, A. et al. Phenolic constituents of 17 Hypericum species from Turkey. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology , 36:316-319, 2008.; Asan, 2021ASAN, H. S. Phenolic compound contents of hypericum species from Turkey. In: SIDDIQUE, I. Propagation and genetic manipulation of plants. Singapore: Springer, 2021. 175p.). In addition, each insect and larva group can react differently to various chemical groups (Zaka et al., 2019ZAKA, M. S. et al. Toxic effects of some insecticides, herbicides, and plant essential oils againstTribolium confusumJacquelin du val (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 26(7):1767-1771, 2019.).

The plant part, one of the main factors, found to be statistically effective only on R. dominica. The leaf shown the higher mortality than the stem and flower against this insect. Sun et al. (2019SUN, P. et al. Phytochemical changes in aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum at different harvest stages. Records of Natural Products, 13(1):1-9, 2019.) reported that leaf part of H. perforatum at the bloom stage contained higher amounts of polyphenols and flavanoids than its flower part. Çirak et al. (2016ҪIRAK, C. et al. Secondary metabolites of Hypericum species from the Drosanthe and Olympia sections. South African Journal of Botany, 104:82-90, 2016.) recorded that chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, avicularin and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid in leaf of eight Hypericum species were higher than the other parts. This shows that these chemical compounds or compound groups can act on R. dominica. Also, this may depend on the solvent difference or the location, collection time and climatic conditions of plant species. Because type, amount of phytochemicals or their percentages in plant and its parts are affected by these parameters (Nogueira et al., 2008NOGUEIRA, T. et al. Chemotaxonomy of Hypericum genus from Portugal: Geographical distribution and essential oils composition of Hypericum perfoliatum, Hypericum humifusum, Hypericum linarifolium and Hypericum pulchrum. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 36(1):40-50, 2008.; Sun et al., 2019SUN, P. et al. Phytochemical changes in aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum at different harvest stages. Records of Natural Products, 13(1):1-9, 2019.; Saddiqe et al., 2020SADDIQE, Z. et al. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of four Hypericum species from the UK. South African Journal of Botany , 133:45-53, 2020.). In a previous study, Dastagir, Ahmed and Shereen (2016DASTAGIR, G.; AHMED, R.; SHEREEN, S. Elemental, nutritional, phytochemical and biological evaluation of Hypericum perforatum linn. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 29(2):547-555, 2016.) notified that none of leaf, flower and fruit extracts with methanol of H. perforatum showed effect on mortality of S. oryzae, R. dominica, Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium, Callosobruchus analis.

Among tested insects, R. dominica was the most sensitive to Hypericum extracts, followed by T. confusum and S. oryzae, respectively. In studies conducted by different researchers, it has been reported that these stored grain insects show different sensitivity to products of various plant and synthetic. Similar results are reported for several pyrrole derivatives against adults of these three stored-product insects (Boukouvala et al., 2019BOUKOUVALA, M. C. et al. Insecticidal efficacy of six new pyrrole derivatives against four stored-product pests. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26:29845-29856, 2019.). Bhavya et al. (2019)BHAVYA, M. L. et al. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial and insect repellent potential of supercritical-carbon dioxide (SCF-CO2) extracts of selected botanicals against stored product pests and foodborne pathogens. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(3):1071-1079, 2020. notified that R. dominica was the more susceptible than S. oryzae to all of 16 botanical extracts. This difference between insects versus the same product may be related to the insect’s genetic.

CONCLUSIONS

Flower, leaf and stem extracts derived from Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum scabrum and Hypericum heterophyllum has high toxic effect for the control of the stored product insects tested here, but this effect varies according to the target species. Especially, the results showed that the leaf extract of H. perforatum can be useful in controlling R. dominica populations. Because it has a very strong effect against this insect (>94.0%).The stem and flower extracts of H. scabrum can be more effect in controlling S. oryzae and T. confusum, respectively. But the highest mortality rate of S. oryzae and T. confusum is less than 50%. The main reason for this difference on insecticidal activity in Hypericum species and their plant parts is based on its chemical content. Further research is needed to shed light to these different parts of the Hypericum species, including phytochemical components of these effective Hypericum extracts, and to evaluate the basis of their use in realistic scenarios in stored-product protection.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful to the Scientific Research Center of Yozgat Bozok University (project no: 6602c-ZF/17-137) for financial support.

REFERENCES

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  • BHAVYA, M. L. et al. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial and insect repellent potential of supercritical-carbon dioxide (SCF-CO2) extracts of selected botanicals against stored product pests and foodborne pathogens. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(3):1071-1079, 2020.
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    23 June 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    02 Feb 2021
  • Accepted
    26 Apr 2021
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