CD 1805 - Wheat with flour characteristics for cookie baking

Francisco de Assis Franco Volmir Sergio Marchioro Ivan Schuster Mateus Polo Fábio Junior Alcântara de Lima Adriel Evangelista Tatiane Dalla Nora Montecelli Diego Augusto dos Santos Edson Luis Grave About the authors

Abstract

CD 1805, indicated for the wheat growing in Regions 1, 2 and 3 in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. The cultivar has quality standards for cookie production and high yield performance with a mean of 3899 kg ha-1, exceeding the controls by 4%.

Key words:
Triticum aestivum L.; industrial quality; tolerance to soil aluminum

INTRODUCTION

Brazil is globally the second largest producer of cookies, with an output of 1.3 million tons in 2014 and a per capita consumption of 6.3 kg yr-1 (SINCABIMA 2014SINCABIMA Sindicato das indústrias de cacau e balas, massas alimentícias e biscoitos, de doces e conservas alimentícias do estado do Paraná (2014) O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor mundial de biscoitos. Available at: <Available at: http://www.fiepr.org.br/sindicatos/sincabima/News3326 content265272.shtml >. Accessed on Oct 13, 2015
http://www.fiepr.org.br/sindicatos/sinca...
). Given these facts, using cultivars that produce grains that meet the quality standards of the cookie industry is essential, thus, the industry is supplied with flour with the desired quality and producers can add value to the harvested wheat.

The production of high-quality cookies is facilitated by the use of flour obtained from wheat cultivars with soft grain. This allows breaking the grains into smaller particles (Labuschagne et al. 1997Labuschagne MT, Claassen A and Deventer CS (1997) Biscuit-making quality of backcross derivatives of wheat differing in kernel hardness. Euphytica 96: 263-266.). For Yamamoto et al. (1996Yamamoto H, Worthigton ST, Hou G and Ng PKW (1996) Rheological properties and baking qualities of selected soft wheats grown in the United States. Cereal Chemistry 73: 263-266.), the size of the flour particles is one of the traits with highest correlation with the quality of produced cookies. Gutkoski et al. (2003Gutkoski LC, Nodari ML and Jacobsen Neto R (2003) Avaliação de farinhas de trigos cultivados no Rio Grande do Sul na produção de biscoitos. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 23: 91-97.) found that wheat cultivars planted in Rio Grande do Sul have functional properties that indicate them for cookie production.

Currently, some wheat breeding programs tried to combine relevant traits for cookie production in a single cultivar. To contribute to this need, COODETC developed cultivar CD 1805, which has not only has a high yield potential, but also adequate quality standards for cookie production for the Brazilian market.

BREEDING METHODS

Cultivar CD 1805 was obtained by crossing wheat cultivars CDF 2040 (EMBRAPA 27 / IOC 8817) with RUBI, by COODETEC, in 2002, in Palotina. The F1 seeds were sown in November of that year in a greenhouse, in Cascavel. At maturation, all spikes were bulk harvested and threshed, resulting in the F2 population. The F2 population was grown in the field Palotina in 2003 applying modified mass selection. This method consists of the selection of the best plants of the population, which are threshed together and a significant sample of seeds is used to grow the following generation. The populations F3 and F4 were grown by the same method as above, in Cascavel, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. In 2006, the F5 population was grown in the field in Palotina by the pedigree method, which consists in selecting plants that are threshed separately and the seeds of each plant sown in the next generation. The F6 population was also conducted by the pedigree method in Cascavel, in 2007, when the traits of several sister lines were fixed. One of these lines was selected, resulting in cultivar CD 1805. The pedigree of this line is CC15916- 0P-00T-00T-8T-0T.

CHARACTERISTICS AND PERFORMANCE

Cultivar CD 1805 was tested in 2008 in the Preliminary tests conducted in Cascavel and Palotina, perfroming better than the controls and was then evaluated in Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) tests from 2009 to 2014, labelled CD 0964. The VCU tests were conducted at different locations and seasons in the wheat-growing regions (Table 1). The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications, in plots of six 5-m long rows, spaced 0.17 m apart. Fertilization and disease, pest and weed control were applied according to official technical recommendations (Comissão 2011Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Trigo e Triticale (2011) Informações técnicas para Trigo e Triticale - safra 2011. Coodetec, Cascavel, 170p.). Prior to sowing, the seeds were treated with imidacloprid + Triadimenol.

The measured variables were grain yield, days from emergence to heading, days from emergence to maturity, plant height, lodging, hectoliter weight, 1000-grain weight, pre-harvest sprouting, tolerance to soil aluminum, grain hardness, general gluten strength, yield stability, falling number, tenacity/extensibility ratio, water absorption, and flour color. The latter was determined by the L, a, b system where the values ​​of L (lightness) vary from 0 (black) to 100 (white) and the a and b values ​​(chromaticity coordinates) range from -a (green) to + (redness) to - b (blue) to + a (yellow). At strategic locations collections, the genotypes included in the VCU tests were grown together without disease control, where the diseases leaf rust, leaf spot, powdery mildew, fusarium head blight, blast and mosaic virus were evaluated, among others.

The crop cycle of cultivar CD 1805 is medium, ranging from 57 to 91 days from emergence to heading and 106 to 150 days from emergence to maturity. In the mean, these traits were 80 and 131 days in the wheat-growing Regions 1 (SR, SC, and PR) and 2 (RS and SC), 76 and 127 days in Region 2 (PR) and 68 and 122 days in Region 3 (PR). The plant height is medium (from 60-95, in the mean 81 cm) and the cultivar was classified as moderately resistant to lodging, moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting, and moderately resistant to soil aluminum. The mean hectoliter weight is 79 kg hL-1 and 1000-grain weight 34 grams.

Cultivar CD 1805 was classified as moderately resistant to blast (Pyricularia grisea) and wheat mosaic virus (Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus) and moderately susceptible to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici), scab (Fusarium graminearum), leaf spots (Septoria tritici and Bipolar sorokiniana), glume blotch (Septoria nodorum), and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina).

The results of industrial quality analysis of 30 samples of the experiments conducted from 2009 to 2014 in wheat-growing Regions 1, 2 and 3, were a mean gluten strength of 144. This classifies CD 1805 in the group of basic wheat cultivars. CD 1805 has a low tenacity/extensibility ratio, low water absorption and white flour color (Table 2). These traits indicate CD 1805 flour as suitable for cookie production. Currently, other cultivars with these traits are already available on the market (Franco et al. 2010Franco AF, Marchioro VS, Schuster I, Dalla Nora T, Oliveira ED and Lima FJA (2010) CD 119 - A wheat cultivar for cold subtropical regions. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 10: 173-175., Marchioro et al. 2011Marchioro VS, Franco AF, Dalla Nora T, Oliveira ED, Schuster I, Evangelista A, Rocha R and Polo M (2011) CD 120 - wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 11: 375-378., Marchioro et al. 2013Marchioro VS, Franco AF, Dalla Nora T, Schuster I, Evangelista A, Lima FJA and Polo M (2013) CD 121 - Cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 13: 144-146.).

Table 3 shows the grain yield means in the wheat-growing Regions 1, 2 and 3, where cultivar CD 1805 produced 4%, 3% and 5% higher grain yields than the mean of the controls, respectively. Due to the good production performance and quality standards for cookie production, cultivar CD 1805 was indicated for cultivation in the wheat-growing Regions 1, 2 and 3 in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná and registered by the Registro Nacional de Cultivares (no.32710).

The controls T1 and T2 were, respectively, BRS GUAMIRIM and ONIX, in 2009 and BRS GUAMIRIM and QUARTZO from 2010 to 2014. TM = Mean of the controls.

BASE SEED PRODUCTION

The Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola - COODETEC (BR 467 - km 98 - PO Box 89 - 85.813-450, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil), is authorized to license seed companies for the production of protected varieties (law nº 9456/97), to multiply and sell the seed to grain producers. Cultivar CD 1805 was released on the market in 2014, with an availability of 2,500 bags of 40 kg seeds.

REFERENCES

  • Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Trigo e Triticale (2011) Informações técnicas para Trigo e Triticale - safra 2011. Coodetec, Cascavel, 170p.
  • Franco AF, Marchioro VS, Schuster I, Dalla Nora T, Oliveira ED and Lima FJA (2010) CD 119 - A wheat cultivar for cold subtropical regions. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 10: 173-175.
  • Gutkoski LC, Nodari ML and Jacobsen Neto R (2003) Avaliação de farinhas de trigos cultivados no Rio Grande do Sul na produção de biscoitos. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 23: 91-97.
  • Labuschagne MT, Claassen A and Deventer CS (1997) Biscuit-making quality of backcross derivatives of wheat differing in kernel hardness. Euphytica 96: 263-266.
  • Marchioro VS, Franco AF, Dalla Nora T, Oliveira ED, Schuster I, Evangelista A, Rocha R and Polo M (2011) CD 120 - wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 11: 375-378.
  • Marchioro VS, Franco AF, Dalla Nora T, Schuster I, Evangelista A, Lima FJA and Polo M (2013) CD 121 - Cultivar with flour characteristics for cookie baking. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 13: 144-146.
  • Yamamoto H, Worthigton ST, Hou G and Ng PKW (1996) Rheological properties and baking qualities of selected soft wheats grown in the United States. Cereal Chemistry 73: 263-266.
  • SINCABIMA Sindicato das indústrias de cacau e balas, massas alimentícias e biscoitos, de doces e conservas alimentícias do estado do Paraná (2014) O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor mundial de biscoitos. Available at: <Available at: http://www.fiepr.org.br/sindicatos/sincabima/News3326 content265272.shtml >. Accessed on Oct 13, 2015
    » http://www.fiepr.org.br/sindicatos/sincabima/News3326 content265272.shtml

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Mar 2016

History

  • Received
    06 Aug 2015
  • Accepted
    22 Oct 2015
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Fitotecnia, 36570-000 Viçosa - Minas Gerais/Brasil, Tel.: (55 31)3899-2611, Fax: (55 31)3899-2611 - Viçosa - MG - Brazil
E-mail: cbab@ufv.br