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Clinics, Volume: 63, Issue: 1, Published: 2008
  • In the February, 2008 issue of clinics Editorial

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio
  • Chronic multiple knee ligament injuries: epidemiological analysis of more than one hundred cases Clinical Sciences

    Bispo Júnior, Rosalvo Zosimo; Kawano, Cezar Teruyuki; Guedes, Alexandre Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis and treatment of multiple ligament injuries of the knee remain a real challenge for most surgeons. OBJECTIVE: To find out the epidemiological profile of patients surgically treated at a Reference Service with more than one chronic ligament injury in the knee joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of a total of 978 operated patients, 109 presented at least two associated ligament injuries in the same knee. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated. RESULTS: The anterior cruciate ligament group presented a larger number of cases of ligament injuries related with sports practice and falls, while the posterior cruciate ligament and anterior cruciate ligament + posterior cruciate ligament groups presented more cases related to traffic accidents and trauma with object (weight on the knee) (p<0.001). The varus group presented significantly higher values of time since injury (p<0.01). In the group with new anterior cruciate ligament injury (neoligament) associated with other ligament injuries the disruption times were higher, showing statistical significance (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Anterior cruciate ligament injury associated with other ligament injuries other than posterior cruciate ligament injury are related to sports practice and falls. Posterior cruciate ligament injury associated to other ligament injuries, including or not anterior cruciate ligament injury, are related to traffic accidents and direct trauma caused by an object on the knee. Significant delay between primary ligament injuries and their reconstructions generates varus deformity of the affected knee. In spite of the large delay in seeking medical treatment, few patients with neoligament anterior cruciate ligament injury and other combined disruptions will develop varus deformity.
  • Changes in histoanatomical distribution of types I, III and V collagen promote adaptative remodeling in posterior tibial tendon rupture Clinical Sciences

    Satomi, Érika; Teodoro, Walcy R.; Parra, Edwin R.; Fernandes, Túlio D.; Velosa, Ana Paula P.; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common cause of adult flat foot deformity, and its etiology is unknown. PURPOSE: In this study, we characterized the morphologic pattern and distribution of types I, III and V collagen in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. METHOD: Tendon samples from patients with and without posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were stained by immunofluorescence using antibodies against types I, III and V collagen. RESULTS: Control samples showed that type V deposited near the vessels only, while surgically obtained specimens displayed type V collagen surrounding other types of collagen fibers in thicker adventitial layers. Type III collagen levels were also increased in pathological specimens. On the other hand, amounts of collagen type I, which represents 95% of the total collagen amount in normal tendon, were decreased in pathological specimens. CONCLUSION: Fibrillogenesis in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is altered due to higher expression of types III and V collagen and a decreased amount of collagen type I, which renders the originating fibrils structurally less resistant to mechanical forces.
  • Importance and repercussions of renal and cardiovascular pathology on stroke in young adults: an anatomopathologic study of 52 clinical necropsies Clinical Sciences

    Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Fernández-Abreu, Mary; Cardozo-Duran, José; Vilchez-Barrios, Gustavo

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Stroke in young adults has seldom been studied in a necropsy series. The objective of the present clinical necropsy-based investigation was to analyze stroke and its relationship with cardiovascular and renal pathology in young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The protocols of 52 clinical necropsies with diagnoses of stroke in patients aged 18 - 49 years, performed between the years 1990-2006, were reviewed. RESULTS: Hemorrhagic stroke was diagnosed in 36 patients (69.3%), whereas the remaining 16 (30.7%) had ischemic stroke. Hypertensive cardiopathy was evident in 88.4% of the cases. Chronic renal pathology, directly or indirectly related to hypertension, was observed in 55.7% of the patients. Ischemic stroke as a result of occlusive atherosclerotic disease was seen in 50% of cases. Cardiogenic emboli were found in 25% of the cadavers. Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with hypertension in 43% of the cases, with ruptured vascular malformations in 29%, and coagulopathies in 17% of the cases. Hypertensive cardiopathy was present in patients with either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (81.2% and 91.6%, respectively). The most frequently observed renal ailments were chronic pyelonephritis (23%) and nephrosclerosis (21.1%). These were associated with ischemic stroke in 43.7%, and 12.5% of the cases, respectively, and with 13.8% and 25% of the hemorrhagic stroke cases. DISCUSSION: Hypertensive cardiopathy, occlusive atherosclerotic disease, chronic pyelonephritis and nephrosclerosis are among the pathophysiologycal mechanisms that apparently and eventually interact to induce a significant number of cases of stroke in young adults. A chronic systemic inflammatory state appears to be an important related condition because it possibly constitutes an accelerant of the pathophysiologycal process.
  • Occurrence of early adverse events after vaccination against influenza at a brazilian reference center Clinical Sciences

    Lopes, Marta Heloísa; Mascheretti, Melissa; Franco, Marilia Miranda; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Gutierrez, Eliana Battaggia

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Since 1999, the Ministry of Health in Brazil has conducted campaigns of vaccination against influenza targeted towards the elderly, chronically-diseased people and health care workers. The vaccine against influenza is associated with adverse events of minor importance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the early adverse events related to the vaccine against influenza. CASUISTICS AND METHODS: One hundred and ninety seven elderly individuals and health care workers vaccinated against influenza were included. An inquiry regarding adverse events related to the vaccine was applied seven days after the vaccination. RESULTS: Local adverse events were reported by 32.5% and systemic effects by 26.4% of the vaccinated subjects. Pain in the region of the injection, headache, myalgia, malaise, and coryza were more frequent in the workers than in the elderly (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of fever. CONCLUSIONS: The belief of part of the population that credits frequent and uncomfortable adverse events to the vaccine was not confirmed. The subjective adverse events were more frequent in the health care workers, which can influence, in a negative way, the disclosure of the benefits of this vaccine due to their role as opinion makers.
  • Peptide glutamine supplementation for tolerance of intermittent exercise in soccer players Clinical Sciences

    Favano, Alessandra; Santos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Pedrinelli, André; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Greve, Julia Maria D´Andrea

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether supplementation of carbohydrate together with peptide glutamine would increase exercise tolerance in soccer players. METHODS: Nine male soccer players (mean age: 18.4 ± 1.1 years; body mass: 69.2 ± 4.6 kg; height: 175.5 ± 7.3 cm; and maximum oxygen consumption of 57.7 ± 4.8 were evaluated. All of them underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test and followed a protocol that simulated the movements of a soccer game in order to evaluate their tolerance to intermittent exercise. By means of a draw, either carbohydrate with peptide glutamine (CARBOGLUT: 50g of maltodextrin + 3.5g of peptide glutamine in 250 ml of water) or carbohydrate alone (CARBO: 50g of maltodextrin in 250 ml of water) was administered in order to investigate the enhancement of the soccer players' performances. The solution was given thirty minutes before beginning the test, which was performed twice with a one-week interval between tests. RESULTS: A great improvement in the time and distance covered was observed when the athletes consumed the CARBOGLUT mixture. Total distance covered was 12750 ± 4037m when using CARBO, and 15571 ± 4184m when using CARBOGLUT (p<0.01); total duration of tolerance was 73 ± 23 min when using CARBO and 88 ± 24 min when using CARBOGLUT (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The CARBOGLUT mixture was more efficient in increasing the distance covered and the length of time for which intermittent exercise was tolerated. CARBOGLUT also reduced feelings of fatigue in the players compared with the use of the CARBO mixture alone.
  • Trend of maximal inspiratory pressure in mechanically ventilated patients: predictors Clinical Sciences

    Caruso, Pedro; Carnieli, Denise Simão; Kagohara, Keila Harue; Anciães, Adriana; Segarra, Jacqueline Santos; Deheinzelin, Daniel

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: It is known that mechanical ventilation and many of its features may affect the evolution of inspiratory muscle strength during ventilation. However, this evolution has not been described, nor have its predictors been studied. In addition, a probable parallel between inspiratory and limb muscle strength evolution has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation over time of maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and its predictors. We also studied the possible relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and limb muscle strength. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in consecutive patients submitted to mechanical ventilation for > 72 hours. The maximal inspiratory pressure trend was evaluated by the linear regression of the daily maximal inspiratory pressure and a logistic regression analysis was used to look for independent maximal inspiratory pressure trend predictors. Limb muscle strength was evaluated using the Medical Research Council score. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients were studied, forty-four of whom (37.9%) presented a decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure over time. The members of the group in which maximal inspiratory pressure decreased underwent deeper sedation, spent less time in pressure support ventilation and were extubated less frequently. The only independent predictor of the maximal inspiratory pressure trend was the level of sedation (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.003 - 2.408; p = 0.049). There was no relationship between the maximal inspiratory pressure trend and limb muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: Around forty percent of the mechanically ventilated patients had a decreased maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation, which was independently associated with deeper levels of sedation. There was no relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and the muscular strength of the limb.
  • Identification of growth hormone receptor in plexiform neurofibromas of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 Clinical Sciences

    Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Barboza, Eliane Porto; Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho da

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of growth hormone receptor in plexiform neurofibromas of neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. INTRODUCTION: The development of multiple neurofibromas is one of the major features of neurofibromatosis type 1. Since neurofibromas commonly grow during periods of hormonal change, especially during puberty and pregnancy, it has been suggested that hormones may influence neurofibromatosis type 1 neurofibromas. A recent study showed that the majority of localized neurofibromas from neurofibromatosis type 1 patients have growth hormone receptor. METHODS: Growth hormone receptor expression was investigated in 5 plexiform neurofibromas using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Four of the 5 plexiform neurofibromas were immunopositive for growth hormone receptor. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that growth hormone may influence the development of plexiform neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • Blood pressure measurements taken by patients are similar to home and ambulatory blood pressure measurements Clinical Sciences

    Pierin, Angela M. G.; Ignez, Edna C.; Jacob Filho, Wilson; Barbato, Alfonso Júlio Guedes; Mion Jr., Décio

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To compare blood pressure measurements taken at home by physicians, nurses, and patients with office blood pressure measurement , ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure measurement. METHODS: A total of 44 patients seen by a home care program were studied. Protocol 1 a) blood pressure was measured by the patient, a physician and a nurse during a regular home visit (Home1); b) home blood pressure measurement was measured for 4 days (HBPM1); c) office blood pressure measurement was measured by a physician, a nurse, and the patient; and by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Protocol 2 blood pressure was measured by the patient, a physician, and a nurse during a special home visit in the presence of a physician and a nurse only (Home2); and b) home blood pressure measurement was taken for the second time (HBPM2). Echocardiography, guided by a two-dimensional echocardiograph, was performed. RESULTS: Protocol 1: a) office blood pressure measurement and Home1 were significantly higher than ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, except for systolic and diastolic office blood pressure measurement taken by the patient or a family member, systolic blood pressure taken by a nurse, and diastolic blood pressure taken by a physician. b) ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and HBPM1 were similar. Protocol 2: a) HBPM2 and Home2 were similar. b) Home2 was significantly lower than Home1, except for diastolic blood pressure taken by a nurse or the patient. There were significant relationships between: a) diastolic blood pressure measured by the patient and the thickness of the interventricular septum, posterior wall, and left ventricular mass; and b) ambulatory and HBPM2 diastolic and systolic blood pressure taken by a physician (home2) and left ventricular mass. Therefore, the data indicate that home blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring had good prognostic values relative to "office measurement." CONCLUSION: This study showed that the measurement most similar to home blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was blood pressure measured by the patient, and that home blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring had good prognostic value relative to "office measurements".
  • Clinical indicators of child development in the capitals of nine Brazilian states: the influence of regional cultural factors Clinical Sciences

    Carvalho, André Laranjeira de; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz da; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; Escobar, Ana Maria de Ulhôa

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the interaction between mother or caregiver and infant through the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development and investigating whether local and cultural influences during infant development affect these clinical indicators. INTRODUCTION: The Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development was created in order to fully assess infants' development and the subjective relationship between the babies and their caregivers. The absence of two or more Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Developments suggests a possibly inadequate mental development. Given the continental size of Brazil and its accentuated cultural differences, one might question how trustworthy these indicators can be when applied to each of the geographical regions of the country. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 737 infants from the capitals of 9 Brazilian states. The size of the initial sample population was based on a pilot study carried out in the cities of São Paulo and Brasília. The ages of children were grouped: 0-3 months, 4-7 months, 8-11 months and 12-18 months. The chi-square test was used together with analyses by the statistical software SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of results from the different municipalities against the total sample did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Municipalities represented were Belém (p=0.486), Brasília (p=0.371), Porto Alegre (p=0.987), Fortaleza (p=0.259), Recife (p=0.630), Salvador (0.370), São Paulo (p=0.238), Curitiba (p=0.870), and Rio de Janeiro (p= 0.06). DISCUSSION: Care for mental development should be considered a public health issue. Its evaluation and follow-up should be part of the already available mother-child assistance programs, which would then be considered to provide "full" care to children. CONCLUSIONS: Local habits and culture did not affect the results of the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development indicators. Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development proved to be robust despite the specificities of each region.
  • Correlation between intrasac pressure measurements of a pressure sensor and an angiographic catheter during endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm Basic Research

    Silveira, Pierre Galvagni; Miller, Christopher William Teixeira; Mendes, Rafael Freygang; Galego, Gilberto Nascimento

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To establish a correlation between intrasac pressure measurements of a pressure sensor and an angiographic catheter placed in the same aneurysm sac before and after its exclusion by an endoprosthesis. METHODS: Patients who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and received an EndoSureTM wireless pressure sensor implant between March 19 and December 11, 2004 were enrolled in the study. Simultaneous readings of systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressure within the aneurysm sac were obtained from the catheter and the sensor, both before and after sac exclusion by the endoprosthesis (Readings 1 and 2, respectively). Intrasac pressure measurements were compared using Pearson's correlation and Student's t test. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients had the pressure sensor implanted, with simultaneous readings (i.e., recorded by both devices) obtained in 19 patients for Reading 1 and in 10 patients for Reading 2. There was a statistically significant correlation for all pressure variables during both readings, with p<0.01 for all except the pulse pressure in Reading 1 (p<0.05). Statistical significance of pressure variations before and after abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion was coincident between the sensor and catheter for diastolic (p>0.05), mean (p>0.05), and pulse (p<0.01) pressures; the sole disagreement was observed for systolic pressure, which varied, on average, 31.23 mmHg by the catheter (p<0.05) and 22 mmHg (p>0.05) by the sensor. CONCLUSION: The excellent agreement between intrasac pressure readings recorded by the catheter and the sensor justifies use of the latter for detection of post-exclusion abdominal aortic aneurysm pressurization.
  • Aneurysm pulsatility after endovascular exclusion: an experimental study using human aortic aneurysms Basic Research

    Orra, Hussein Amin; Puech-Leão, Pedro; Silva, Erasmo Simão da; Silva, Domingos Guerino

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the pulsatility of human aneurysms before and after complete exclusion with an endograft. METHOD: Five aortic aneurysms obtained during necropsy were submitted to pulsatile perfusion before and after implantation of a bifurcated endograft. The specimens were contained in a closed chamber filled with saline solution. A vertical tube attached to the chamber was used to measure volume dislocation in each systole. Mural thrombus was kept intact, and the space around the device was filled with human blood. After each experiment, the aneurysm was opened to check for the correct positioning and attachment of the device. RESULTS: The level of the saline column oscillated during pulsation in each case, with respective amplitudes of 17, 16, 13, 7, and 25 cm before the endograft insertion. After the insertion, the amplitudes dropped to 13, 12, 9, 3.5, and 23 cm, respectively. The differences were not significant. During the post-experimental examination, all devices were found to be in position and well attached to the neck and iliacs. No endoleak was detected during perfusion or by visual inspection. CONCLUSION: Pulsation of an endograft is transmitted to the aneurysm wall even in the absence of endoleak, and should not be interpreted as procedural failure.
  • An in vitro biomechanical comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: single bundle versus anatomical double bundle techniques Basic Research

    Sasaki, Sandra Umeda; Albuquerque, Roberto Freire da Mota e; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Gouveia, Guilherme Simões; Vilela, Júlio César Rodrigues; Alcarás, Fábio de Lima

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are frequent, especially in sports. Surgical reconstruction with autologous grafts is widely employed in the international literature. Controversies remain with respect to technique variations as continuous research for improvement takes place. One of these variations is the anatomical double bundle technique, which is performed instead of the conventional single bundle technique. More recently, there has been a tendency towards positioning the two bundles through double bone tunnels in the femur and tibia (anatomical reconstruction). OBJECTIVES: To compare, through biomechanical tests, the practice of anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar graft to conventional single bundle reconstruction with the same amount of patellar graft in a paired experimental cadaver study. METHODS: Nine pairs of male cadaver knees ranging in age from 44 to 63 years were randomized into two groups: group A (single bundle) and group B (anatomical reconstruction). Each knee was biomechanically tested under three conditions: intact anterior cruciate ligament, reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament, and injured anterior cruciate ligament. Maximum anterior dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibia rotation were recorded with knees submitted to a 100 N horizontal anterior dislocation force applied to the tibia with the knees at 30, 60 and 90 degrees of flexion. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two techniques for any of the measurements by ANOVA tests. CONCLUSION: The technique of anatomical double bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft has a similar biomechanical behavior with regard to anterior tibial dislocation, rigidity, and passive internal tibial rotation.
  • Effects of pentoxifylline on TNF-alpha and lung histopathology in HCL-induced lung injury Basic Research

    Oliveira-Júnior, Itamar Souza de; Maganhin, Carla Cristina; Carbonel, Adriana Aparecida Ferraz; Monteiro, Cristina Maria Rodrigues; Cavassani, Sâmia Santos; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline on hydrochloric acid-induced lung lesions in rats subjected to mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Twenty male, adult Wistar-EPM-1 rats were anesthetized and randomly grouped (n=5 animals per group) as follows: control-MV (mechanical ventilation, MV group); bilateral instillation of HCl (HCl group); bilateral instillation of HCl followed by pentoxifylline (50 mg/kg bw) infusion (HCl+PTX group) and pentoxifylline infusion followed by bilateral instillation of HCl (PTX+HCl group). At 20, 30, 90 and 180 min after treatments, the blood partial pressures of CO2 and O2 were measured. The animals were euthanized, and bronchoalveolar lavages were taken to determine the contents of total proteins, corticosterone and TNF-alpha. Samples of lung tissue were used for histomorphometric studies and determining the wet-to-dry (W/D) lung weight ratio. RESULTS: In the MV group, rats had alveolar septal congestion, and, in the HCl group, a remarkable recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the alveoli was noticed; these events were reduced in the animals with PTX+HCl. The partial pressure of oxygen increased in PTX+HCl animals (121±5 mmHg) as compared with the HCl (62±6 mmHg) and HCl+PTX (67±3 mmHg) groups within 30 minutes. TNF-alpha levels in bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly higher in the HCl group (458±50 pg/mL), reduced in the HCl+PTX group (329±45 pg/mL) and lowest in the PTX+HCl group (229±41 pg/mL). The levels of corticosterone in bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly lower in the HCl (8±1.3 ng/mL) and HCl+PTX group (16±2 ng/mL) and were highest in the PTX+HCl (27±1.9 ng/mL). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with PTX improves oxygenation, reduces TNF-alpha concentration and increases the concentration of corticosterone in bronchoalveolar lavage upon lung lesion induced by HCl.
  • Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers Basic Research

    Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Krishnamurthy, Ashwin; Prabhu, Latha Venkatraya; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Ranade, Anu Vinod; Madhyastha, Sampath

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side) male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a) the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b) the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c) measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41%) had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5%) and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%). In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.
  • Sodium nitroprusside as a nitric oxide donor in a rat intestinal ischemiareperfusion model Basic Research

    Emre, Ali; Bayram, Orhan; Salman, Bulent; Ercan, Sevim; Anadol, Ziya; Akin, Okhan

    Abstract in English:

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of sodium nitroprusside in the reduction of the intestinal ischemiareperfusion injury as a nitric oxide donor after intraperitoneal administration. METHODS: The histopathological examinations and tissue malonyldialdehyde levels of 35 Wistar albino rats that were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, were performed in 5 groups. The groups include Control, Ischemia -reperfusion, Sodium nitroprusside, NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) and Sodium nitroprusside+L-NAME. Each rat was subjected to ischemia for 40 minutes and reperfusion for 30 minutes, except the control group. The medications were done intraperitoneally as saline 4 ml/kg, Sodium nitroprusside 5 mg/kg, L-NAME 10 mg/kg just before reperfusions. RESULTS: Significant tissue injury in histological sections and an increase in tissue levels of Malonyldialdehyde was detected in the I/R group. The efficacy of intraperitoneal administration of Sodium nitroprusside in both Sodium nitroprusside alone and Sodium nitroprusside+L-NAME groups was found statistically significant for the reducing of injury scores (p<0.05). The difference between the Ischemia/reperfusion and Sodium nitroprusside groups was found statistically significant as in the Ischemia/reperfusion and Sodium nitroprusside+L-NAME groups due to the tissue Malonyldialdehyde levels (p<0.05). There was no statistical difference between Ischemia/reperfusion and L-NAME groups. CONCLUSION: Ischemia/reperfusion induced injury might be reduced by the intraperitoneal administration of Sodium nitroprusside, even in the presence of L-NAME, in the rat intestinal model.
  • Galeal flap based on superficial temporal vessels for oral cavity and pharynx reconstruction: an anatomical study Basic Research

    Pinto, Fabio; Magalhães, Roberto; Durazzo, Marcelo; Brandão, Lenine; Rodrigues Jr., Aldo Junqueira

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: Despite the advances in microvascular free tissue transfer for intraoral reconstruction, this surgery is not recommended for all patients. In specific cases, the pedicled temporoparietal galeal flap may be an option for reconstructive procedures in the head and neck regions. The objective of this paper is to present the anatomical aspects of a galeal flap based on the superficial temporal vessels and to test its potential for reconstructing diverse sites of the oral cavity and pharynx. METHODS: We performed 40 dissections on 34 fresh adult cadavers. The flap vascular anatomy was studied by injecting latex into the superficial temporal vessels. A standardized square-shape flap measuring 10 x 10 cm², pedicled on the superficial temporal vessels, was raised. Oral cavity and oropharynx reconstruction simulations were performed after flap transposition into the mouth by passing it under the zygomatic arch. Hypopharyngeal reconstruction was tested by transposing the flap to the neck under the facial nerve. RESULTS: After latex injection, a rich vascular network over the temporoparietal galea was observed directly from the superficial temporal artery, and a well-vascularized flap based on this vessel was raised. In the reconstruction simulations, the flap was shown to be suitable for the coverage of hypothetical defects in most oral cavity and pharyngeal sites, mainly the retromolar trigone, tonsil area, and buccal mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: A galeal flap based on the superficial temporal vessels presents favorable anatomical characteristics for oral cavity and pharyngeal reconstruction.
  • Analysis of the sensitivity and reproducibility of the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale in wistar rats Basic Research

    Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa de; Molina, Alessandra Eira Iague Sleiman

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan functional scale in the assessment of the locomotor capacity of rats after spinal cord injury. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats underwent laminectomy and mild, moderate or severe spinal cord contusions using the New York University Weight Drop Impactor. The mice were followed for 28 days, after which time each rat was placed in an 80x80x30 cm³ clear box lined with a blue non-slippery material and stimulated to move. Their movement was video-recorded by three digital cameras operating simultaneously. Identical copies of the edited videos were given to six independent evaluators who were blinded with regards to the degree of injury severity. Each evaluator made a determination of the locomotor capacity of the rats using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan functional scale. RESULTS: We determined the sensitivity of the method to differences among the evaluators as well as between the results achieved on the left and right hind paws of rats subjected to either mild, moderate or severe injuries by comparing the functional outcomes and reproducibility using non-parametric correlation tests. CONCLUSIONS: The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scale showed high reproducibility and satisfactory sensitivity for identifying mild injuries; satisfactory reproducibility and non-satisfactory sensitivity for moderate injuries; and reduced reproducibility and non-satisfactory sensitivity for severe injuries.
  • Sepsis: from bench to bedside Review

    Silva, Eliézer; Passos, Rogério Da Hora; Ferri, Maurício Beller; Figueiredo, Luiz Francisco Poli de

    Abstract in English:

    Sepsis is a syndrome related to severe infections. It is defined as the systemic host response to microorganisms in previously sterile tissues and is characterized by end-organ dysfunction away from the primary site of infection. The normal host response to infection is complex and aims to identify and control pathogen invasion, as well as to start immediate tissue repair. Both the cellular and humoral immune systems are activated, giving rise to both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory responses. The chain of events that leads to sepsis is derived from the exacerbation of these mechanisms, promoting massive liberation of mediators and the progression of multiple organ dysfunction. Despite increasing knowledge about the pathophysiological pathways and processes involved in sepsis, morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. A large number of immunomodulatory agents have been studied in experimental and clinical settings in an attempt to find an efficacious anti-inflammatory drug that reduces mortality. Even though preclinical results had been promising, the vast majority of these trials actually showed little success in reducing the overwhelmingly high mortality rate of septic shock patients as compared with that of other critically ill intensive care unit patients. Clinical management usually begins with prompt recognition, determination of the probable infection site, early administration of antibiotics, and resuscitation protocols based on "early-goal" directed therapy. In this review, we address the research efforts that have been targeting risk factor identification, including genetics, pathophysiological mechanisms and strategies to recognize and treat these patients as early as possible.
  • Non heart-beating donors in England Review

    Chaib, Eleazar

    Abstract in English:

    When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from nonheart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation.
  • Neuroacanthocytosis Letters To The Editors

    Danek, Adrian; Bader, Benedikt; Walker, Ruth H.
  • Isolated left ventricular noncompaction: unusual cause of decompensated heart failure and indication of heart transplantation in the early infancy: case report and literature review Letters To The Editors

    Barbosa, Natasha Damásio Fairbanks; Azeka, Estela; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Viana, Fernanda; Jatene, Marcelo; Tanamati, Carla; Marcial, Miguel Barbero
  • Intra-oral spitz naevus: a case report Letters To The Editors

    Xavier, Ruth Lopes de Freitas; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Gadelha; Galvão, Hébel Cavalcanti; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; Souza, Evânia Leiros de; Pinto, Leão Pereira
  • Atypical perianal herpes simplex infection in hiv-positive patients Letters To The Editors

    Simonsen, Marcelo; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Silva Filho, Edesio Vieira da; Araújo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Kiss, Desiderio Roberto; Nahas, Caio Sergio Rizkallah
  • A well-documented case of chronic renal failure due to misplacement of the transplanted kidney Letters To The Editors

    Rodrigues, Paulo; Hering, Flavio; Gil, Antonio
  • Diagnostic assessment of occupational asthma due to persulfate salts in a professional hairdresser: a case report Letters To The Editors

    Figueiredo, Joanemile Pacheco; Pomiecinski, Fabiane; Yang, Ariana Campos; Castro, Fabio F.M.; Kalil, Jorge; Galvao, Clovis E. S.
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