Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Substantial controversy exists regarding the association between testosterone serum levels and prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis hormones in the sera of men with prostate cancer and atypical small acinar proliferation as well as those with normal biopsies. METHODS: A study cohort of 186 men with suspected prostate cancer who had undergone transrectal prostate biopsies was used in this study. The patients were divided into the following three groups based on the histology of the biopsy samples: no neoplasia, atypical small acinar proliferation or prostate cancer. Demographic data were also collected. Levels of total testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, estradiol, and serum prostate-specific antigen were measured in blood samples. RESULTS: Initially, 123 men were found to be without neoplasia, 26 with atypical small acinar proliferation and 37 with prostate cancer. After a second biopsy was taken from the men diagnosed with atypical small acinar proliferation, the diagnoses were revised: 18 were diagnosed with atypical small acinar proliferation and 45 with prostate cancer. No significant differences between the groups were identified regarding age, smoking history, chronic diseases, body mass index or PSA levels (P >.0.05). The mean serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin and estradiol were similar in all of the groups (P >.0.05). Furthermore, in individuals with prostate cancer, the Gleason scores and prevalence of hypogonadism were not significantly different (P.> 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present study revealed no difference in the serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin or estradiol in men without neoplasia compared with those with atypical small acinar proliferation or prostate cancer.
Abstract in English:AIMS: Preservation of renal function in children with congenital neurogenic bladder is an important goal of treatment for the disease. This study analyzed the evolution of renal function in patients with congenital neurogenic bladder. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 58 pediatric patients with respect to the following attributes: gender, age, etiology of neurogenic bladder, reason for referral, medical/surgical management, episodes of treated urinary tract infections, urodynamics, DMSA scintigraphy, weight, height, blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, microalbuminuria and metabolic acidosis. Statistical analysis was performed, adopting the 5% significance level. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 4.2 ± 3.5 years. Myelomeningocele was the most frequent etiology (71.4%). Recurrent urinary tract infection was the reason for referral in 82.8% of the patients. Recurrent urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 84.5% of the patients initially; 83.7% of those patients experienced improvement during follow-up. The initial mean glomerular filtration rate was 146.7 ± 70.1 mL/1.73 m²/min, and the final mean was 193.6 ± 93.6 mL/1.73 m²/min, p = 0.0004. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed in 54.1% of the patients initially and in 69% in the final evaluation. Metabolic acidosis was present in 19% of the patients initially and in 32.8% in the final assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Patient referral to a pediatric nephrologist was late. A reduction in the number of urinary tract infections was observed with adequate treatment, but microalbuminuria and metabolic acidosis occurred frequently despite adequate management.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether cognitive awareness of carbohydrate beverage consumption affects exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis, independent of actual carbohydrate intake. INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate supplementation during aerobic exercise generally protects against the immunosuppressive effects of exercise. It is not currently known whether carbohydrate consumption or simply the knowledge of carbohydrate consumption also has that effect. METHODS: Endurance trained male and female (N = 10) athletes were randomly assigned to one of two groups based on either a correct or incorrect cognitive awareness of carbohydrate intake. In the incorrect group, the subjects were informed that they were receiving the carbohydrate beverage but actually received the placebo beverage. Participants completed a 60-min ride on a cycle ergometer at 80% VO2peak under carbohydrate and placebo supplemented conditions. Venous blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after exercise and were used to determine the plasma glucose concentration, lymphocyte count, and extent of lymphocyte apoptosis. Cognitive awareness, either correct or incorrect, did not have an effect on any of the measured variables. RESULTS: Carbohydrate supplementation during exercise did not have an effect on lymphocyte count or apoptotic index. Independent of drink type, exercise resulted in significant lymphocytosis and lymphocyte apoptosis (apoptotic index at rest = 6.3 ± 3% and apoptotic index following exercise = 11.6 ± 3%, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Neither carbohydrate nor placebo supplementation altered the typical lymphocyte apoptotic response following exercise. While carbohydrate supplementation generally has an immune-boosting effect during exercise, it appears that this influence does not extend to the mechanisms that govern exercise-induced lymphocyte cell death.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Exercise oxygen pulse (O2 pulse), a surrogate for stroke volume and arteriovenous oxygen difference, has emerged as an important variable obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the O2 pulse curve pattern response to a maximal cycling ramp protocol exhibits a stable linear pattern in subjects reevaluated under the same clinical conditions. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 100 adults (80 males), mean age at baseline of 59 + 12 years, who performed two cardiopulmonary exercise testings (median interval was 15 months), for clinical and/or exercise prescription reasons. The relative O2 pulse was calculated by dividing its absolute value by body weight. Subjects were classified into quintiles of relative O2 pulse. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing results and the O2 pulse curve pattern, expressed by its slope and intercept, were compared among quintiles of relative O2 pulse at both cardiopulmonary exercise testings. RESULTS: After excluding the first minute of CPX (rest-exercise transition), the relative O2 pulse curve exhibited a linear increase, as demonstrated by high coefficients of determination (R² from 0.75 to 0.90; p<0.05 for all quintiles). Even though maximum oxygen uptake and relative O2 pulse were significantly higher in the second cardiopulmonary exercise testing for each quintile of relative O2 pulse (p<0.05 for all comparisons), no differences were found when slopes and intercepts were compared between the first and second cardiopulmonary exercise testings (p>0.05 for all comparisons; except for intercept in the 5th quintile). CONCLUSION: Excluding the rest-exercise transition, the relative O2 pulse exhibited a stable linear increase throughout maximal exercise in adults that were retested under same clinical conditions.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pleurodesis carried out entirely on an outpatient basis in patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusions and Karnofsky Performance Status scores <70. METHODS: This study was a prospective trial comprising patients with symptomatic recurrent malignant pleural effusion and Karnofsky Performance Status scores <70 but >30. All selected patients underwent pleural catheter placement (14 Fr) in an outpatient facility. When chest radiography revealed post-drainage lung expansion of >90%, pleurodesis (3 g of talc) was performed. Catheters were maintained until the daily output was ,100 mL/day. The patients were evaluated in the first month and every three months thereafter for fluid recurrence, the need for additional procedures, and complications. RESULTS: During the study period (January 2005 to July 2007), 64 patients (24 men, 40 women), with an average age of 61.4 years, underwent elective chest tube drainage. Primary sites of the underlying malignancy were breast (27), lung (22), and others (15). Sixty-six pleural catheters were placed (bilaterally in 2 patients), and 52 talc pleurodesis procedures were performed. Fourteen patients had a trapped lung and were excluded from the trial. No complications were observed during catheter placement or pleurodesis. Post-pleurodesis complications included catheter obstruction (4 patients) and empyema (1). The average drainage time was 9.9 days. The recurrence rate observed in patients that were alive 30 days after pleurodesis was 13.9% (5/36 patients). Six patients required additional procedures after the pleurodesis. The average survival time was 101 days. CONCLUSION: In this study, talc pleurodesis was safely performed in an outpatient setting with good efficacy and a reasonable complication rate, thereby avoiding hospital admission.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Cystatin C in healthy term newborns in the first month of life. INTRODUCTION: Cystatin C may be a suitable marker for determining the glomerular filtration rate because it is not affected by maternal renal function. METHODS: Cohort study. Inclusion: term newborns with appropriate weight; mother without renal failure or drugs that could affect fetal glomerular filtration rate. Exclusion: malformations; hypertension or any condition that could affect glomerular filtration rate. Cystatin C (mg/L)and creatinine (rng/dl) were determined in the mother (Mo) and in the newborn at birth (Day-0), 3rd (Day-3), 7th(Day-7) and 28t>h(Day-28) days. Statistics: one way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation tests. Sample size of 20 subjects for a = 5% and a power test = 80% (p<0.05). RESULTS: Data from 21 newborns were obtained (mean + standard deviation): MoCystatin C=1.00 ± 0.20; Day-0 Cystatin C 1.70 ± 0.26; Day-3 Cystatin C = 1.51±0.20; Day-7 Cystatin C = 1.54 ± 0.10; Day-28 Cystatin C= 1.51±0.10. MoCystatin C was smaller than Day-0 Cystatin C (p<0.001), while MoCreatinine was not different from Day-0 Creatinine. Cystatin C only decreased from Day-0 to Day-3 (p = 0.004) but newborns Creatinine decreased along the time. Correlations were obtained between MoCystatin C and MoCreatinine (p = 0.012), as well as Day-3 (p = 0.047) and Day-28 (p = 0.022) Cystatin C and Creatinine values. CONCLUSION: Neonatal Cystatin C values were not affected by MoCystatin C and became stable from the 3rd day of life.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To verify the acute effects of resistance exercise on post-exercise blood pressure in patients with intermittent claudication. METHODS: Eight patients randomly underwent two experimental sessions: a session of resistance exercise (R: 6 exercises, 3 sets of 12, 10 and 8 reps with a perceived exertion of 11 to 13 on the 15-grade Borg scale) and a control session (C: resting on exercise machines). RESULTS: Before and for 60 min following an intervention, auscultatory blood pressure was measured while subjects rested in a sitting position. After the C session, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures did not change from the pre-intervention values, while these values decreased significantly after the R session throughout the entire recovery period (greatest decreases = -14 ± 5, -6±5, and -9 ± 4 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: After a single bout of resistance exercise patients with intermittent claudication exhibited reduced systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures, suggesting that acute resistance exercise may decrease cardiovascular load in these patients.
Abstract in English:AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of the HLA genotypes DQ2 and DQ8 and the alleles A1*05, A1*0201, B1*0201 and B1*0302 in individuals with celiac disease in Recife, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: HLA DQ2 and DQ8 genotyping was performed for 73 individuals with celiac disease and 126 first-degree relatives with negative transglutaminase serology. The alleles DQA1*05, DQA1*0201, DQB1*02 and DQB1*0302 were identified by sequencing using specific primers and the EU-DQ kit from the Eurospital Laboratory, Trieste, Italy and double-checked by the All Set SPP kit (Dynal). RESULTS: Among the 73 cases, 50 (68.5%) had the genotype DQ2, 13 (17.8%) had DQ8, 5 (6.8%) had DQ2 and DQ8, and 5 did not have any of these genotypes. Among the 5 negative individuals, four had the B1*02 allele and one did not have any of the alleles studied. B1*02 was the most frequent allele in both groups (94% in the patients and 89% in the control relatives). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, celiac disease was associated with the genotypes DQ2 and DQ8. DQ2 predominated, but the distribution of the frequencies was different from what has been found in European populations and was closer to what has been found in the Americas. The high frequencies of the HLA genotypes DQ2 and DQ8 that were found in first-degree relatives would make it difficult to use these HLA genotypes for routine diagnosis of celiac disease in this group.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE) inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of low cardiac output and mortality in decompensated heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Introduction: Patients with decompensated heart failure have a high mortality rate, especially those patients with low cardiac output. However, this clinical presentation is uncommon, and its management is controversial. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 452 patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure with an ejection fraction of <0.45. Patients underwent clinical-hemodynamic assessment and Chagas disease immunoenzymatic assay. Low cardiac output was defined according to L and C clinical-hemodynamic profiles. Multivariate analyses assessed clinical outcomes. P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The mean age was 60.1 years; 245 (54.2%) patients were >60 years, and 64.6% were men. Low cardiac output was present in 281 (63%) patients on admission. Chagas disease was the cause of heart failure in 92 (20.4%) patients who had higher B type natriuretic peptide levels (1,978.38 vs. 1,697.64 pg/mL; P = 0.015). Predictors of low cardiac output were Chagas disease (RR: 3.655, P<0.001), lower ejection fraction (RR: 2.414, P<0.001), hyponatremia (RR: 1.618, P = 0.036), and renal dysfunction (RR: 1.916, P = 0.007). Elderly patients were inversely associated with low cardiac output (RR: 0.436, P = 0.001). Predictors of mortality were Chagas disease (RR: 2.286, P<0.001), ischemic etiology (RR: 1.449, P = 0.035), and low cardiac output (RR: 1.419, P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: In severe decompensated heart failure, predictors of low cardiac output are Chagas disease, lower ejection fraction, hyponatremia, and renal dysfunction. Additionally, Chagas disease patients have higher B type natriuretic peptide levels and a worse prognosis independent of lower ejection fraction.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic kidney disease who receive early nephrology care have a better prognosis with maintenance dialysis. We aimed to determine whether early referral to a nephrologist can also improve the psychological burden of having chronic kidney disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with chronic kidney disease that required hemodialysis were studied: 19 had a $ 6-month history of nephrology care (Group1), and 20 had never received any prior nephrology care (Group2). All patients participated in a semi-structured interview that addressed their perceived knowledge and psychological aspects related to CKD and hemodialysis. Demographic and laboratory data as well as socioeconomic status were evaluated. RESULTS: In both groups, most of the patients were of low socioeconomic status. Group 1 had significantly better laboratory parameters (p<0.05). The patients' answers to the questions showed no differences between the groups: 63% of Group 1 and 55% of Group 2 reported that they had no prior knowledge about dialysis; 58% and 40%, respectively, reported that they ''don't completely understand what the doctor says''; and 74% and 85%, respectively, believed that their ''kidneys would work again''. CONCLUSION: Pre-dialysis nephrology care improves the clinical conditions of the patients with chronic kidney disease but is insufficient for minimizing other aspects of having chronic kidney disease.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases with gender differences in prevalence and clinical presentation. This study aimed to examine whether such gender differences are correlated with cumulative healthcare utilization in Taiwan. METHODS: The National Health Insurance Research Database supplied claim records of one million individuals from 1996 to 2007. Selected cases included patients aged >16 years. Certified rheumatologists diagnosed the patients in three or more visits and gave prescriptions for AS. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the influence of gender on cumulative healthcare utilization associated with AS. RESULTS: The study included 228 women and 636 men. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, men had more cumulative outpatient visits associated with AS (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 -2.23; p = 0.008). Men also exhibited a trend for higher frequency of AS-related hospitalization (p = 0.054). CONCLUSION: Men are more likely to have high cumulative AS-associated healthcare utilization than women. Further investigation of the causal factors is warranted.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Regular physical exercise has numerous benefits. However, there is a subset of the exercising population who may develop a compulsion to exercise excessively and who may, as a consequence, display physiological and psychological changes that have a direct influence on their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if there are differences between male and female athletes' scores on measures of negative addiction symptoms, quality of life, mood and sleep. METHODS: 144 female and 156 male athletes participated in this study by answering the following questionnaires: Negative Addiction Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, SF-36 Quality of Life, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Higher dedication to training sessions in the male group, and members of the female group with symptoms of negative addiction to exercise showed a lower score on vigor observed by the Profile of Mood States compared to the males in both situations. We also observed depression symptoms in both members of groups who had negative addiction symptoms when compared with their peers without symptoms, and these figures were even higher in females compared with the male group in the same situation. CONCLUSION: No differences were seen in the development of negative addiction exercise symptoms in males and females and there were no changes in the quality of life and mood of these athletes. Further studies of eating disorders associated with changes in body image perception could contribute to a better understanding of negative addiction to exercise.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection worsens the frailty of elderly people, compromising their quality of life. In this study we prospectively evaluated eleven patients living with HIV and 21 controls older than 60 years and without prior regular physical activity, who engaged in a one-year progressive resistance exercise program to compare its effects on muscular strength, physical fitness and body composition. METHODS: Exercises for major muscular groups were performed 2 times/week, under professional supervision. Strength increase was evaluated bimonthly, while body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles (only of those living with HIV) and physical fitness were evaluated before and after the one-year training. RESULTS: The participants living with HIV were lighter, had smaller Body Mass Index and were initially much weaker than controls. However, their strength increased more (1.52-2.33 times the baseline values for those living with HIV x 1.21-1.48 times for controls, p<0.01), nullifying the differences initially seen. These effects were seen independently of gender, age or baseline physical activity. In addition, those living with HIV improved their fasting glucose levels and showed a tendency to improve their lipids after the one year training program. These effects were slightly more pronounced among those not using protease inhibitors, although not significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance exercise safely increased the strength of older patients living with HIV adults, allowing them to achieve performance levels observed among otherwise healthy controls. These findings favor the recommendation of resistance exercise for elderly adults living with HIV adults.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this retrospective study is to analyze and compare the results of conventional surgical repair and endovascular treatment of blunt aortic injury over the past 8 years. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (25 male; mean age, 35 years) were treated for blunt aortic injury between April 2001 and March 2009 in a university hospital in Brazil. Twenty-six patients were included in the study: five were treated with operative repair (OR) and 21 with endovascular treatment (TEVAR). Two patients were excluded from analysis: one was managed conservatively, and one was treated with endovascular treatment for chronic dissection related to aortic trauma. RESULTS: Mean age was lower in the OR group than in the endovascular treatment group (17.8 vs. 38 years, P = .003). There was one death in the OR group and four deaths in the endovascular treatment group. Mean follow-up for the overall group was 33.6 months, with 48.7 months (range 8-83 months) for the OR group, and 29.8 months (range 2-91 months) for the TEVAR group. Mean time elapsed from injury to repair was 23.4 hours (range 8-48 h, median 20 h) for the OR group and 30.3 hours (range 2-240 h, median 18 h) for the TEVAR group (P = .374). The duration of surgery was shorter in the endovascular treatment group (142 versus 237 minutes; P = .005). There were no significant differences with respect to the number of postoperative days requiring mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay or duration of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective analysis, endovascular treatment was a safe method for repair of blunt aortic trauma, with immediate and midterm results that were comparable to those results obtained with operative repair. No complications from the stent graft were identified during follow-up. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of this treatment.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Body mass index (BMI) and knee osteoarthritis have a strong association, but other anthropometric measures lack such associations. To date, no study has evaluated non-obese knee osteoarthritis to negate the systemic and metabolic effects of obesity. This study examines the validity of the contention that BMI and other anthropometric measures have a significant relationship with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: In total, 180 subjects with a diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis were recruited and classified according to Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades. Body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, waist-hip ratio and triceps-skinfold thickness were recorded by standard procedures. Osteoarthritis outcome scores (WOMAC) were evaluated. RESULTS: (1) In both genders, the BMI was significantly higher for KL grade 4 than for grade 2; triceps-skinfold thickness was positively correlated with the joint space width of the tibial medial compartment. (2) In males, triceps-skinfold thickness significantly increased as the KL grades moved from 2 to 4; the significantly higher BMI found in varus aligned knees was positively correlated with WOMAC scores. (3) In females, the waist-hip ratio was significantly higher for KL grade 4 than for grade 2; a significant correlation was found between BMI and WOMAC scores. The waist-hip ratio was significantly associated with varus aligned knees and it positively correlated with WOMAC scores and with the joint space width of the tibial medial compartment. The mid-upper arm circumference demonstrated no correlation with knee osteoarthritis. CONCLUS'ON: This study validates the contention that BMI and other anthropometric measures have a significant association with knee osteoarthritis. Contrary to common belief, the triceps-skinfold thickness (peripheral fat) in males and the waist-hip ratio (central fat) in females were more strongly associated with knee osteoarthritis than BMI.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Therapeutic approaches in pediatric populations are based on adult data because there is a lack of appropriate data for children. Consequently, there are many controversies regarding the proper treatment of pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed before 20 years of age and to determine the factors associated with the response to the initial therapy. METHODS: Sixty-five patients, treated in two tertiary-care referral centers in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 2005 were evaluated. Information about clinical presentation and the response to initial treatment was analyzed and patients had their risk stratified in Tumor-Node- Metastasis; Age-Metastasis-Extracapsular-Size; distant Metastasis-Age-Completeness of primary tumor resection-local Invasion-Size and American-Thyroid-Association classification RESULTS: Patients ages ranged from 4 to 20 years (median 14). The mean follow-up was 12,6 years. Lymph node metastasis was found in 61.5% and indicated a poor response to initial therapy, with a significant impact on time for achieving disease free status (p = 0.014 for response to initial therapy and p<0,0001 for disease-free status in follow-up). Distant metastasis was a predictor of a poor response to initial therapy in these patients (p = 0.014). The risk stratification systems we analyzed were useful for high-risk patients because they had a high sensitivity and negative predictive value in determining the response to initial therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Metastases, both lymph nodal and distant, are important predictors of the persistence of disease after initial therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running performance has been investigated from 100 m to the marathon distance, except the half marathon distance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether anthropometry characteristics or training practices were related to race time in 42 recreational female half marathoners to determine the predictor variables of half-marathon race time and to inform future novice female half marathoners. METHODS: Observational field study at the 'Half Marathon Basel' in Switzerland. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = 0.60), body mass index (r = 0.48), body fat (r = 0.56), skin-fold at pectoral (r = 0.61), mid-axilla (r = 0.69), triceps (r = 0.49), subscapular (r = 0.61), abdominal (r = 0.59), suprailiac (r = 0.55) medial calf (r = 0.53) site, and speed of the training sessions (r = -0.68) correlated to race time. Mid-axilla skin-fold (p = 0.04) and speed of the training sessions (p = 0.0001) remained significant after multi-variate analysis. Race time in a half marathon might be predicted by the following equation (r² = 0.71): Race time (min) = 166.7 + 1.7x (mid-axilla skin-fold, mm) - 6.4x (speed in training, km/h). Running speed during training was related to skinfold thickness at mid-axilla (r = -0.31), subscapular (r = -0.38), abdominal (r = -0.44), suprailiacal (r = -0.41), the sum of eight skin-folds (r = -0.36) and percent body fat (r = -0.31). CONCLUSION: Anthropometric and training variables were related to half-marathon race time in recreational female runners. Skin-fold thicknesses at various upper body locations were related to training intensity. High running speed in training appears to be important for fast half-marathon race times and may reduce upper body skin-fold thicknesses in recreational female half marathoners.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neurophysiological auditory brainstem responses to clicks and repeated speech stimuli differ between typically developing children and children with phonological disorders. INTRODUCTION: Phonological disorders are language impairments resulting from inadequate use of adult phonological language rules and are among the most common speech and language disorders in children (prevalence: 8 - 9%). Our hypothesis is that children with phonological disorders have basic differences in the way that their brains encode acoustic signals at brainstem level when compared to normal counterparts. METHODS: We recorded click and speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in 18 typically developing children (control group) and in 18 children who were clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (research group). The age range of the children was from 7-11 years. RESULTS: The research group exhibited significantly longer latency responses to click stimuli (waves I, III and V) and speech stimuli (waves V and A) when compared to the control group. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the abnormal encoding of speech sounds may be a biological marker of phonological disorders. However, these results cannot define the biological origins of phonological problems. We also observed that speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses had a higher specificity/sensitivity for identifying phonological disorders than click-evoked auditory brainstem responses. CONCLUSIONS: Early stages of the auditory pathway processing of an acoustic stimulus are not similar in typically developing children and those with phonological disorders. These findings suggest that there are brainstem auditory pathway abnormalities in children with phonological disorders.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Upper limb exercises are frequently used in respiratory physiotherapy, with UL elevation and controlled inspiratory timing. However, the use of expiration during upper limb elevation appears to be a strategy that could minimize the action of accessory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this context, little is known about the synchrony of upper limb (UL) movements associated with breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the respiratory pattern of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during different UL exercises associated with respiratory exercises. METHODS: Fifteen chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients participated in this study. Respiratory pattern analysis by inductance plethysmography was performed during four types of upper limb exercises, two shoulder flexion-extension (one associated with inspiratory time during the concentric phase and the other associated with expiratory time) and two shoulder abduction-adduction (same timing as above). Statistical analysis was performed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and ANOVA with Tukey tests (p< 0.05). RESULTS: The thoracoabdominal coordination measurements increased in the two exercises using both inspiration during shoulder flexion (PhRIB: 172%; PhREB: 131%; PhRTB: 142% and PhAng: 238%) as well as in shoulder horizontal abduction (PhRIB: 145%; PhREB: 109%; PhRTB: 130% and PhAng: 229%), differing from the exercises with expiration at the time of shoulder flexion and horizontal abduction. CONCLUSION: The exercises performed with inverted respiratory time produced less asynchrony and can be used as important strategies during physical exercise programs in these patients.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the probable mechanism of the volume increase of laparoscopically harvested omentum flaps used to treat breast deformities. METHODS: A histological analysis of omentum samples was performed to study the volume increase of laparoscopically harvested omentum flaps. Samples were harvested immediately after the transposition of the omentum from the abdominal cavity to the breast region and during the second surgical procedure for breast symmetrization of eight patients submitted to the transposition of the omentum flap. Changes in the morphometric measurements of the adipocytes (perimeter, diameter, and area), microvascular density (as measured by the CD31 endothelial marker), and immunohistochemical expression of VEGF were documented. RESULTS: The increases in adipocyte size and microvascular density were statistically significant (P < 0.012). The expression levels of VEGF were lower in the second set of samples when compared to the first set, but the differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.093). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate an increase in cellular volume as measured by adipocyte perimeter, diameter, and area. Moreover, the increase in the number of vessels in the second set of samples suggests that neoangiogenesis was stimulated by the initial increase in VEGF expression levels observed in the first set of samples. The increase in VEGF expression in the flap may have been caused by adipocyte hypertrophy resulting from neoangiogenesis.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle appears to be increasing in athletes. However, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been established. OBJECTIVES: To compare the isokinetic shoulder performance after surgical treatment to that after non-surgical treatment for pectoralis major muscle rupture. METHODS: We assessed 33 pectoralis major muscle ruptures (18 treated non-surgically and 15 treated surgically). Horizontal abduction and adduction as well as external and internal rotation at 60 and 120 degrees/s were tested in both upper limbs. Peak torque, total work, contralateral deficiency, and the peak torque agonist-to-antagonist ratio were measured. RESULTS: Contralateral muscular deficiency did not differ between the surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities. However, the surgical group presented twice the number of athletes with clinically acceptable contralateral deficiency (<20%) for internal rotators compared to the non-surgical group. The peak torque ratio between the external and internal rotator muscles revealed a similar deficit of the external rotation in both groups and on both sides (surgical, 61.60% and 57.80% and non-surgical, 62.06% and 54.06%, for the dominant and non-dominant sides, respectively). The peak torque ratio revealed that the horizontal adduction muscles on the injured side showed similar weakness in both groups (surgical, 86.27%; non-surgical, 98.61%). CONCLUSIONS: This study included the largest single series of athletes reported to date for this type of injury. A comparative analysis of muscular strength and balance showed no differences between the treatment modalities for pectoralis major muscle rupture. However, the number of significant clinical deficiencies was lower in the surgical group than in the non-surgical group, and both treatment modalities require greater attention to the rehabilitation process, especially for the recovery of muscle strength and balance.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work was to determine whether the intraperitoneal administration of glibenclamide as a K ATP channel blocker could have an effect on the antinociceptive effects of antidepressants with different mechanisms of action. METHODS: Three antidepressant drugs, amitriptyline as a dual-action, nonselective inhibitor of noradrenaline and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluvoxamine as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and maprotiline as a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, were selected, and the effect of glibenclamide on their antinociceptive activities was assessed in male Swiss mice (25-30 g) using a formalin test. DISCUSSION: None of the drugs affected acute nociceptive responses during the first phase. Amitriptyline (5, 10 mg/ kg), maprotiline (10, 20 mg/kg) and fluvoxamine (20 and 30 mg/kg) effectively inhibited pain induction caused by the second phase of the formalin test. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) alone did not alter licking behaviors based on a comparison with the control group. However, the pretreatment of animals with glibenclamide (10 and 15 mg/kg) partially reversed the antinociceptive effects of fluvoxamine but not those of maprotiline. In addition, the highest dose of glibenclamide (15 mg/kg) partially prevented the analgesic effect of amitriptyline. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it seems that adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels have a major role in the analgesic activity of amitriptyline and fluvoxamine.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Cancer has been investigated using various pre-targeting techniques or models focusing on radiobombesin analogues; however, both are not offered together. In this study, nano-bombesin labeling by a pre-targeting system was undertaken to develop an alternative approach for prostate tumor treatment. METHODS: A two-step pre-targeting system utilizing a combination of streptavidin (SA), biotinylated morpholino (B-MORF), biotinylated BBN (B-BBN) with two different spacers (b-Ala and PEG), and a radiolabeled cMORF was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Final conjugation conditions consisted of a 1:1:2 ratio of SA:B-MORF:B-BBN, followed by addition of 99mTc-cMORF to compensate for free MORF. In vitro binding experiments with prostate cancer cells (PC-3) revealed that total binding was time-dependent for the Ala spacer but not for the PEG spacer. The highest accumulation (5.06 ± 1.98 %) was achieved with 1 hour of incubation, decreasing as time progressed. Specific binding fell to 1.05 ± 0.35 %. The pre-targeting biodistribution in healthy Swiss mice was measured at different time points, with the best responses observed for 7-h and 15-h incubations. The effector, 99mTc-MAG3-cMORF, was administered 2 h later. Strong kidney excretion was always documented. The greatest tumor uptake was 2.58 ± 0.59 %ID/g at 7 h for B-bAla-BBN, with a region of interest (ROI) value of 3.9 % during imaging. The tumor/blood ratio was low due to the slow blood clearance; however, the tumor/muscle ratio was 5.95. CONCLUSIONS: The pre-targeting approach with a peptide was a viable concept. Further evaluation with modified sequences of MORF, including less cytosine, and additional test intervals could be worthwhile.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Qualis database in identifying the levels of scientific evidence and the quality of randomized controlled trials indexed in the Lilacs database. METHODS: We selected 40 open-access journals and performed a page-by-page hand search, to identify published articles according to the type of study during a period of six years. Classification of studies was performed by independent reviewers assessed for their reliability. Randomized controlled trials were identified for separate evaluation of risk of bias using four dimensions: generation of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. The Qualis classification was considered to be the outcome variable. The statistical tests used included Kappa, Spearman's correlation, Kendall-tau and ordinal regressions. RESULTS: Studies with low levels of scientific evidence received similar Qualis classifications when compared to studies with high levels of evidence. In addition, randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias for the generation of allocation sequences and allocation concealment were more likely to be published in journals with higher Qualis levels. DISCUSSION: The hierarchy level of the scientific evidence as classified by type of research design, as well as by the validity of studies according to the bias control level, was not correlated or associated with Qualis stratification. CONCLUSION: Qualis classifications for journals are not an approximate or indirect predictor of the validity of randomized controlled trials published in these journals and are therefore not a legitimate or appropriate indicator of the validity of randomized controlled trials.