• In the September, 2010 issue of CLINICS Editorial

    Rocha e Silva, Mauricio
  • Metallo-beta-lactamases among imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Brazilian university hospital Clinical Sciences

    Franco, Maria Renata Gomes; Caiaffa-Filho, Hélio Hehl; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Rossi, Flávia

    Resumo em Inglês:

    INTRODUCTION: Imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa resulting from metallo-β-lactamases has been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infection and is a critical therapeutic problem worldwide, especially in the case of bacteremia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of metallo-β-lactamases among imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and to compare methods of phenotypic and molecular detection. METHODS: During 2006, 69 imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa samples were isolated from blood and tested for metallo-β-lactamase production using both phenotypic methods. Minimal Inhibitory Concentratrions (MIC) (μg/mL) was determined with commercial microdilution panels. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed among metallo-β-lactamase producers. RESULTS: Of all the blood isolates, 34.5% were found to be imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Positive phenotypic tests for metallo-β-lactamases ranged from 28%-77%, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were positive in 30% (of note, 81% of those samples were blaSPM-1 and 19% were blaVIM-2). Ethylenediamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) combinations for the detected enzymes had low kappa values; thus, care should be taken when use it as a phenotypic indicator of MBL. Despite a very resistant antibiogram, four isolates demonstrated the worrisome finding of a colistin MIC in the resistant range. PFGE showed a clonal pattern. CONCLUSION: Metallo-β-lactamases among imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected in 30.4% of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. This number might have been higher if other genes were included. SPM-1 was the predominant enzyme found. Phenotypic tests with low kappa values could be misleading when testing for metallo-β-lactamases. Polymerase Chain Reaction detection remains the gold standard.
  • Regional intravenous anesthesia in knee arthroscopy Clinical Sciences

    Arslan, Mahmut; Cantürk, Mehmet; Örnek, Dilşen; Gamli, Mehmet; Pala, Yaşar; Dikmen, Bayazit; Basaran, Melekşah

    Resumo em Inglês:

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to investigate the regional intravenous anesthesia procedure in knee arthroscopy and to evaluate the effects of adding ketamine over the anesthesia block charactery and tourniquet pain. MATERIAL/METHOD: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II patients who received knee arthroscopy were enrolled. After monitoring, a peripheral IV line was inserted.The venous blood in the lower extremity was evacuated with a bandage, and the proximal cuff of the double-cuff tourniquet was inflated. The patients were randomly split into two groups. While Group P received 80 ml 0.5% prilocaine, Group PK received 0.15 mg/kg ketamine (80 ml in total) via the dorsum of the foot. We recorded onset time of the sensory block, end time of the sensory block, presence of the motor block, the time when the patient verbally reported tourniquet pain and surgical pain, duration of tourniquet tolerance, fentanyl consumption during the operation, time to first analgesic requirement, methemoglobin values at 60 minutes, operative conditions, 24-hour analgesic consumption, discharge time, and hemodynamic parameters. RESULTS: The body mass index (BMI) of the patients who required general anesthesia was significantly higher than the BMI of other patients. The onset time of the sensory block was shorter for those in Group PK, but the time to first analgesic requirement was longer. CONCLUSION: Regional intravenous anesthesia using the doses and volumes commonly used in knee arthroscopy may be an inadequate block among patients with high BMI values. Moreover, the addition of ketamine to the local anesthetic solution may produce a partial solution by shortening the onset of sensory block and prolonging the time until the first analgesic is required.
  • Outpatient percutaneous treatment of deep venous malformations using pure ethanol at low doses under local anesthesia Clinical Sciences

    Orlando, José Luiz; Caldas, Jose Guilherme Mendes Pereira; Campos, Heloisa Galvão do Amaral; Nishinari, Kenji; Wolosker, Nelson

    Resumo em Inglês:

    INTRODUCTION: Venous malformations are the most frequent vascular malformation. Deep venous malformations are located in subcutaneous tissue or in the muscles. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is the treatment of choice, and the use of ethanol at low doses has not yet been described. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of treating Deep venous malformations patients with low doses of ethanol. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients treated between July 1995 and June 2007 were followed up prospectively over a median period of 18 months. Twenty-nine were female (74.4%) and 10 were male (25.6%), with ages ranging from 11 to 59 years (median of 24 years). All of the lesions affected limbs, and the main symptom reported was pain (97.4%). Each patient underwent fortnightly alcohol application sessions under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis. The lesions were classified into three groups according to size using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging: small, up to 3 cm (4 patients); medium, between 3 and 15 cm (27 patients); and large, greater than 15 cm (8 patients). RESULTS: The symptoms completely disappeared in 14 patients (35.9%) and improved in 24 (61.5%). The lesion size reduced to zero in 6 patients (15.4%) and decreased in 32 (82%). The median number of sessions was 7. There were no complications in 32 patients (82%), while 3 presented local paresthesia (7.7%), 2 superficial trombophlebites (5.1%), 1 skin ulcer (2.6%), and 1 case of hyperpigmentation (2.6%). CONCLUSION: Outpatient treatment for Deep venous malformations patients using ethanol at low doses was effective, with a low complication rate.
  • Desaturation - distance ratio: a new concept for a functional assessment of interstitial lung diseases Clinical Sciences

    Pimenta, Suzana Pinheiro; Rocha, Renata Barbosa da; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Kawassaki, Alexandre de Melo; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    Resumo em Inglês:

    INTRODUCTION: The functional evaluation has become increasingly important in the understanding and management of patients with interstitial lung diseases. The cardiopulmonary exercise test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), through their isolated variables, have been used to do this evaluation, with some limitations. OBJECTIVES: We proposed a new composite index (desaturation distance ratio using continuous peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the distance walked as a more reliable tool for doing a functional evaluation of these patients. METHODS: 6MWT was performed by interstitial lung diseases patients and controls. Analyzed parameters were walked distance and desaturation area (DAO2), obtained by taking the difference between maximal SpO2 possible (100%) and patient's SpO2 every 2 seconds. desaturation distance ratio was calculated using the ratio between DAO2 and distance walked. RESULTS: Forty-nine interstitial lung diseases patients and 11 control subjects completed the protocol. The mean (SD) age was 60 (12) years and 65 (9) years, respectively (p:NS). Data obtained from 6MWT showed a significant statistical difference between interstitial lung diseases patients and controls: mean walked distance (430 and 602 meters, respectively); SpO2 minimal maintained at least 10 seconds - SpO2 min (85% and 94%, respectively), and median desaturation distance ratio (10 and 2.5, respectively). A correlation analysis, considering interstitial lung diseases patients, revealed the best correlation between desaturation distance ratio and DLco (r= - 0.72; p<0.001), being the correlation between SpO2 min and DLco of 0.61 (p<0.001) and among walked distance and DLco of 0.58 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Desaturation distance ratio is a promising concept and a more reliable physiologic tool to assess pulmonary diseases characterized by involvement of the alveolar-capillary membrane, such as interstitial lung diseases.
  • Predictive complication factors for ct-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary lesions Clinical Sciences

    Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Andrade, Marcony Queiroz de; Fonte, Alexandre Calabria da; Benevides, Gustavo; Chojniak, Rubens; Gross, Jefferson Luiz

    Resumo em Inglês:

    OBJECTIVE: Distinct aspects can influence the complication rates of computed tomography-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions. The purpose of the current study is to determine the influence of radiological techniques and clinical characteristics in predicting complications from this procedure. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was developed involving 340 patients who were submitted to a consecutive series of 362 computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsies of lung lesions between July 1996 and June 2004, using 22-gauge needles (CHIBA). Variables such as the radiological characteristics of the lesions, secondary pulmonary radiological findings, co-morbidities, and aspects concerning the procedure were studied. RESULTS: The diameters of the lung lesions varied from 9 to 140 mm, with a mean of 51.5 ± 24.3 mm and median of 40mm. The depth of the lesions varied from 10 mm to 130 mm, with a mean of 44 ± 20.9mm, and median median of 52 mm. Complications occurred in 52 (14.4%) cases, pneumothorax being the most frequent, with 40 (11.1%) cases, followed by hemoptisis with 7 (1.9%) cases, and hematoma with 4 (1.1%) cases. Lesions that did not contact the pleura, with normal pulmonary tissue interposition between lesion and pleura, had higher complication rates, with 22 (22%) cases, than lesions that contact the pleura, with 6 (9%) cases, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions had a lower rate of complications in our study and presented more rates of complications on lesions that lack pleural contact.
  • Inpatient dermatological consultations in a university hospital Clinical Sciences

    Mancusi, Suzana; Festa Neto, Cyro

    Resumo em Inglês:

    INTRODUCTION: Dermatology is primarily an outpatient specialty, but it also plays an important role in the care of inpatients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study that recorded data from inpatient dermatology consultation request forms over a period of four months. The study evaluated 313 requests that led to 566 visits, 86 biopsies, 35 laboratory exams, 41 direct microscopic studies, 18 direct immunofluorescence analyses, 14 skin cultures and a few other exams. RESULTS: The most frequent requesting service was internal medicine (24%), followed by neurology (12%), cardiology (11%), infectious diseases and pediatrics (8% each) and psychiatry and general surgery (6% each). The most frequent diagnostic groups were infectious diseases (25%, divided into fungal infections (13%), bacterial infections (7%) and viral infections (5%)), eczemas (15%) and drug reactions (14%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to attempt to evaluate the impact of the consultations by asking multiple-choice questions that were analyzed by the authors. In 31% of the cases, the consultation was considered extremely relevant because it aided in managing the disease that led to admission or treated a potentially severe dermatological disease. In 58% of the cases, the consultation was considered important because it facilitated diagnosis and/or treatment of a dermatological disease that was unrelated to the reason for admission.
  • How to avoid discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment: The experience in São Paulo, Brazil Clinical Sciences

    Ortega, Katia Coelho; Gusmão, Josiane Lima de; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo; Nishiura, José Luiz; Ignez, Edna Caetano; Segre, Carlos Alexandre; Ventura, Carlucci Gualberto; Mano, Gisele Peixoto; Fontes, Viviane; Cunha, Francisco Mogadouro da; Mion Jr, Décio

    Resumo em Inglês:

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the importance of providing guidelines to patients via active telephone calls for blood pressure control and for preventing the discontinuation of treatment among hypertensive patients. INTRODUCTION: Many reasons exist for non-adherence to medical regimens, and one of the strategies employed to improve treatment compliance is the use of active telephone calls. METHODS: Hypertensive patients (n=354) who could receive telephone calls to remind them of their medical appointments and receive instruction about hypertension were distributed into two groups: a) "uncomplicated" - hypertensive patients with no other concurrent diseases and b) "complicated" - severe hypertensive patients (mean diastolic >110 mmHg with or without medication) or patients with comorbidities. All patients, except those excluded (n=44), were open-block randomized to follow two treatment regimens ("traditional" or "current") and to receive or not receive telephone calls ("phone calls" and "no phone calls" groups, respectively). RESULTS: Significantly fewer patients in the "phone calls" group discontinued treatment compared to those in the "no phone calls" group (4 vs. 30; p<0.0094). There was no difference in the percentage of patients with controlled blood pressure in the "phone calls" group and "no phone calls" group or in the "traditional" and "current" groups. The percentage of patients with controlled blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) was increased at the end of the treatment (74%), reaching 80% in the "uncomplicated" group and 67% in the "complicated" group (p<0.000001). CONCLUSION: Guidance to patients via active telephone calls is an efficient strategy for preventing the discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment.
  • DiGeorge Syndrome: a not so rare disease Clinical Sciences

    Fomin, Angela BF; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Kim, Chong Ae; Pereira, CA; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Abe-Jacob, Cristina Miuki

    Resumo em Inglês:

    INTRODUCTION: The DiGeorge Syndrome was first described in 1968 as a primary immunodeficiency resulting from the abnormal development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches during embryonic life. It is characterized by hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism, heart defects, and thymic hypoplasia or aplasia. Its incidence is 1:3000 live births and, despite its high frequency, little is known about its natural history and progression. ←This is probably due to diagnostic difficulties and the great variety of names used to describe it, such as velocardiofacial, Shprintzen, DiGeorge, and CATCH 22 Syndromes, as well as conotruncal facial anomaly. All represent the same genetic condition, chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, which might have several clinical expressions. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical and laboratorial data and phenotypic characteristics of patients with DiGeorge Syndrome. METHODS: Patients underwent standard clinical and epidemiological protocol and tests to detect heart diseases, facial abnormalities, dimorphisms, neurological or behavioral disorders, recurrent infections and other comorbidities. RESULTS: Of 14 patients (8m - 18y11m), only one did not have 22q11.2 deletion detected. The main findings were: conotruncal malformation (n = 12), facial abnormalities (n = 11), hypocalcemia (n = 5) and low lymphocyte count (n=2). CONCLUSION: The authors pointed out the necessity of DGS suspicion in all patient presenting with heart defects, facial abnormalities (associated or not with hypocalcemia), and immunological disorders because although frequency of DGS is high, few patients with a confirmed diagnosis are followed up.
  • Pulmonary metastasectomy from soft tissue sarcomas Clinical Sciences

    Sardenberg, Rodrigo Afonso da Silva; Figueiredo, Luiz Poli de; Haddad, Fábio José; Gross, Jefferson Luiz; Younes, Riad Naim

    Resumo em Inglês:

    INTRODUCTION: Isolated pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcomas occur in 20-50% of these(the issue is about metastases, not lung cancer )patients, and 70% of these patients will present disease limited only to the lungs. Surgical resection is well accepted as a standard approach to treat metastases from soft tissue sarcomas isolated in the lungs, and many studies investigating this technique have reported an overall 5-year survival ranging from 30-40%. The most consistent predictor of survival in these patients is complete resection. The aim of the present study was to determine the demographics and clinical treatment-related variables associated with long-term (90-month) overall survival in patients with lung metastases undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy from soft tissue sarcomas. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted in the Thoracic Surgery Department with lung metastases who underwent thoracotomy for resection following treatment of the primary tumor. Data regarding primary tumor features, demographics, treatment, and outcome were collected. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-two thoracotomies and 273 nodules were resected from 77 patients with previously treated soft tissue sarcomas. The median follow-up time of all patients was 36.7 months (range: 10-138 months). The postoperative complication rate was 9.1%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 0%. The 90-month overall survival rate for all patients was 34.7%. Multivariate analysis identified the following independent prognostic factors for overall survival: the number of metastases resected, the disease-free interval, and the number of complete resections. CONCLUSION: These results confirm that lung metastasectomy is a safe and potentially curative procedure for patients with treated primary tumors. A select group of patients can achieve long-term survival after lung resection.
  • Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats Basic Research

    Rodrigues, Luciana P.; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Padovan, Gilberto João; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; Suen, Vivian; Marchini, Julio Sergio

    Resumo em Inglês:

    AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein-calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group) and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group) were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol), both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups) and the other re-fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage) (carnitine groups). No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i) no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii) Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non-alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P<0.05) and lowest in alcoholic animals (about 1.5 g/100g). iii) Hepatic fat content (~10 g/100 g, P>.05) was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.
  • The impact of antipsychotic drugs on food intake and body weight and on leptin levels in blood and hypothalamic ob-r leptin receptor expression in wistar rats Basic Research

    von Wilmsdorff, Martina; Bouvier, Marie-Luise; Henning, Uwe; Schmitt, Andrea; Gaebel, Wolfgang

    Resumo em Inglês:

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs on leptin concentration in blood and changes in the receptor expression in the hypothalamus of male Wistar rats. METHODS: From the age of 13 to 18 weeks, three groups of 20 animals were fed an average dose of 3.5 + 0.03 mg/ kg body weight (BW) haloperidol; 30.6 + 0.22 mg/kg BW clozapine; or 14.9 + 0.13 mg/kg BW ziprasidone in ground food pellets containing 15% fat. Twenty control animals received no drugs. Blood samples were taken at week 14, 16, and 19. Locomotor activity and exploratory behavior were measured using the alcove test at weeks 15 and 17. The expression of the hypothalamic leptin receptor in rat brains was determined by using a Western blot. RESULTS: Rats medicated with haloperidol and ziprasidone showed a significantly decreased percentage weight gain and food consumption. We observed no differences in the alcove test, but locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the haloperidol group. Except for rats in the clozapine and ziprasidone groups, after 2 weeks of drug application, we found no changes in the leptin blood concentrations among the four groups or animals within each group. Moreover, we did not find specific differences in hypothalamic leptin receptor expression among the groups. CONCLUSION: We concluded that in male Wistar rats during this treatment period, the tested drugs did not act directly on the leptin regulatory system. We recommend further studies using long-term treatment of different rat strains.
  • Episodes of falling among elderly people: a systematic review and meta-analysis of social and demographic pre-disposing characteristics Reviews

    Bloch, F.; Thibaud, M.; Dugué, B.; Brèque, C.; Rigaud, AS.; Kemoun, G.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    CONTEXT: The multifactorial nature of falls among elderly people is well-known. Identifying the social-demographic characteristics of elderly people who fall would enable us to define the typical profile of the elderly who are at risk of falling. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to isolate studies in which the social-demographic risk factors for falls among the elderly have been evaluated and to carry out a meta-analysis by combining the results of all of these selected studies. METHOD: We did a systematic literature review using the key words "accidental fall / numerical data" and "risk factors." Inclusion criteria entailed the selection of articles with the following characteristics: population of subjects aged 60 years or over, falls that took place in everyday life, and social-demographic risk factors for falls. RESULTS: 3,747 indexed articles published between 1981 and 2007 were identified, and 177 studies with available data were included, of which 129 had data on social-demographic risk factors for falls. Difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL) or in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) double the risk of falling: The OR and 95% Cl were 2.26 (2.09, 2.45) for disturbance ADL and 2.10 (1.68, 2.64) for IADL. The OR and 95% Cl for Caucasians were 1.68 (0.98 - 2.88) and 0.64 (0.51 - 0.80) for Hispanics. In the subgroup of patients older than eighty, being married protected people from falling with an OR and 95% Cl =0.68 (0.53 - 0.87). CONCLUSION: Defining factors that create a risk of falling and protect elderly people from falls using social-demographic characteristics lets us focus on an "at risk" population for which a specific program could be developed.
  • Difficult-to-control asthma management through the use of a specific protocol Reviews

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Bisaccioni, Carla; Agondi, Rosana; Kalil, Jorge

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The present study is a critical review of difficult-to-control asthma, highlighting the characteristics and severity of the disease. It also presents a protocol for the management of patients with this asthma phenotype. The protocol, which was based on relevant studies in the literature, is described and analyzed.
  • An evaluation of respiration and swallowing interaction after orotracheal intubation Technical Note

    Camargo, Fernanda Pereira de; Ono, Jaime; Park, Marcelo; Caruso, Pedro; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro
  • Glioblastoma multiforme in childhood: a case report Letters to the Editors

    Borgo, Mauro Cruz Machado; Pereira, Julio Leonardo Barbosa; Lima, Franklin Bernardes Faraj de; Brandão, Rafael Augusto Castro Santiago; Carvalho, Gervásio Teles C. de; Costa, Bruno Silva
  • Cheyne-stokes respiration associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and normal left ventricular ejection fraction Letters to the Editors

    Pedrosa, Rodrigo P.; Drager, Luciano F.; Antunes, Murillo O.; Arteaga, Edmundo; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo
  • Lipodystrophy during pegvisomant therapy: a case report and review of the literature Letters to the Editors

    Buyuktas, D; Celik, O; Kantarci, F; Kadioglu, P
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