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Clinics, Volume: 64, Issue: 1, Published: 2009
  • O novo Qualis, ou a tragédia anunciada

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio
  • Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations Clinical Sciences

    Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz M.; Machado, Fabio S.; Almeida, Francine M.; Nunes, Maria do Patrocínio T.; Martins, Milton A.; Vieira, Joaquim E.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group), 12 asthmatics (Asthma group) and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group). All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion), spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05). The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83)] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26)] or the Control group [0.0 (0)] (p <0.05); exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85)], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7)] (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.
  • Frequency, types, and potential clinical significance of medication-dispensing errors Clinical Sciences

    Bohand, Xavier; Simon, Laurent; Perrier, Eric; Mullot, Hélène; Lefeuvre, Leslie; Plotton, Christian

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Many dispensing errors occur in the hospital, and these can endanger patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of dispensing errors by a unit dose drug dispensing system, to categorize the most frequent types of errors, and to evaluate their potential clinical significance. METHODS: A prospective study using a direct observation method to detect medication-dispensing errors was used. From March 2007 to April 2007, "errors detected by pharmacists" and "errors detected by nurses" were recorded under six categories: unauthorized drug, incorrect form of drug, improper dose, omission, incorrect time, and deteriorated drug errors. The potential clinical significance of the "errors detected by nurses" was evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 734 filled medication cassettes, 179 errors were detected corresponding to a total of 7249 correctly fulfilled and omitted unit doses. An overall error rate of 2.5% was found. Errors detected by pharmacists and nurses represented 155 (86.6%) and 24 (13.4%) of the 179 errors, respectively. The most frequent types of errors were improper dose (n = 57, 31.8%) and omission (n = 54, 30.2%). Nearly 45% of the 24 errors detected by nurses had the potential to cause a significant (n = 7, 29.2%) or serious (n = 4, 16.6%) adverse drug event. CONCLUSIONS: Even if none of the errors reached the patients in this study, a 2.5% error rate indicates the need for improving the unit dose drug-dispensing system. Furthermore, it is almost certain that this study failed to detect some medication errors, further arguing for strategies to prevent their recurrence.
  • Does quantitative left ventricular regional wall motion change after fibrous tissue resection in endomyocardial fibrosis? Clinical Sciences

    Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Fernandes, Fabio; Sirvente, Raquel; Nastari, Luciano; Rosa, Leonardo Vieira; Ferreira, Cristiano A.; Pena, José Luiz Barros; Picard, Michael H.; Mady, Charles

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: We compared left ventricular regional wall motion, the global left ventricular ejection fraction, and the New York Heart Association functional class pre- and postoperatively. INTRODUCTION: Endomyocardial fibrosis is characterized by fibrous tissue deposition in the endomyocardium of the apex and/or inflow tract of one or both ventricles. Although left ventricular global systolic function is preserved, patients exhibit wall motion abnormalities in the apical and inferoapical regions. Fibrous tissue resection in New York Heart Association FC III and IV endomyocardial fibrosis patients has been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We prospectively studied 30 patients (20 female, 30±10 years) before and 5±8 months after surgery. The left ventricular ejection fraction was determined using the area-length method. Regional left ventricular motion was measured by the centerline method. Five left ventricular segments were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. Abnormality was expressed in units of standard deviation from the mean motion in a normal reference population. RESULTS: Left ventricular wall motion in the five regions did not differ between pre- and postoperative measurements. Additionally, the left ventricular ejection fraction did not change after surgery (0.45±0.13% x 0.43±0.12% pre- and postoperatively, respectively). The New York Heart Association functional class improved to class I in 40% and class II in 43% of patients postoperatively (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although endomyocardial fibrosis patients have improved clinical symptoms after surgery, the global left ventricular ejection fraction and regional wall motion in these patients do not change. This finding suggests that other explanations, such as improvements in diastolic function, may be operational.
  • Comparative and prospective analysis of three different approaches for live-donor nephrectomy Clinical Sciences

    Mitre, Anuar Ibrahim; Dénes, Francisco T.; Nahas, William Carlos; Simões, Fabiano A.; Colombo Jr., José Roberto; Piovesan, Affonso C.; Chambô, José L.; Arap, Sami; Srougi, Miguel

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: Living donor nephrectomy is usually performed by a retroperitoneal flank incision. Due to the significant morbidity and long recovery time for a flank incision, anterior extra peritoneal sub-costal and transperitoneal video-laparoscopic methods have been described for donor nephrectomy. We prospectively compare the long-term results of donors as well as functional recipients submitted to these three approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 107 live donor renal transplantations were prospectively evaluated from May 2001 to January 2004. Donors were compared with regard to operative and warm ischemia time, postoperative pain, analgesic requirements, and complications. Recipients were compared with regard to graft function, acute cellular rejection, surgical complications, and graft and recipient survival. RESULTS: The mean operative and warm ischemia times were longer in the video-laparoscopic group (p<0.001), whereas patients of the flank incision group presented more postoperative pain (p=0.035), required more analgesics (p<0.001), had longer hospital stays (p<0.001), and suffered more pain on the 90th day after surgery (p=0.006). In the sub-costal and flank incision groups, there was a larger number of paraesthesias and abdominal wall asymmetries (p<0.001). Recipient groups were demographically comparable and presented similar acute tubular necrosis incidence and delayed graft function. The incidence of acute cellular rejection was higher in the video-laparoscopic and flank incision groups (p=0.013). There was no difference in serum creatinine levels, surgical complications, or recipient or graft survival between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The video-laparoscopic and sub-costal approaches proved to be safe, and to provide donor advantages relative to the flank incision approach. Among recipients, the complication rate, graft survival, and recipient survival were similar in all groups.
  • Prevalence and record of alcoholism among emergency department patients Clinical Sciences

    Boniatti, Márcio Manozzo; Diogo, Luciano Passamani; Almeida, Caroline Lorenzoni; Cardoso, Michelle de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alcoholism among inpatients, to identify social and demographic factors associated with this prevalence and to determine its rate of recognition by the medical team. METHODS: The study population consisted of all patients admitted to the emergency room at Hospital São Lucas, Porto Alegre, Brazil, between July and September of 2005. The data were collected in two steps: an interview with the patient and a review of the medical records to investigate the cases of alcoholism recorded by the medical team. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning social and demographic data, smoking habits and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. RESULTS: We interviewed 248 patients. Twenty-eight (11.3%) were identified as alcoholics. Compared to the patients with a negative Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test value (less than 8), those with a positive Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test were more likely to be male, illiterate and smokers. The medical records of 217 (87.5%) patients were reviewed. Only 5 (20.0%) of the 25 patients with a positive Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test whose medical records were reviewed were identified as alcoholics by the medical team. The diagnosis made by the medical team, compared to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, shows only a 20% sensitivity, 93% specificity and positive and negative predictive values of 29% and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Alcoholism has been underrecognized in patients who are hospitalized, and, as such, this opportunity for possible early intervention is often lost. Key social and demographic factors could provide physicians with risk factors and, when used together with a standardized diagnostic instrument, could significantly improve the rate of identification of alcoholic patients.
  • Global body posture evaluation in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder Clinical Sciences

    Saito, Eliza Tiemi; Akashi, Paula Marie Hanai; Sacco, Isabel de Camargo Neves

    Abstract in English:

    AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles). Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS: Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age) with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation), lumbar spine (hyperlordosis), thoracic spine (rectification), head (deviation to the right) and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth). There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder.
  • Sonographic assessment of renal growth in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome renal nomogram Clinical Sciences

    Ortiz-Neira, Clara L; Traubici, Jeffrey; Alan, Daneman; Moineddin, Rahim; Shuman, Cheryl; Weksberg, Rosanna; Epelman, Monica

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a disorder of somatic overgrowth. Evidence of kidney overgrowth is a diagnostic criterion that may be used to help identify those patients who are at the greatest risk of developing Wilms tumors. In such subjects, kidney size is typically larger than that of age-matched normal controls. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to generate a nomogram that could be used to measure renal dimensions in children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in a clinical setting. MATERIALS & METHODS: All of the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome patients followed at our institution from 1996 to 2004 were eligible for inclusion in our study. Renal length was measured with a curvilinear transducer and with the patient supine. Renal lengths were measured for both kidneys using real-time ultrasound for all patients. Their data were compared with those of age-matched controls reported in the 1984 study by Rosenbaum et al. RESULTS: Ninety-six children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome were followed from 1996 to 2004. Forty-three of these patients met our criteria for inclusion in the study: 28 girls (65%) and 15 boys (35%). We identified a linear relationship between kidney length and patient age. No statistically significant differences in renal length were found between boys and girls (p=0.2153) or between the kidneys on either side of the body (p=0.9613). CONCLUSION: Our study provides a practical, simple renal growth chart that offers a reasonable, sensitive method for evaluating kidney size in children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • Quality of life and multimorbidity of elderly outpatients Clinical Sciences

    Nóbrega, Thaís Cano Miranda de; Jaluul, Omar; Machado, Adriana Nunes; Paschoal, Sérgio M. P.; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Substantial medical research has established an inverse relationship between quality of life and illness. However, there exists minimal evidence for such a connection in the context of stable and controlled diseases. OBJECTIVE: We wished to correlate multimorbidity with quality of life for elderly patients who suffer from stable chronic diseases. METHODS: We used a tool to evaluate quality of life, namely World Health Organization quality of life-BRIEF, together with a scale of multimorbidity known as the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale - Geriatric Version. Furthermore, the quality of life data were correlated with scores recorded on the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale - Geriatric Version, the number of drugs used, and individual perceptions of health and age. RESULTS: We studied 104 elderly patients who suffered from chronic diseases. The patients had exhibited neither acute events nor secondary complications, their cognition was intact, and they were functionally independent. The Cumulative Illness Rating Scale - Geriatric Version showed an inverse correlation with the physical domain (p= 0.008) and a tendency toward an inverse correlation with the psychological domain (p= 0.052). Self-perception of health showed a high correlation with the physical domain (p= 0.000), psychological domain (p= 0.000) and environmental domain (p= 0.000). The number of drugs used correlated only with the physical domain (p= 0.004). Age and social domain showed a tendency toward a positive correlation (p= 0.054). DISCUSSION: We uncovered an inverse relationship between quality of life and multimorbidity in a group of patients who suffered from stable chronic diseases, with no functional limitations, pain or complications. Our data suggest that a patient's knowledge that they have a certain clinical condition changes their subjective assessment of quality of life in the related domain. CONCLUSION: The perceived quality of life of the sample was affected by multimorbidity in the physical domain, with a tendency toward commensurate effects in the psychological domain.
  • Intensive perioperative glucose control does not improve outcomes of patients submitted to open-heart surgery: a randomized controlled trial Clinical Sciences

    Chan, Raquel Pei Chen; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Bello, Carmen Narvaes; Piccioni, Marilde Albuquerque; Auler Jr., José Otávio Costa

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between different target levels of glucose and the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: We designed a prospective study in a university hospital where 109 consecutive patients were enrolled during a six-month period. All patients were scheduled for open-heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. One group consisted of 55 patients and had a target glucose level of 80-130 mg/dl, while the other contained 54 patients and had a target glucose level of 160-200 mg/dl. These parameters were controlled during surgery and for 36 hours after surgery in the intensive care unit. Primary outcomes were clinical outcomes, including time of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit, infection, hypoglycemia, renal or neurological dysfunction, blood transfusion and length of stay in the hospital. The secondary outcome was a combined end-point (mortality at 30 days, infection or length of stay in the intensive care unit of more than 3 days). A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the patients from each group were similar, except for weight and body mass index. The mean glucose level during the protocol period was 126.69 mg/dl in the treated group and 168.21 mg/dl in the control group (p<0.0016). There were no differences between groups regarding clinical outcomes, including the duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit, blood transfusion, postoperative infection, hypoglycemic event, neurological dysfunction or 30-day mortality (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In 109 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, both protocols of glycemic control in an intraoperative setting and in the intensive care unit were found to be safe, easily achieved and not to differentially affect clinical outcomes.
  • The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture Review

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    Abstract in English:

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.
  • Additional tendinous origin and entrapment of the plantaris muscle Letter To The Editors

    Nayak, Soubhagya R; Krishnamurthy, Ashwin; Prabhu, Latha V; Madhyastha, Sampath
  • Intravenous misplacement of the nephrostomy catheter following percutaneous nephrostolithotomy: two case reports Letter To The Editors

    Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Mitre, Anuar; Brito, Artur; Arap, Marco; Murta, Claudio; Srougi, Miguel
  • Severe and prolonged cholestasis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: a case report Letter To The Editors

    Faria, Luciana C.; Resende, Clarissa C.; Couto, Cláudia A.; Couto, Osvaldo F.M.; Fonseca, Lúcia P.C.; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina A.
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