Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a sporadic (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75%) or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%). These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients. In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored. PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes observed in s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases from a university group and to attempt to improve earlier diagnosis of s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Some procedures for diagnostics are also recommended. METHOD: Patients (n=26) with apparent s-medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied. Their clinical data were reviewed and peripheral blood was collected and screened for RET germline mutations. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 43.9 years (± 10.82 SD) and did not differ between males and females. Calcitonin levels were increased in all cases. Three patients presented values that were 100-fold greater than the normal upper limit. Most (61.54%) had values that were 20-fold below this limit. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels were high in 70.6% of cases. There was no significant association between age at diagnosis, basal calcitonin levels or time of disease onset with thyroid tumor size (0.6-15 cm). Routine thyroid cytology yielded disappointing diagnostic accuracy (46.7%) in this set of cases. After total thyroidectomy associated with extensive cervical lymph node resection, calcitonin values remained lower than 5 pg/mL for at least 12 months in eight of the cases (30.8%). Immunocyto- and histochemistry for calcitonin were positive in all analyzed cases. None of the 26 cases presented germline mutations in the classical hotspots of the RET proto-oncogene. CONCLUSION: Our cases were identified late. The basal calcitonin measurements and immunostaining for calcitonin were highly useful for diagnosing s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. The rate of complete patient recovery was low, and none of the parameters analyzed were useful predictors of the thyroid tumor size. Our findings support previous recommendations for routine serum calcitonin evaluation and immunostaining analysis involving single thyroid nodules.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: We determined the degree of risk produced by the association of other surgical procedures with surgical myocardial revascularization in octogenarian patients and identified the risk factors that best explain hospital mortality. METHODS: This study was an observational analytical historical cohort study involving octogenarians operated on at our institution between January 1, 2000 and January 1, 2005. We stratified the objective population as follows: Group 1 comprised octogenarians revascularized without associated procedures, and Group 2 comprised octogenarians revascularized with associated procedures. Statistical analyses included the t test for independent samples and multiple logistic regression analysis. Significance was accepted with an alpha error of 5%. RESULTS: Univariate analyses revealed the following clinical and statistically significant variables: hospital mortality (P=0.002), diabetes mellitus (P=0.017), preoperative endocarditis (P=0.001), cardiogenic shock (P=0.019), use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (P=0.026), preoperative risk score (Parsonnet), P<0.001, procedure associated with revascularization (P<0.001), medium number of affected coronary arteries (P<0.001), use of extracorporeal circulation (P<0.001), time of extracorporeal circulation (P<0.001), number of distal anastomoses (P=0.002), graft type (P<0.001), postoperative breathing support (P<0.001), stroke (P<0.001), infection (P=0.002), creatinine level (P=0.018), and quality of life score (P=0.050). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: In octogenarian patients, the need for a procedure associated with surgical myocardial revascularization produces an absolute increase in hospital mortality risk of 45%. The variables that contributed to hospital mortality were preoperative endocarditis, preoperative cardiogenic shock, the use of extracorporeal circulation, the length of time of extracorporeal circulation, postoperative creatinine level, and postoperative need for prolonged respiratory support.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Chronic testicular pain remains an important challenge for urologists. Currently, the treatment plan is primarily empirical, with the first approach consisting of clinical measures. However, some patients remain in pain despite a conservative treatment protocol and, for them, it is possible to perform a surgical procedure that involves severing the scrotal and spermatic branches of the genitofemoral and ilioinguinal nerve fibers. METHODS: In our institution, 60 patients were evaluated and treated for idiopathic chronic testicular pain between January 2003 and July 2007. Priority was give to clinical treatment, which evolved from simple to more complex measures. Microsurgical treatment was performed on those who experienced no considerable pain relief (10 individuals in our study). RESULTS: Over a twenty-four-month follow-up period, 70% of patients showed complete remission and 20% exhibited partial relief from pain.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To report oncological cases (excluding those related to breast cancer) for which radioguided surgery has been used in combination with the Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization technique. INTRODUCTION: Radioguided surgery enables a surgeon to identify lesions or tissues that have been preoperatively marked with radioactive substances. The Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization technique has been widely used to identify the sentinel lymph node and occult lesions in patients with breast cancer. However, few studies have reported the use of this technique for non-breast cancer pathologies. METHODOLOGY: In all cases, injection of Technecium-99m sulfur colloid was performed, directly inside or near by the suspicious lesion, guided by ultrasound or computed tomography, up to 36 hours prior to the surgical procedure. Intraoperative lesion detection was carried out using a gamma-probe. RESULTS: We report five oncology cases in which preoperative markings of the lesions were carried out using the Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization technique. The patients presented with the following: recurrence of renal cell carcinoma, cervical recurrence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, recurrence of retroperitoneal sarcoma, lesions of the popliteal fossa, and recurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma of a thigh. In each case, the lesions that were marked preoperatively were ultimately successfully excised. CONCLUSIONS: Radioguided surgery has proven to be a safe and effective alternative for the management of oncology patients. The Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization technique can be useful in selected cases where suspect lesions may be difficult to identify intraoperatively, due to their dimensions or anatomical location. The procedure allows for more conservative excisions and reduces the surgery-related morbidity.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and the cardiorespiratory effects of using positive expiratory airway pressure, a physiotherapeutic tool, in comparison with a T-tube, to wean patients from mechanical ventilation. METHODS/DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study. SETTING: Two intensive care units. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: We evaluated forty patients who met weaning criteria and had been mechanically-ventilated for more than 48 hours, mean age 59 years, including 23 males. All patients were submitted to the T-tube and Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure devices, at 7 cm H2O, during a 30-minute period. Cardiorespiratory variables including work of breathing, respiratory rate (rr), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (hr), systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP, MAP) were measured in the first and thirtieth minutes. The condition was analyzed as an entire sample set (n=40) and was also divided into subconditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=14) and non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) (n=26) categories. Comparisons were made using a t-test and Analysis of Variance. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: Our data showed an increase in work of breathing in the first and thirtieth minutes in the EPAP condition (0.86+ 0.43 and 1.02+1.3) as compared with the T-tube condition (0.25+0.26 and 0.26+0.35) (p<0.05), verified by the flow-sensor monitor (values in J/L). No statistical differences were observed when comparing the Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure and T-tube conditions with regard to cardiorespiratory measurements. The same result was observed for both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subconditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that, in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation, the use of a fixed level of Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure caused an increase in work of breathing that was not accompanied by any other significant cardiorespiratory changes. Therefore, we have to be cautious when using Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure as a physiotherapeutic tool during weaning from mechanical ventilation.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is characterized by a lack of response in the distal nephron to the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin. Manifestations include polyuria, polydipsia, hyposthenuria, recurrent episodes of dehydration and fever and growth failure. Most cases are caused by mutations in the AVPR2 gene. The mutant receptors are trapped intracellularly. METHOD: We studied five boys using clinical, laboratory and molecular data. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.6 months (range 6 to 24) and 12.2 years (7.8 to 19) after the follow-up period. The mean period of follow-up was 132.2 ± 50.9 months. RESULTS: The geometric means of the z-scores of weight and stature were -4.5 and -3.6, respectively, at diagnosis. At the last medical appointment, the z-scores of weight and stature were -0.3 and -0.9, respectively. Three patients were diagnosed with ureterohydronephrosis and exhibited increased post-void urine volume. Mutations in the AVPR2 gene were found in all patients, and the carrier status was confirmed in four of five cases. Two unrelated children presented identical mutations (S167L) in arginine vasopressin R2. Two of the patients had a mutation that has already been described in other Brazilian families (R337X), and one patient showed a de novo mutation (Y128D) in arginine vasopressin R2, since his mother's molecular analysis was normal. The recurrence risk for this family was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: This study reports the clinical and laboratory characterization of Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and reiterates the importance of the genetic basis that underlies the disease diagnosis and genetic counseling.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To study if metformin, when administered to first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects who have metabolic syndrome and normal glucose tolerance, could improve the cardiovascular risk profile and reduce the levels of both C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metformin has vasculo-protective effects even in normoglycemic subjects, and C-reactive protein and fibrinogen are considered markers of endothelial injury and inflammation. METHODS: Thirty-one non-diabetic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized (1:1) and double-blinded for placement in the placebo and metformin groups (850mg bid/±90days); 16 subjects were administered metformin (mean age 40.0 [33.5-50] years; 13 females) and 15 subjects were in the placebo group (mean age 37.0 [32-42] years; 9 females). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of treatment for biochemical analyses, including an assessment of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels. RESULTS: Metformin improved the lipid profile and decreased fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, weight and body mass index without changing body composition. For those in the placebo we identified no changes in fibrinogen (282.2 [220.4-323.7] mg/L vs. 286.7 [249.6-295.1] mg/L; NS) or in C-reactive protein levels (0.68 [0.3-1.2] vs. 0.64 [0.3-1.0] mg/L; NS). The same was also observed for the levels of fibrinogen (303.9 [217.6-347.6] mg/L vs. 290.9 [251.5-301.9] mg/L; NS) and C-reactive proteins (0.78 [0.3-1.1] vs. 0.80 [0.4-0.9] mg/L; NS) in the metformin group. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin treatment in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus sufferers who have metabolic syndrome and normal glucose tolerance improved the cardiovascular risk profile without changing the levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Invasive and non-invasive tests can be used to evaluate the activity of inflammatory bowel diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease activity and the correlation of fecal calprotectin with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein values in inflammatory bowel disease. METHOD: Sixty-five patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Twenty outpatients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease comprised the control group. RESULTS: In the present study, all patients in the control group had an fecal calprotectin value lower than the cut-off point (50 mg/kg). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, fecal calprotectin was found to be strongly associated with colorectal inflammation indicating organic disease. Fecal calprotectin is a simple and non-invasive method for assessing excretion of macrophages into the gut lumen. Fecal calprotectin values can be used to evaluate the response to treatment, to screen asymptomatic patients, and to predict inflammatory bowel disease relapses.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To present the characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with retinoblastoma. METHODS: A retrospective case series was conducted to review the records of all new patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma between 2003 and 2005. Eyes with early disease, or advanced disease with potential vision were treated with chemotherapy (carboplatin and etoposide) in conjunction with early local therapy (laser or cryo). Radiotherapy was used in cases where the disease did not respond to the above protocols or in recurrent cases. Eyes in the late stage of disease with no potential vision in the initial examination or eyes and where conservative treatment had failed were enucleated. RESULTS: In total, we reviewed 28 new cases of retinoblastoma, 15 of which were unilateral and 13 of which were bilateral (46%). These data correspond to a mean of 9.3 new cases per year (0.77 case/ month). The mean age at diagnosis was 33.8 months for unilateral cases, and 19.15 months for bilateral cases (p=0.015). Leucocoria was the major presenting symptom (75%). All but one patient with unilateral disease had the affected eye enucleated due to advanced disease (mean follow-up: 39.91 months). Among the 13 bilateral cases, 13 eyes (50%) were enucleated, 11 eyes (42.4%) were saved with chemotherapy in conjunction with local therapy and 2 eyes (7.6%) were saved using external beam radiotherapy (mean follow-up: 41.91 months). In unilateral and bilateral disease, pathology data revealed choroid involvement in 50% and 30%, respectively, and optic nerve invasion in 92% and 50%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this population, retinoblastoma was diagnosed too late and most eyes were consequently enucleated. In cases with bilateral disease, half of the eyes were preserved.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation and treats acute pulmonary failure. However, increased intrathoracic pressure may cause regional blood flow alterations that may contribute to mesenteric ischemia and gastrointestinal failure. We investigated the effects of different PEEP levels on mesenteric leukocyte-endothelial interactions. METHODS: Forty-four male Wistar rats were initially anesthetized (Pentobarbital I.P. 50mg/kg) and randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) NAIVE (only anesthesia; n=9), 2) PEEP 0 (PEEP of 0 cmH2O, n=13), 3) PEEP 5 (PEEP of 5 cmH2O, n=12), and 4) PEEP 10 (PEEP of 10 cmH2O, n=13). Positive end expiratory pressure groups were tracheostomized and mechanically ventilated with a tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, respiratory rate of 70 rpm, and inspired oxygen fraction of 1. Animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. After two hours, laparotomy was performed, and leukocyte-endothelial interactions were evaluated by intravital microscopy. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in mean arterial blood pressure among groups during the study. Tracheal peak pressure was smaller in PEEP 5 compared with PEEP 0 and PEEP 10 groups (11, 15, and 16 cmH2O, respectively; p<0.05). After two hours of MV, there were no differences among NAIVE, PEEP 0 and PEEP 5 groups in the number of rollers (118±9,127±14 and 147±26 cells/10minutes, respectively), adherent leukocytes (3±1,3±1 and 4±2 cells/100µm venule length, respectively), and migrated leukocytes (2±1,2±1 and 2±1 cells/5,000µm², respectively) at the mesentery. However, the PEEP 10 group exhibited an increase in the number of rolling, adherent and migrated leukocytes (188±15 cells / 10 min, 8±1 cells / 100 µm and 12±1 cells / 5,000 µm², respectively; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High intrathoracic pressure was harmful to mesenteric microcirculation in the experimental model of rats with normal lungs and stable systemic blood pressure, a finding that may have relevance for complications related to mechanical ventilation.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: The discussion regarding the evolution of aging is almost as old as Darwinian Evolution Theory, but to date, it has remained one of biology's unresolved problems. One issue is how to reconcile natural selection, which is understood as a process that purges deleterious characteristics, with senescence, which seems to offer no advantages to the individual. METHOD: A computer simulation that illustrates an evolutionary mechanism for the development of senescence in populations is presented. DISCUSSION: In this article, we debate that two popular explanations for the existence of senescence, namely, (1) the removal of elders for the benefit of the species and (2) the progressive deterioration of the organic machine due to continuous use, are not correct. While human populations continue to age, it is important that the physician understands that senescence, here defined as the progressive impairment of an organism, does not necessarily accompany aging, which we here define as the mere passage of time. As such, we argue that certain processes that were originally assumed to be part of aging should have their status changed because they are actually diseases. Physicians often encounter situations that depend on a better understanding of what limitations senescence imposes on most living species. The concepts of aging (the unavoidable passage of time), senescence (progressive physiologic impairment), and senility (the pathological development of diseases), are discussed.
Abstract in English:Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS.
Abstract in English:Atherosclerotic coronary heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries, and endothelial dysfunction is considered a precursor phenomenon. The nitric oxide produced by the endothelium under the action of endothelial nitric oxide synthase has important antiatherogenic functions. Its reduced bioavailabilty is the beginning of the atherosclerotic process. The addition of two methyl radicals to arginine, through the action of methyltransferase nuclear proteins, produces asymmetric dimethylarginine, which competes with L-arginine and promotes a reduction in nitric oxide formation in the vascular wall. The asymmetric dimethylarginine, which is itself considered a mediator of the vascular effects of the several risk factors for atherosclerosis, can be eliminated by renal excretion or by the enzymatic action of the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases. Several basic science and clinical research studies suggest that the increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine occurs in the context of chronic renal insufficiency, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and hyperhomocysteinemy, as well as with other conditions. Therapeutic measures to combat atherosclerosis may reverse these asymmetric dimethylarginine effects or at least reduce the concentration of this chemical in the blood. Such an effect can be achieved with competitor molecules or by increasing the expression or activity of its degradation enzyme. Studies are in development to establish the true role of asymmetric dimethylarginine as a marker and mediator of atherosclerosis, with possible therapeutic applications. The main aspects of the formation and degradation of asymmetric dimethylarginine and its implication in the atherogenic process will be addressed in this article.