Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Computed tomography-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions is a simple, safe and reproducible procedure. Currently, it is widely used to diagnose lung lesions. However, different factors can influence the success rates of this procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of radiological and procedural characteristics in predicting the success rates of computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was developed and involved 340 patients who were submitted to a consecutive series of 362 computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsies of lung lesions, between July 1996 and June 2004, using 22-gauge needles (Chiba). Variables such as the radiological characteristics of the lesions, secondary pulmonary radiological findings, and procedural techniques were studied. RESULTS: For this study, 304 (84%) fine needle aspiration biopsies of lung lesions provided sufficient material for cytological evaluation. The variables that predicted sufficient material for cytological evaluation were lesions larger than 40 mm (p=0.02), lesions on the superior lung lobes (p=0.02), and suspicion of primary lung malignancy (p=0.03). From the multivariate analysis, the only predictive variable for success of the biopsies was localization on the superior lobes (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Computed tomography-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions showed greater rates of success in biopsies performed in patients with suspicion of primary lung malignancy, with lesions located in the superior lobes, and that have diameters equal to and larger than 40 mm.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Visual analysis is widely used to interpret regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT images in clinical practice despite its limitations. Automated methods are employed to investigate between-group rCBF differences in research studies but have rarely been explored in individual analyses. OBJECTIVES: To compare visual inspection by nuclear physicians with the automated statistical parametric mapping program using a SPECT dataset of patients with neurological disorders and normal control images. METHODS: Using statistical parametric mapping, 14 SPECT images from patients with various neurological disorders were compared individually with a databank of 32 normal images using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons at the level of individual voxels or clusters). Statistical parametric mapping results were compared with visual analyses by a nuclear physician highly experienced in neurology (A) as well as a nuclear physician with a general background of experience (B) who independently classified images as normal or altered, and determined the location of changes and the severity. RESULTS: Of the 32 images of the normal databank, 4 generated maps showing rCBF abnormalities (p<0.05, corrected). Among the 14 images from patients with neurological disorders, 13 showed rCBF alterations. Statistical parametric mapping and physician A completely agreed on 84.37% and 64.28% of cases from the normal databank and neurological disorders, respectively. The agreement between statistical parametric mapping and ratings of physician B were lower (71.18% and 35.71%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Statistical parametric mapping replicated the findings described by the more experienced nuclear physician. This finding suggests that automated methods for individually analyzing rCBF SPECT images may be a valuable resource to complement visual inspection in clinical practice.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Common variable immunodeficiency is characterized by defective antibody production and recurrent pulmonary infections. Intravenous immunoglobulin is the treatment of choice, but the effects of Intravenous immunoglobulin on pulmonary defense mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the impact of intravenous immunoglobulin on the physical properties of the sputum and on inflammatory alterations in the airways of patients with Common variable immunodeficiency associated with bronchiectasis. METHOD: The present study analyzed sputum physical properties, exhaled NO, inflammatory cells in the sputum, and IG titers in 7 patients with Common variable immunodeficiency and bronchiectasis with secretion, immediately before and 15 days after Intravenous immunoglobulin. A group of 6 patients with Common variable immunodeficiency and bronchiectasis but no sputum was also studied for comparison of the basal IgG level and blood count. The 13 patients were young (age=36±17 years) and comprised predominantly of females (n=11). RESULTS: Patients with secretion presented significantly decreased IgG and IgM levels. Intravenous immunoglobulin was associated with a significant decrease in exhaled NO (54.7 vs. 40.1 ppb, p<0.05), sputum inflammatory cell counts (28.7 vs. 14.6 cells/mm³, p<0.05), and a significant increase in respiratory mucus transportability by cough (42.5 vs. 65.0 mm, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that immunoglobulin administration in Common variable immunodeficiency patients results in significant improvement in indexes of inflammation of the airways with improvement in the transportability of the respiratory mucus by cough.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: to investigate the relationship between mechanical ventilation and mortality and the practice of mechanical ventilation applied in children admitted to a high-complexity pediatric intensive care unit in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of all consecutive patients admitted to a Brazilian high-complexity PICU who were placed on mechanical ventilation for 24 hours or more, between October 1st, 2005 and March 31st, 2006. RESULTS: Of the 241 patients admitted, 86 (35.7%) received mechanical ventilation for 24 hours or more. Of these, 49 met inclusion criteria and were thus eligible to participate in the study. Of the 49 patients studied, 45 had chronic functional status. The median age of participants was 32 months and the median length of mechanical ventilation use was 6.5 days. The major indication for mechanical ventilation was acute respiratory failure, usually associated with severe sepsis / septic shock. Pressure ventilation modes were the standard ones. An overall 10.37% incidence of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome was found, in addition to tidal volumes > 8 ml/kg, as well as normo- or hypocapnia. A total of 17 children died. Risk factors for mortality within 28 days of admission were initial inspiratory pressure, pH, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, oxygenation index and also oxygenation index at 48 hours of mechanical ventilation. Initial inspiratory pressure was also a predictor of mechanical ventilation for periods longer than 7 days. CONCLUSION: Of the admitted children, 35.7% received mechanical ventilation for 24 h or more. Pressure ventilation modes were standard. Of the children studied, 91% had chronic functional status. There was a high incidence of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, but a lung-protective strategy was not fully implemented. Inspiratory pressure at the beginning of mechanical ventilation was a predictor of mortality within 28 days and of a longer course of mechanical ventilation.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire on specific knowledge about low back pain entitled "The Low Back Pain Knowledge Questionnaire". INTRODUCTION: There is a need for instruments to assess patient knowledge regarding chronic illness. Such methods can contribute to the education of patients. METHODS: The Low Back Pain Knowledge Questionnaire was developed through five focus groups. The questionnaire was distributed to 50 patients to assess their comprehension of the terms. To assess the reproducibility, 20 patients were surveyed by two different interviewers on the same day and twice by a single interviewer with a one-to-two week interval. For the construct validation, the Low Back Pain Knowledge Questionnaire was given to 20 healthcare professionals with knowledge on low back pain and 20 patients to determine whether the questionnaire would discriminate between the two different populations. To assess the sensitivity of the questionnaire to changes in the knowledge level of the patients, it was given to 60 patients who were randomly assigned to the Intervention Group and the Control Group. The Intervention Group answered the questionnaire both before and after attending a chronic back pain educational program (back school), whereas the Control Group answered the questionnaire twice with an interval of one month and no educational intervention. RESULTS: The focus groups generated a questionnaire with 16 items. The Spearman's correlation coefficient and the intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.61 to 0.95 in the assessments of the intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility (p< 0.01). In the construct validation, the healthcare professionals and patients showed statistically different scores (p< 0.001). In the phase regarding the sensitivity to change, the Intervention Group exhibited a significant increase in their specific knowledge over the Control Group (p< 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Low Back Pain Knowledge Questionnaire was validated and proved to be reproducible, valid and sensitive to changes in patient knowledge.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Identification of variables that determine the prognosis for osteosarcoma may enable stratification of patients into subgroups with better or worse risk of local recurrence, metastases and death due to the disease. Discovery of such prognostic factors would permit selection of a subgroup of at-risk patients, with the aim of improving the therapeutic effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic factors related to local recurrence-free survival, metastasis-free survival and overall survival among patients with highly malignant primary osteosarcoma that was non-metastatic on diagnosis and had poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Out of 45 patients admitted to a referral center in Brazil between 2000 and 2004, 24 were selected for this study. RESULTS: The adverse factors that influenced the risk of local recurrence and the overall survival in univariate analysis were histological subtype other than osteoblastic (p = 0.017) and tumor size greater than 15 cm (p = 0.048). In relation to metastasis-free survival, the non-osteoblastic subtype had a worse prognosis (p = 0.007). The association of histological subtype maintained its significance in multivariate analysis for all studied survival categories. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor size greater than 15 cm is an adverse factor for local recurrence-free survival and overall survival but did not influence metastasis-free survival. The osteosarcoma histological type is a significant independent predictor for local recurrence-free survival, metastasis-free survival and overall survival.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of Samarium153-particulate hydroxyapatite radiation synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with chronic knee synovitis. METHODS: Fifty-eight rheumatoid arthritis patients (60 knees) with chronic knee synovitis participated in a controlled double-blinded trial. Patients were randomized to receive either an intra-articular injection with 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide alone (TH group) or 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide combined with 15 mCi Samarium153-particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm/TH group). Blinded examination at baseline (T0) and at 1 (T1), 4 (T4), 12 (T12), 32 (T32), and 48 (T48) weeks post-intervention were performed on all patients and included a visual analog scale for joint pain and swelling as well as data on morning stiffness, flexion, extension, knee circumference, Likert scale of improvement, percentage of improvement, SF-36 generic quality of life questionnaire, Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Lequesne index, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral corticosteroids, events and adverse effects, calls to the physician, and hospital visits. RESULTS: The sample was homogeneous at baseline, and there were no withdrawals. Improvement was observed in both groups in relation to T0, but no statistically significant differences between groups were observed regarding all variables at the time points studied. The Sm/TH group exhibited more adverse effects at T1 (p<0.05), but these were mild and transitory. No severe adverse effects were reported during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular injection of Samarium153-particulate hydroxyapatite (15 mCi) with 40 mg of triamcinolone hexacetonide is not superior to triamcinolone hexacetonide alone for the treatment of knee synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at 1 y of follow-up.
Abstract in English:AIM: In our study, we investigated the levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (anti-GAD), islet cell antibody (ICA), thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO), thyroglobulin antibody (anti-TG), antinuclear antibodies (FANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (anti-ds DNA), antibody to Sjögren syndrome A antigen (anti-SSA), antibody to Sjögren syndrome B antigen (anti-SSB), Smith antibody (anti-Sm), smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), and antimitochondrial antibody liver-kidney microsome (AMA-LKM) in patients with celiac disease as compared to healthy controls and autoimmune hypothyroid patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with celiac disease, 34 patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism and 29 healthy subjects were included in this study. Anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, anti-ds DNA, anti-GAD, anti-TPO and anti-TG were studied by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and AMA-LKM, ASMA, ANA and ICA were studied by immunofluorescence. Clinical data and the results of free thyroxine-thyroid stimulating hormone (FT4-TSH) were collected from the patients' files by retrospective analysis. SPSS ver 13.0 was used for data analysis, and the χ2 method was used for comparisons within groups. RESULTS: The frequency of anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-GAD, anti-Sm, anti-ds DNA, AMA-LKM, ASMA, ANA and ICA were not significantly different between the groups. Levels of anti-TPO and anti-TG antibodies were found to be significantly higher (<0.001) in autoimmune hypothyroid patients when compared with other groups. CONCLUSION: In previous studies, an increased frequency of autoimmune diseases of other systems has been reported in patients with celiac disease. We found that the frequency of autoimmune antibodies specific for other autoimmune diseases was not higher in celiac disease.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile of osteoporosis treatment among patients hospitalized due to hip fractures at a tertiary-level university hospital. To compare the impact of hospitalization on approaches toward treating bone mass losses. METHOD: The medical records of 123 hip fracture patients aged 60 years and over at the Institute of Orthopedics, Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, between 2004 and 2006 were reviewed and analyzed with respect to approaches towards investigating osteoporosis and treatments before and after fracture. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 78 ± 8.3 years, and the majority were women (71.54%). The patients had a mean of 2.72 comorbidities and used 3.26 medications on average. Among these patients, 12.3% reported a previous diagnosis of osteoporosis, and 5.83% were on medication for this. The mean waiting time for surgery was 6.3 ± 7.54 days, and seven patients (5.7%) died during the hospitalization. There were no investigations using bone densitometry, no changes in osteoporosis therapy between admission and discharge (p = 0.375), and no reports of referrals for the patient to have access to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Investigations and treatments of osteoporosis and strategies for preventing new fractures were not implemented during the hospitalization of these elderly patients with hip fractures, even though this is the most feared complication of osteoporosis. These data need to be disseminated so that professionals dealing with elderly patients are attentive to the need for primary and secondary prevention of osteoporosis because of the impact of fractures on these patients' quality of life, independence, morbidities, and mortality.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To investigate hypoxia and sleep disordered breathing in infants with congenital heart disease. METHODS: Prospective study. In-hospital full polysomnography was performed on 14 infants with congenital heart disease, age 7 ±1 months, and in 7 normal infants, age 10 ±2 months. Congenital heart disease infants were classified as acyanotic (n=7) or cyanotic (n=7). RESULTS: Nutritional status, assessed by the Gomez classification and expressed as % weight for age, was 70 ±7, 59 ±11 and 94 ±16 in the acyanotic, cyanotic congenital heart disease and control infants, respectively (p<0.001). The respiratory disturbance index (AHI, events per hour) was [median (25-75%)]: 2.5 (1.0-3.4), 2.4 (1.5-3.1) and 0.7 (0.7-0.9) in acyanotic, cyanotic CHD infants and controls, respectively (p=0.013). Almost all congenital heart disease infants (11 out of 14) and only one control infant had an AHI >1 event/hour. The minimum oxygen saturation was 79% (74-82), 73% (57-74) and 90% (90-91) in the acyanotic, cyanotic congenital heart disease infants and controls, respectively (p <0.001). The arousal index (events/hour) was similar among the three groups at 8.4 ±2.4, 10.3 ±8.7 and 6.5 ±3, respectively (p=0.451). CONCLUSIONS: Infants with congenital heart disease frequently present with sleep-disordered breathing associated with oxygen desaturations but not arousals. Therefore, sleep may represent a significant burden to infants with congenital heart disease.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Chronic stress has been shown to cause oxidative damage in the central nervous system. Although stress-induced impairments in learning and memory have been studied extensively, very few studies have investigated possible ways to prevent their ill effects. The present work was designed to study the protective effects of ascorbic acid in memory loss induced by chronic restraint stress. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were designated into the following groups: (i) Normal control, (ii) Ascorbic acid treatment, (iii) Vehicle control, (iv) Restraint stress, (v) Restraint stress + vehicle, and (vi) Restraint stress + ascorbic acid treatment. At the end of 21 days, animals of all groups were subjected to memory tests using Morris water maze and passive avoidance apparatus. Then, the results obtained were compared between the experimental groups. RESULTS: Rats exposed to restraint stress alone and those pretreated with vehicle solution before restrained stress showed deficits in learning and impaired memory retention in the memory tests when compared to animals in other experimental groups. Animals pretreated with ascorbic acid before restraining showed significant improvement in memory retention in the same memory tests. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest the possibility of using ascorbic acid as a dietary supplement to prevent stress-induced memory impairments.
Abstract in English:Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.