Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo Materiais baseados em oxi-hidróxidos mistos de alumínio e ferro (III) foram preparados pela síntese hidrotérmica a partir da ureia, sais de nitrato ou cloreto e em diferentes razões molares Al3+:Fe3+. Foram avaliadas as propriedades estruturais, morfológicas e térmicas dos materiais. As misturas de nitratos de Al3+ e Fe3+ conduziram à formação da hematita enquanto que nos materiais obtidos a partir dos cloretos, diferentes fases cristalinas de Fe3+ foram identificadas. Para o comportamento térmico observou-se que, independente do ânion dos precursores, a amostras de composição 30%:70% (Al3+:Fe3+) se diferenciaram das demais. Após a calcinação, a fase hematita foi identificada em todas as amostras. Os sais precursores e as razões Al3+:Fe3+ refletiram em diferenças entre as amostras nas propriedades avaliadas. Pelos resultados observados, a ocorrência de substituições isomórficas de Fe3+ pelo Al3+ na fase hematita foi identificada, o que proporcionou alterações nas propriedades avaliadas em relação ao material sem a presença de Al3+.
Abstract in English:Abstract Materials based on mixed aluminum and iron (III) and oxyhydroxides were prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis using urea, nitrates, or chlorides salts in different Al3+:Fe3+ molar ratios. The structural, morphological, and thermal properties of the materials were evaluated. The mixtures of Al3+ and Fe3+ nitrates led to the formation of hematite whereas, for the materials obtained from chlorides, different crystalline phases of Fe3+ were identified. For the thermal behavior, it was observed that, regardless of the anion of the precursors’ salts, the samples with composition 30%:70% (Al3+:Fe3+) stood out from the others. After calcination, the hematite phase was identified in all samples. The precursor salts and the Al3+:Fe3+ ratios reflected in differences between the samples in the evaluated properties. From the observed results, the occurrence of isomorphic substitutions of Fe3+ by Al3+ in the hematite phase was observed, which provided changes in the evaluated properties in relation to the material without the presence of Al3+.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, a composite of bioactive glass (BG) and cordierite (BG-cord) was proposed to increase the strength and bioactivity of BG. Both BG and cordierite were separately synthesized with the method of glass melting, then, they were used to fabricate BG-cord with a variation of sintering temperature (600 to 1000 °C). The highest diametral tensile strength (DTS=30.54 MPa) was shown by the BG-cord with sintering temperature at 925 ºC. Bioactivity tests were conducted by soaking in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 7, 14, and 21 days. Apatite formation was examined by using a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the sample showed good bioactivity with regards to the formation of apatite on the samples, confirmed by the detection of carbonate (C-O) and phosphate (P-O) absorption peaks by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and crystalline peaks in the X-ray diffraction pattern.
Abstract in English:Abstract FexZn0.95-xCr0.05O nanoparticles have been obtained for the different concentrations of Fe ions by using the sol-gel method. The hexagonal wurtzite structure of all the samples was confirmed by Rietveld refined X-ray diffraction patterns. The addition of Fe ions decreased lattice constants a and c from 3.2487 to 3.2474 Å and 5.2043 to 5.2029 Å, respectively. Uniform deformation, uniform stress deformation, and uniform deformation energy density models were assumed to obtain the crystallite size and strain values from Williamson-Hall analysis. The average crystallite size obtained from all four methods showed increasing variation with the addition of Fe ions in Zn-Cr-O, which was found in good agreement with the Scherrer equation, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra of typical samples confirmed the stoichiometric proportion of constituent elements. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in all the Fe-free and Fe-doped samples. Optical studies were carried out by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The band gap values lay in the range of 3.275 to 3.215 eV.
Abstract in English:Abstract The carbon derived from the thermal treatment of modified phenolic resins (PR) tends to organize into graphitic lamellae or turbostratic carbon and is commonly considered non-graphitizable. In this study, nanocomposites were synthesized with modified phenolic resin (Novolac) used as the matrix and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NTox) in amounts ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 wt% as a filler. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with field emission gun (FEG), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed. By TGA, the PR-2.5 wt% nanocomposite showed less thermal degradation and higher stability when compared to the pure matrix after heat treatment up to 1000 °C. Graphitic carbon organization analysis by Raman spectroscopy, XRD, SEM/FEG, and TEM micrographs showed that the PR-2.5 wt% nanocomposite is suitable for technological applications, involving a carbon graphitization tendency.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to produce soil-cement brick with wood ash incorporation coming from the textile industry. The wood ash was a partial substitute for soil and cement in the manufacture of bricks. 7 formulations were made with different proportions of substitution: 10%, 20%, and 30%. It was noticed that the substitution of cement by wood ash in 10% resulted in brick with enhanced properties, showing a 20% increase for compressive strength and a reduction of 44% for mass loss, thus, with higher durability and a reduction of water absorption of 3%, when comparing to the reference brick (soil-cement). It was shown that the reuse of wood ash in the production of soil-cement bricks is a viable and sustainable option, as it is an alternative for the destination of the waste and a reduction in the consumption of Portland cement, which generates a high volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) during its production.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim was to investigate the feasibility of using a device to characterize permeability in porous substrates with low gas flux. Al2O3 supports were prepared by dry pressing using 1 to 3 wt% of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a pore-forming agent. The green body was partially sintered at 1300 ºC. CO2 gas was used to measure both the pressure loss and the gas flux passing through the porous substrate. The permeability behavior was analyzed by the Darcy and Forchheimer models. The correlation between Darcy’s and Forchheimer’s permeabilities showed that the porous substrates may be used as membranes for micro, ultra, and nanofiltration. The mechanical resistance and the gas permeability exhibited antagonistic dependencies in relation to porosity, being identified as an optimized condition at 2 wt% PEG, in which the two properties presented high values.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the present research, the synthesis of cobalt oxide Co3O4 was carried out using the sol-gel technique with subsequent heat treatment at 225 and 235 °C. The final product obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), showing a pure crystalline phase of Co3O4, cell parameters a=b=c=8.071 Å, and a volume of 525.7 Å3. The particle size was between 2.37 and 2.77 µm, which indicated that structural transformations from Co to Co3O4 induced an increase in the particle size. Through Rietveld refinement, the interatomic distances and inclination angles of the Co1, Co2, and Co3 polyhedra were analyzed in order to establish the structural behavior of cobalt oxide (II, III) at 235 °C. The UV-vis analysis allowed determining band gap (Eg) with values of 1.6 eV in the first region and 0.97 eV in the second. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the particles agglomerated with increasing calcination temperature and exhibited larger particles. This work presents a detailed analysis of structural parameters of Co3O4 using the Vesta software with Rietveld refinement data.
Abstract in English:Abstract Today’s demand for environmentally friendly and energy-efficient solutions to the construction industry has driven researchers to match natural resources with traditional technics to develop new building technologies. However, there are literature limitations about the correlation of fiber-matrix interface with the failure of natural fibers in mortar plates, which hinders the advances in understanding the mechanical properties of these composites on a structural scale. The present work investigated the mechanical behavior and fractography of cement-based composites reinforced by natural piassava and jute fibers. The experimental program included flexural tests and scanning electron microscopy analyzes. The developed composite material under flexural tests demonstrated a flexural-softening behavior, reaching up to 5.7 MPa, with a considerable residual strength ruled by toughness. The fractography analyses presented the fibers’ structure after mechanical tests and how effective its interaction with the matrix was. The piassava fibers demonstrated significant adherence when favorably oriented, while jute fibers (used as twisted yarn) provided voids in the composite by its partial matrix-covered filaments.
Abstract in English:Abstract Nanopowders of the 0.8BaTiO3/0.2Ni(1-x)CoxFe2O4 (x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) were synthesized by the in situ sol-gel method using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA1800) as a chelating agent. The synthesis developed using PAA1800 ensured the simultaneous crystallization of two phases. The results provided a reliable method for producing biphasic nanopowders in all the compositions of Co-Ni-ferrite with an average particle size of less than 50 nm with a potential application in lead-free magnetoelectric particulate composites. The XRD results indicated the formation of only BaTiO3 and Ni(1-x)CoxFe2O4 phases, verifying that there was no interdiffusion between the perovskite BaTiO3 and spinel Co-NiFe2O4 phases during the crystallization phase. A detailed analysis of the crystalline structures was conducted to quantify the phases using the Rietveld method, and thus ensure the success of the in situ sol-gel synthesis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Vermiculite clays are adsorbent materials that have good chemical adsorption capacity, which makes them applicable in the removal of drugs from aqueous solutions. Their lamellar structure can be easily expanded and organophilized. To assess the efficacy and environmentally-tolerant capacity of the adsorption method, the organophilized vermiculite clay was compared to both natural and expanded vermiculite clays. To prepare the organophilized clays, a natural clay sample was expanded at 900 °C. The expanded clay was thus treated by immersion in a 1.0 M NaCl solution and organophilized using a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMA-Br) surfactant, for 24 h at 50 °C. Natural, expanded, and organophilized samples were characterized using the techniques of XRD, FTIR, TG/DSC, and SEM to observe structural changes after expansion and organophilization. These characterizations indicated that there was an increase in the interlamellar space of the expanded and organophilized sample. In addition, a study of the point of zero charge was performed to determine the surface changes of the samples and the amount of doxazosin adsorption in the samples was determined by the time adsorption test. Further, the organophilized sample showed potential adsorption of the drug doxazosin and high performance in relation to the expanded and natural samples.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3 (BFO) prepared via a coprecipitation method, was used as an effective photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) using a white light-emitting diode (LED-50 W) lamp. The as-prepared material was characterized by TGA, XRD, SEM-EDX, FTIR, and UV-vis-DRS techniques. The effects of experimental key parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, initial dye concentration, and calcination temperature were investigated. Results showed that BFO-600 (calcined at 600 °C/3 h) was a rhombohedrally-distorted perovskite oxide with the R3c space group. The average crystal size and band gap energy for BFO-600 were found to be 24.8 nm and 2.1 eV, respectively. Under optimal operating conditions ([MB]=20 mg.L-1, BFO-600/dye mass ratio=0.5 g.L-1, pH=11, and 25 °C), MB/BFO-600/LED process exhibited an efficient photodegradation (up to 94.4%) within 120 min, much higher than the MB sorption process (MB/BFO-600/dark system, 69.4%) and the MB self-photolysis system (MB/LED, 33.9%). The photocatalytic degradation of MB was found to fit well with the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Thus, the MB photodegradation was attributed to the generation of reactive radicals such as •OH, h+, H2O2, and MB•+ via direct heterogeneous photocatalysis and mediated by MB through a self-photosensitization process of MB over BFO-600 NPs.
Abstract in Portuguese:Resumo As argamassas são compósitos heterogêneos cujo ganho de resistência ocorre por meio de uma sucessão de reações químicas entre a água e o cimento Portland. Nesse sentido, polímeros hidrofílicos capazes de absorver água e liberá-la posteriormente vêm sendo desenvolvidos para melhorar as propriedades das argamassas. Assim, hidrogel à base de poliacrilamida, carboximetilcelulose e nanoargila foi sintetizado e aplicado em argamassas cimentícias preparadas com diferentes relações água/cimento (a/c = 0,40, 0,48 e 0,50). A sua aplicação nas argamassas reduziu o índice de consistência e a taxa de exsudação, e não ocasionou variação na densidade no estado endurecido destas. Já os índices de absorção de água das argamassas com hidrogel com a/c= 0,40 e 0,50 reduziram cerca de 6,1% e 6,7%, respectivamente. Esse mesmo comportamento também foi observado para a resistência à compressão. Em suma, o desenvolvimento e aplicação de hidrogéis capazes de absorver e liberar água é uma área bastante promissora para a construção civil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mortars are heterogeneous composites that gain strength through a succession of chemical reactions between water and Portland cement. In this sense, hydrophilic polymers that can absorb water and release it later have been developed to improve their properties. Thus, a hydrogel-based on polyacrylamide, carboxymethylcellulose and nanoclay was synthesized and applied in cement mortars prepared with different water/cement (w/c) ratios (0.40, 0.48, and 0.50). Its application in mortars reduced the consistency index and the exudation rate and did not cause variation in density in the hardened state. The water absorption rate of mortars with hydrogel with w/c= 0.40 and 0.50 reduced ~6.1% and 6.7%, respectively. This same behavior was also observed for compressive strength. In summary, the development and application of hydrogels capable of absorbing and releasing water is a very promising area for civil construction.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated how the background (white or gray) affects the color parameter measurements and color difference calculations (∆Eab and ∆E00) of dental ceramics. Disc-shaped feldspathic ceramic specimens were prepared with two shades (enamel and dentin) and stained in red wine (7-day immersion). A spectrophotometer was used to perform color measurements (CIEL*a*b* coordinates) over gray and white backgrounds after the specimen preparation and after staining. The color difference was calculated with CIEDE2000 (ΔE00) and CIELAB (ΔEab) formulae. Initial L*a*b* coordinates, ΔE00, and ΔEab data were analyzed with t-tests separately for each ceramic shade. White background led to higher values of L* and b* coordinates from the enamel shade, and of L*, a*, and b* coordinates from the dentin shade. However, ΔE00 and ΔEab results from white and gray backgrounds were similar in both ceramic shades. Therefore, background color did not affect the color difference results of the slightly stained feldspathic ceramic samples.
Abstract in English:Abstract Boron phosphate glasses are known for their unique properties and have been investigated as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications. In this context, the present research studied the characterization of physical, mechanical, and bioactive properties of new boron-phosphate glass in the CaO-P2O5-K2O-B2O3 system produced by the melt-quenching method. The structure and morphology of the material were investigated by FTIR, XRD, DSC, SEM-EDS, laser diffraction, and BET-BJH methods. Additionally, density and Vickers hardness were determined, and its bioactive potential was evaluated by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results demonstrated higher values of Vickers hardness (7.45 GPa) for the new glass when compared to other glasses. Furthermore, the material exhibited apatite-forming ability after immersion in SBF, which was confirmed by the information obtained through surface analysis. The newly created glass presented a promising potential for applications in tissue engineering.
Abstract in English:Abstract Semiconductors, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), are used in different scientific fields, including energy. This study applied ZnO thin films on a photovoltaic cell, specifically a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). ZnO was used in solar cells due to its characteristics such as electronic mobility. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an efficient method to deposit thin films since it can be done at room temperature and its parameters can be easily controlled. ZnO thin films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, changing the tension parameter, and used in a DSSC, with different dye immersion times, between 7 and 24 h, to observe time effects on cell efficiency. For lower tension, 30 and 40 V, 7 h improved the cell efficiency, and at 50 V, 24 h favored the current density and efficiency. The highest efficiency was for the photoanode EPD deposited at 50 V, for 24 h dye immersion, at about 2.68%, and photocurrent of 13.55 mA/cm2.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mullite, an intermediate phase of the binary alumina-silica system, is one of the most important phases of ceramic products containing alumina and silica in the initial composition. Its stoichiometry ranges from 3Al2O3.2SiO2 (3:2) to 2Al2O3.SiO2 (2:1) and its crystalline structure is orthorhombic, characterized by the presence of octahedral chains of AlO6 interconnected by tetrahedral chains of aluminum-oxygen and/or silicon-oxygen (AlO4/SiO4). Properties such as high chemical and thermal stability, low thermal expansion and conductivity, and good mechanical strength enable a wide range of applications. Due to the relevance of this material, it is important for the scientific community to understand its microstructural characteristics, properties, methods of synthesis, and various applications. Therefore, this article aimed to make a comprehensive review on the mullite to gather and present to the reader a series of relevant information that makes it possible to deepen the knowledge about mullite.