Clinics, Volume: 66, Issue: 4, Published: 2011
  • Genomic instability in human actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma Clinical Sciences

    Cabral, Luciana Sanches; Festa Neto, Cyro; Sanches Jr, José A.; Ruiz, Itamar R. G.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the repetitive DNA patterns of human actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas to determine the genetic alterations that are associated with malignant transformation. INTRODUCTION: Cancer cells are prone to genomic instability, which is often due to DNA polymerase slippage during the replication of repetitive DNA and to mutations in the DNA repair genes. The progression of benign actinic keratoses to malignant squamous cell carcinomas has been proposed by several authors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight actinic keratoses and 24 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), which were pair-matched to adjacent skin tissues and/or leucocytes, were studied. The presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosomes 6 and 9 were investigated using nine PCR primer pairs. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA patterns were also evaluated using eight primers. RESULTS: MSI was detected in two (D6S251, D9S50) of the eight actinic keratosis patients. Among the 8 patients who had squamous cell carcinoma-I and provided informative results, a single patient exhibited two LOH (D6S251, D9S287) and two instances of MSI (D9S180, D9S280). Two LOH and one example of MSI (D6S251) were detected in three out of the 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma-II. Among the four patients with squamous cell carcinoma-III, one patient displayed three MSIs (D6S251, D6S252, and D9S180) and another patient exhibited an MSI (D9S280). The altered random amplified polymorphic DNA ranged from 70% actinic keratoses, 76% squamous cell carcinoma-I, and 90% squamous cell carcinoma-II, to 100% squamous cell carcinoma-III. DISCUSSION: The increased levels of alterations in the microsatellites, particularly in D6S251, and the random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints were statistically significant in squamous cell carcinomas, compared with actinic keratoses. CONCLUSION: The overall alterations that were observed in the repetitive DNA of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas indicate the presence of a spectrum of malignant progression.
  • Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor overexpression in adrenocortical hyperplasia in MEN1 syndrome without loss of heterozygosity at the 11q13 locus Clinical Sciences

    Costa, Marcia Helena Soares; Domenice, Sorahia; Toledo, Rodrigo Almeida; Lourenço Jr, Delmar Muniz; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Pinto, Emilia Modolo; Toledo, Sergio Pereira Almeida; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms involved in the genesis of the adrenocortical lesions seen in MEN1 syndrome (ACL-MEN1) remain poorly understood; loss of heterozygosity at 11q13 and somatic mutations of MEN1 are not usually found in these lesions. Thus, additional genes must be involved in MEN1 adrenocortical disorders. Overexpression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor has been shown to promote adrenocortical tumorigenesis in a mice model and has also been associated with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome in humans. However, to our knowledge, the status of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor expression in adrenocortical lesions in MEN1 has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor expression in adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with MEN1 syndrome. MATERIALS/METHODS: Three adrenocortical tissue samples were obtained from patients with previously known MEN1 germline mutations and in whom the presence of a second molecular event (a new MEN1 somatic mutation or an 11q13 loss of heterozygosity) had been excluded. The expression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor was quantified by qPCR using the DDCT method, and b-actin was used as an endogenous control. RESULTS: The median of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor expression in the adrenocortical lesions associated with MEN1 syndrome was 2.6-fold (range 1.2 to 4.8) higher than the normal adrenal controls (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The current study represents the first investigation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor expression in adrenocortical lesions without 11q13 loss of heterozygosity in MEN1 syndrome patients. Although we studied a limited number of cases of MEN1 adrenocortical lesions retrospectively, our preliminary data suggest an involvement of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor overexpression in the etiology of adrenocortical hyperplasia. New prospective studies will be able to clarify the exact role of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor in the molecular pathogenesis of MEN1 adrenocortical lesions.
  • The influence of intense intermittent versus moderate continuous exercise on postprandial lipemia Clinical Sciences

    Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Ferreira, Cristiane Batisti; Souza, Vinícius Carolino de; Córdova, Cláudio Olavo de Almeida; Silva, Glauber Castelo Branco; Nóbrega, Otávio de Toledo; França, Nancí Maria de

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Postprandial lipemia is characterized by an increased concentration of circulating lipids after fat intake and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Exercise is known to reduce postprandial lipemia and its negative clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of intense intermittent versus moderate continuous exercise using the same energy expenditure in postprandial lipemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy men (aged 21.5 + 3.5 years) performed a random sequence of either rest or 500 Kcal tests separated by a minimum 48 h interval as follows: (a) no exercise (control), (b) intense intermittent exercise, or (c) moderate continuous exercise. Each test series was completed 30 min before ingestion of a high-fat meal (1 g fat/kg). Venous blood was collected before and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after the high-fat meal. Postprandial lipemia was assessed using the area under the curve approach as well as a kinetic profile of mean lipid variables. Statistical significance was tested at the p<0.05 level. RESULTS: With both statistical approaches, intense intermittent and moderate continuous exercises were both effective in reducing postprandial triglycerides; however, only intense intermittent exercise reduced the levels of postprandial very low density lipoprotein. Intense intermittent and continuous exercise produced lower levels of insulinemia using the area under the curve analysis only. CONCLUSION: Intense intermittent or continuous exercise with an energy expenditure of 500 kcal completed 30 min before ingestion of high-fat meal reduced postprandial lipid levels to different levels in physically active men. Understanding these relevant differences will enable clinicians to provide the best exercise prescription for patients.
  • Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of resistance genes in intestinal Bacteroidales strains Clinical Sciences

    Nakano, Viviane; Silva, Amanda do Nascimento e; Merino, Victor Rafael Castillo; Wexler, Hannah M.; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the antimicrobial resistance profile and the prevalence of resistance genes in Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis strains isolated from children's intestinal microbiota. METHODS: The susceptibility of these bacteria to 10 antimicrobials was determined using an agar dilution method. β-lactamase activity was assessed by hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin of 114 Bacteriodales strains isolated from the fecal samples of 39 children, and the presence of resistance genes was tested using a PCR assay. RESULTS: All strains were susceptible to imipenem and metronidazole. The following resistance rates were observed: amoxicillin (93%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (96.4%), cephalexin (99%), cefoxitin (23%), penicillin (99%), clindamycin (34.2%) and tetracycline (53.5%). P-lactamase production was verified in 92% of the evaluated strains. The presence of the cfiA, cepA, ermF, tetQ and nim genes was observed in 62.3%, 76.3%, 27%, 79.8% and 7.8% of the strains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an increase in the resistance to several antibiotics in intestinal Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis and demonstrate that these microorganisms harbor antimicrobial resistance genes that may be transferred to other susceptible intestinal strains.
  • Trends and predictors of changes in pulmonary function after treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis Clinical Sciences

    Chung, Kuei-Pin; Chen, Jung-Yueh; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Wu, Huey-Dong; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the trends in changes in pulmonary function and the risk factors for pulmonary function deterioration in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis after completing treatment. INTRODUCTION: Patients usually have pulmonary function abnormalities after completing treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. The time course for changes in pulmonary function and the risk factors for deterioration have not been well studied. METHODS: A total of 115 patients with 162 pulmonary function results were analyzed. We retrieved demographic and clinical data, radiographic scores, bacteriological data, and pulmonary function data. A generalized additive model with a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing technique was used to evaluate the trends in changes in pulmonary function. A generalized estimating equation model was used to determine the risk factors associated with deterioration of pulmonary function. RESULTS: The median interval between the end of anti-tuberculosis treatment and the pulmonary function test was 16 months (range: 0 to 112 months). The nadir of pulmonary function occurred approximately 18 months after the completion of the treatment. The risk factors associated with pulmonary function deterioration included smear-positive disease, extensive pulmonary involvement prior to anti-tuberculosis treatment, prolonged anti-tuberculosis treatment, and reduced radiographic improvement after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: After the completion of anti-tuberculosis TB treatment, several risk factors predicted pulmonary function deterioration. For patients with significant respiratory symptoms and multiple risk factors, the pulmonary function test should be followed up to monitor the progression of functional impairment, especially within the first 18 months after the completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment.
  • Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with typical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms refractory to proton pump inhibitor Clinical Sciences

    Sá, Claudia Cristina de; Kishi, Humberto Setsuo; Silva-Werneck, Ana Luiza; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado Pinto de; Eisig, Jaime Natan; Barbuti, Ricardo Correa; Hashimoto, Claudio Lyioti; Navarro-Rodriguez, Tomas

    Abstract in English:

    BACKGROUND: TREATMEN The contribution of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) to refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains unknown. When EoE and GERD overlap, the clinical, endoscopic and histological findings are nonspecific and cannot be used to distinguish between the two disorders. Limited data are available on this topic, and the interaction between EoE and GERD is a matter of debate. AIM: We have conducted a prospective study of adult patients with refractory GERD to evaluate the overlap of reflux and EoE. METHODS: Between July 2006 and June 2008, we consecutively and prospectively enrolled 130 male and female patients aged 18 to 70 years old who experienced persistent heartburn and/or regurgitation more than twice a week over the last 30 days while undergoing at least six consecutive weeks of omeprazole treatment (at least 40 mg once a day). The patients underwent an upper digestive endoscopy with esophageal biopsy, and intraepithelial eosinophils were counted after hematoxylin/eosin staining. The diagnosis of EoE was based on the presence of 20 or more eosinophils per high-power field (eo/HPF) in esophageal biopsies. RESULTS: Among the 103 studied patients, 79 (76.7%) were females. The patients had a mean age of 45.5 years and a median age of 47 years. Endoscopy was normal in 83.5% of patients, and erosive esophagitis was found in 12.6%. Only one patient presented lesions suggestive of EoE. Histological examination revealed >20 eo/HPF in this patient. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated a low prevalence of EoE among patients with refractory GERD undergoing omeprazole treatment.
  • Does staged closure have a worse prognosis in gastroschisis? Clinical Sciences

    Schmidt, Augusto Frederico; Gonçalves, Anderson; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim Murray; Oliveira Filho, Antônio Gonçalves; Marba, Sergio Tadeu; Sbragia, Lourenco

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Correction of gastroschisis can be accomplished by primary or staged closure. There is, however, no consensus regarding the best approach or criteria to favor one method over the other has been established. OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of primary and staged closure in newborns with gastroschisis using intravesical pressure (IVP) as the decision criterion. PATIENTS & METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 45 newborns with gastroschisis. An IVP with a threshold of 20 cm H2O was used to indicate primary or staged closure, and the outcomes between the two methods were compared. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Newborns in whom primary closure was feasible were born at a lower gestational age. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications, time to begin oral feeding, length of parenteral nutrition or length of hospital stay. Compared with previous reports, our data showed higher rates of prenatal diagnosis and cesarean delivery, a lower average birth weight, a higher rate of small gestational age babies and a more frequent association with intestinal atresia. Conversely, our data showed a lower rate of postoperative necrotizing enterocolitis and a lower average length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: No significant difference was observed in the outcome of newborns who underwent primary closure or staged closure of gastroschisis when using an IVP below 20 cm H2O as the criterion for primary closure.
  • Upper airway collapsibility evaluated by a negative expiratory pressure test in severe obstructive sleep apnea Clinical Sciences

    Romano, Salvatore; Salvaggio, Adriana; Hirata, Raquel Pastrello; Lo Bue, Anna; Picciolo, Stefano; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco de; Insalaco, Giuseppe

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the usefulness of measuring upper airway collapsibility with a negative expiratory pressure application as a screening test for severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). INTRODUCTION: OSA is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and it may have serious consequences. Its recognition may have important implications during the perioperative period. Increased upper airway collapsibility is one of the main determinants of OSA, and its evaluation could be useful for identifying this condition. METHODS: Severe OSA and normal subjects (24 in each group) were matched by body mass index and referred to our sleep laboratory. The subjects were enrolled in an overnight sleep study, and a diurnal negative expiratory pressure test was performed. Flow drop (DV) and expiratory volume were measured in the first 0.2 s (V02) of the negative expiratory pressure test. RESULTS: DV (%) and V02 (%) values were statistically different between normal and OSA subjects. OSA patients showed a greater decrease in flow than normal subjects. In addition, severely OSA patients exhaled during the first 0.2 s of the negative expiratory pressure application was an average of only 11.2% of the inspired volume compared to 34.2% for the normal subjects. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristics showed that V02 (%) and DV (%) could accurately identify severe OSA in subjects with sensitivities of 95.8% and 91.7%, respectively, and specificities of 95.8% and 91.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: V02 (%) and DV (%) are highly accurate parameters for detecting severe OSA. The pharyngeal collapsibility measurement, which uses negative expiratory pressure during wakefulness, is predictive of collapsibility during sleep.
  • Predictive score for clinical complications during intra-hospital transports of infants treated in a neonatal unit Clinical Sciences

    Vieira, Anna Luiza Pires; Santos, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes dos; Okuyama, Mariana Kobayashi; Miyoshi, Milton Harumi; Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco de; Guinsburg, Ruth

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a predictive score for clinical complications during intra-hospital transport of infants treated in neonatal units. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study nested in a prospective cohort of infants transported within a public university hospital from January 2001 to December 2008. Transports during even (n=301) and odd (n = 394) years were compared to develop and validate a predictive score. The points attributed to each score variable were derived from multiple logistic regression analysis. The predictive performance and the score calibration were analyzed by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively. RESULTS: Infants with a mean gestational age of 35 + 4 weeks and a birth weight of 2457 + 841 g were studied. In the derivation cohort, clinical complications occurred in 74 (24.6%) transports. Logistic regression analysis identified five variables associated with these complications and assigned corresponding point values: gestation at birth [<28 weeks (6 pts); 28-34 weeks (3 pts); >34 weeks (2 pts)]; pre-transport temperature [<36.3°Cor >37°C(3pts); 36.3-37.0°C (2 pts)]; underlying pathological condition [CNS malformation (4 pts); other (2 pts)]; transport destination [surgery (5 pts); magnetic resonance or computed tomography imaging (3 pts); other (2 pts)]; and pre-transport respiratory support [mechanical ventilation (8 pts); supplemental oxygen (7 pts); no oxygen (2 pts)]. For the derivation and validation cohorts, the areas under the ROC curve were 0.770 and 0.712, respectively. Expected and observed frequencies of complications were similar between the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: The predictive score developed and validated in this study presented adequate discriminative power and calibration. This score can help identify infants at risk of clinical complications during intra-hospital transports.
  • The relationship between bisphosphonate use and demographic characteristics of male osteoporosis patients Clinical Sciences

    Cevikoi, Alev; Umay, Ebru; Polat, Sevgi; Ecerkale, Oznur; Cakci, Aytul

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate a number of demographic characteristics in males with osteoporosis (OP) treated with bisphosphonate and determine whether any of these measures could act as an effective indicator of medication persistence and compliance. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Among the patients with OP who applied to our clinic and were prescribed weekly oral bisphosphonate treatment, 89 patients over 50 years of age were included in this study. The demographic characteristics of these patients were evaluated. The number of medications used by the patients over the past 1 and 3 years were counted, and the persistence and compliance with bisphosphonate treatment was estimated. The patients were divided into two groups: fully compliant and noncompliant subjects. The two groups of patients were compared separately for 1 and 3 years while considering their demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age of the 89 patients included in the study was 62.43 + 9.41 years. Comparisons among the studied demographic characteristics during the 1-year period of medication use indicated that the educational status of the fully compliant patients was higher. During the 3-year period of medication use, educational status was the only demographic characteristic that was determined to be significantly lower in the noncompliant patients than in the fully compliant group. CONCLUSION: Although deficiencies in medication persistence and compliance during osteoporosis treatment can lead to serious health and social problems in both genders, the causes of these deficiencies have not been thoroughly clarified. We suggest that the educational status of the patient may contribute to these deficiencies.
  • Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women Clinical Sciences

    Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sedentary women (n = 155) were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; BMI <25 kg/m²; 58.3 + 8.6 years) and overweight/obese (n = 76; BMI >25 kg/m²; 58.3 + 8.6 years) groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass), cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. RESULTS: Overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. After follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) muscle strength. However, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6%) and recovery heart rate (5 bpm). Resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. Both groups improved muscle strength, but only normal-weight women improved cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise. These results suggest that exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise may be impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women.
  • Role of psychiatric disorders and irritable bowel syndrome in asthma patients Clinical Sciences

    Yilmaz, Ayse; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Tasliyurt, Turker; Sahan, Abdulkadir Geylani; Ustun, Yusuf; Etikan, Ilker

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The goals of the study were the following: 1) to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders and irritable bowel syndrome in patients with asthma and 2) to compare the frequency of these disorders in patients with asthma to their frequency in healthy controls. INTRODUCTION: Patients with asthma have a higher frequency of irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders. METHODS: We evaluated 101 patients with bronchial asthma and 67 healthy subjects. All subjects completed the brief version of the Bowel Symptoms Questionnaire and a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis disorders (SCID-I/CV). RESULTS: There were 37 cases of irritable bowel syndrome in the group of 101 stable asthma patients (36.6%) and 12 cases in the group of 67 healthy subjects (17.9%) (p = 0.009). Irritable bowel syndrome comorbidity was not related to the severity of asthma (p = 0.15). Regardless of the presence of irritable bowel syndrome, psychiatric disorders in asthma patients (52/97; 53.6%) were more common than in the control group (22/63, 34.9%) (p = 0.02). Although psychiatric disorders were more common in asthma patients with irritable bowel syndrome (21/35, 60%) than in those without irritable bowel syndrome (31/62, 50%), the difference was not significant (p = 0.34). In asthma patients with irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders, the percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was lower than it was in those with no comorbidities (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Both irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disorders were more common in asthma patients than in healthy controls. Psychiatric disorders were more common in asthma patients with irritable bowel syndrome than in those without irritable bowel syndrome, although the differences failed to reach statistical significance. In asthma patients with IBS and psychiatric disorders, FEV1s were significantly lower than in other asthma patients. It is important for clinicians to accurately recognize that these comorbid conditions are associated with additive functional impairment.
  • Repeatability of the evaluation of systemic microvascular endothelial function using laser doppler perfusion monitoring: clinical and statistical implications Clinical Sciences

    Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Matheus, Alessandra SM; Nunes, Bruno; Sperandei, Sandro; Gomes, Marilia B.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: An awareness of the repeatability of biological measures is required to properly design and calculate sample sizes for longitudinal interventional studies. We investigated the day-to-day repeatability of measures of systemic microvascular reactivity using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring. METHODS: We performed laser Doppler perfusion monitoring in combination with skin iontophoresis using acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as post-occlusive reactive and thermal hyperemia twice within two weeks. The repeatability was assessed by calculating the within-subject standard deviations, limits of agreement, typical errors and intra-class correlation coefficients between days 1 and 2. The ratio of the within-subject standard deviation to the mean values obtained on days 1 and 2 (within-subject standard deviation/GM) was used to determine the condition with the best repeatability. RESULTS: Twenty-four healthy subjects, aged 24.6 + 3.8 years, were recruited. The area under the curve of the vasodilatory response to post-occlusive reactivity showed marked variability (within-subject standard deviation/GM = 0.83), while the area under the curve for acetylcholine exhibited less variability (within-subject standard deviation/ GM = 0.52) and was comparable to the responses to sodium nitroprusside and thermal treatment (within-subject standard deviations/GM of 0.67 and 0.56, respectively). The area under the blood flow/time curve for vasodilation during acetylcholine administration required the smallest sample sizes, the area under the blood flow/time curve during post-occlusive reactivity required the largest sample sizes, and the area under the blood flow/time curves of vasodilation induced by sodium nitroprusside and thermal treatment required intermediate sizes. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the importance of random error related to the day-to-day repeatability of laser Doppler perfusion monitoring, we propose an original and robust statistical methodology for use in designing prospective clinical studies.
  • Evaluation of prognostic factors in stage IIA breast tumors and their correlation with mortality risk Clinical Sciences

    Carvalho, Solange Torchia; Stiepcich, Monica Maria; Fregnani, José Humberto; Nonogaki, Sueli; Rocha, Rafael; Soares, Fernando Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    Breast tumors exhibit extensive molecular and clinical heterogeneity. One of the most utilized breast carcinoma classifications is based on its molecular aspects and subdivides breast cancer into five major groups based on the expression of certain genes. In this study, we evaluated which factors are important in determining a prognosis after 5 years of follow-up for patients with clinical stage IIA breast tumors. We took into consideration the different phenotypes (luminal A luminal B HER-2 overexpression, basal and triple-negative), various epithelial-mesenchymal (EMT) molecular markers and adhesion molecules (E-cadherin, P-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, twist snail and slug) and NOS-2, in addition to clinical and demographic data, tumor characteristics and treatment types. METHODS: The study population consisted of 82 patients with breast cancer. We analyzed eight molecular markers by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing breast tumor specimens from patients with ten years of follow-up, and we classified each tumor according to its estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER-2 expression. We then placed the tumor into one of the above categories. RESULTS: The presence of several clinical and demographic factors, various histopathologies, treatment forms and several immunohistochemical markers were not associated with a worse prognosis for group IIA patients. The factors that were associated with a mortality risk were the triple-negative (odds ratio (OR) = 11.8, 95% confident interval (CI) = 2.0-70.3, P = 0.007) and basal (OR =18.4, 95% CI = 1.8-184.7, P= 0.013) phenotypic patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The EMT markers and NOS-2 were not mortality risk factors. Basal and triple-negative phenotypic patterns were related to a higher mortality risk in patients with stage IIA tumors.
  • Physical activity attenuates neuropsychiatric disturbances and caregiver burden in patients with dementia Clinical Sciences

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; Oliani, Merlyn Mércia; Bucken-Gobbi, Lilian Teresa; Gobbi, Sebastião; Beinotti, Fernanda; Stella, Florindo

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: A significant benefit from physical activity has recently been described in some patients who suffer from neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of physical activity on neuropsychiatric disturbances in demented patients and on the mental burden of their caregivers. METHODS: Assisted by a public geriatric psychiatry clinical unit, we studied 59 patients with dementia. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and level of physical activity. Data were assessed through a semi-structured interview. Patients were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire and the Baecke Questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Patients with Alzheimer's or vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms than those who did not. When compared to the control group, the caregivers of patients with vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had a reduced burden. CONCLUSION: The regular practice of physical activity seems to contribute to a reduction in neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients and to attenuate the burden of the caregivers of those patients.
  • E-learning program for medical students in dermatology Clinical Sciences

    Silva, Cristiana Silveira; Souza, Murilo Barreto; Silva Filho, Roberto Silveira; Medeiros, Luciana Molina de; Criado, Paulo Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: Dermatological disorders are common in medical practice. In medical school, however, the time devoted to teaching dermatology is usually very limited. Therefore, online educational systems have increasingly been used in medical education settings to enhance exposure to dermatology. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to develop a e-learning program for medical students in dermatology and evaluate the impact of this program on learning. METHODS: This prospective study included second year medical students at the University of Technology and Science, Salvador, Brazil. All students attended discussion seminars and practical activities, and half of the students had adjunct online seminars (blended learning). Tests were given to all students before and after the courses, and test scores were evaluated. RESULTS: Students who participated in online discussions associated with face-to-face activities (blended learning) had significantly higher posttest scores (9.0 + 0.8) than those who only participated in classes (7.75+1.8, p <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that an associated online course might improve the learning of medical students in dermatology.
  • Verbal fluency in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and major depression Clinical Sciences

    Araujo, Narahyana Bom de; Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To compare verbal fluency among Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and major depression and to assess the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the disease severity. METHODS: Patients from an outpatient university center with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or major depression were studied. Severity was staged using the Hoehn & Yahr scale, the Hamilton Depression scale and the Clinical Dementia Rating for Parkinson's disease, major depression, and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. All subjects were tested with the Mini-Mental State Examination, the digit span test, and the verbal fluency test (animals). We fit four types of regression models for the count variable: Poisson model, negative binomial model, zero-inflated Poisson model, and zero-inflated negative binomial model. RESULTS: The mean digit span and verbal fluency scores were lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 34) than in patients with major depression (n = 52) or Parkinson's disease (n = 17) (p<0.001). The average number of words listed was much lower for Alzheimer's disease patients (7.2 words) compared to the patients presenting with major depression (14.6 words) or Parkinson's disease (15.7 words) (KW test = 32.4; p<0.01). Major depression and Parkinson's disease groups listed 44% (ROM = 1.44) and 48% (ROM = 1.48) more words, respectively, compared to those patients with Alzheimer's disease; these results were independent of age, education, disease severity and attention. Independently of diagnosis, age, and education, severe disease showed a 26% (ROM = 0.74) reduction in the number of words listed when compared to mild cases. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal fluency provides a better characterization of Alzheimer's disease, major depression, and Parkinson's disease, even at later stages.
  • Earthquake-related pelvic crush fracture vs. non-earthquake fracture on digital radiography and MDCT: a comparative study Clinical Sciences

    Chen, Tian-wu; Yang, Zhi-gang; Dong, Zhi-hui; Tang, Si-shi; Chu, Zhi-gang; Shao, Heng

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the features of earthquake-related pelvic crush fractures versus non-earthquake fractures with digital radiography and multidetector row computed tomography. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-seven survivors with pelvic crush fractures in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake were entered in our study as the earthquake-related group (139 underwent digital radiography, 28 underwent multidetector row computed tomography); 70 victims with non-earthquake pelvic fractures were enrolled into this study as the non-earthquake group (54 underwent digital radiography, 16 underwent multidetector row computed tomography). Data were reviewed retrospectively between groups, focusing on anatomic distributions, status of pelvic bone fractures, numbers of pelvic bones involved, and classification of pelvic ring fractures according to the Tile classification system. RESULTS: Pelvic fractures occurred more frequently in the pubis in the earthquake-related group than in the non-earthquake group (135/167, 81% vs. 48/70, 69%). In addition, comminuted fractures were more common in the earthquake-related group than in the non-earthquake group (55/167, 33% vs. 10/70, 14%). Multiple fractures were less common in the earthquake-related group than in the non-earthquake group (81/167, 49% vs. 46/70, 66%). Regarding the classification of pelvic ring fractures, Type C predominantly composed of subtype C3 occurred more frequently (64/167, 38% vs. 12/70, 17%), and Type A was less common in the earthquake-related group than in the non-earthquake group (31/167, 19% vs. 23/70, 32%). All differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). No difference was found in Type B fractures between the groups (72/167, 43% vs. 35/70, 50%). CONCLUSION: Earthquake-related pelvic crush fractures can be characterized by a high incidence of pelvic fractures occurring in the pubis, comminuted fractures, and Type C fractures predominantly composed by subtype C3, despite a low incidence of multiple fractures.
  • Functional outcomes of conservatively treated clavicle fractures Clinical Sciences

    Bajuri, Mohd Yazid; Maidin, S.; Rauf, A.; Baharuddin, M.; Harjeet, S.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the study was to analyze the outcomes of clavicle fractures in adults treated non-surgically and to evaluate the clinical effects of displacement, fracture patterns, fracture location, fracture comminution, shortening and fracture union on shoulder function. METHODS: Seventy clavicle fractures were non-surgically treated in the Orthopedics Department at the Tuanku Ja'afar General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Seremban, Malaysia, an average of six months after injury. The clavicle fractures were treated conservatively with an arm sling and a figure-eight splint for three weeks. No attempt was made to reduce displaced fractures, and the patients were allowed immediate free-shoulder mobilization, as tolerated. They were prospectively evaluated clinically and radiographically. Shoulder function was evaluated using the Constant scoring technique. RESULTS: There were statistically significant functional outcome impairments in non-surgically treated clavicle fractures that correlated with the fracture type (comminution), the fracture displacement (21 mm or more), shortening (15 mm or more) and the fracture union (malunion). CONCLUSION: This article reveals the need for surgical intervention to treat clavicle fractures and improve shoulder functional outcomes.
  • A comparison between magnetic resonance angiography at 3 teslas (time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced) and flat-panel digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of embolized brain aneurysms Clinical Sciences

    Nakiri, Guilherme S.; Santos, Antonio C.; Abud, Thiago G.; Aragon, Davi C.; Colli, Benedicto O.; Abud, Daniel G.

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To compare the time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced- magnetic resonance angiography techniques in a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance unit with digital subtraction angiography with the latest flat-panel technology and 3D reconstruction in the evaluation of embolized cerebral aneurysms. INTRODUCTION: Many embolized aneurysms are subject to a recurrence of intra-aneurismal filling. Traditionally, imaging surveillance of coiled aneurysms has consisted of repeated digital subtraction angiography. However, this method has a small but significant risk of neurological complications, and many authors have advocated the use of noninvasive imaging methods for the surveillance of embolized aneurysms. METHODS: Forty-three aneurysms in 30 patients were studied consecutively between November 2009 and May 2010. Two interventional neuroradiologists rated the time-of-flight-magnetic resonance angiography, the contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance angiography, and finally the digital subtraction angiography, first independently and then in consensus. The status of aneurysm occlusion was assessed according to the Raymond scale, which indicates the level of recanalization according to degrees: Class 1: excluded aneurysm; Class 2: persistence of a residual neck; Class 3: persistence of a residual aneurysm. The agreement among the analyses was assessed by applying the Kappa statistic. RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement was excellent for both methods (K = 0.93; 95 % CI: 0.84-1). Inter-technical agreement was almost perfect between time-of-flight-magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography (K = 0.98; 95 % CI: 0.93-1) and between time-of-flight-magnetic resonance angiography and contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance angiography (K = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.93-1). Disagreement occurred in only one case (2.3%), which was classified as Class I by time-of-flight-magnetic resonance angiography and Class II by digital subtraction angiography. The agreement between contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography was perfect (K = 1; 95% CI: 1-1). In three patients, in-stent stenosis was identified by magnetic resonance angiography but not confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. CONCLUSION: Digital subtraction angiography and both 3T magnetic resonance angiography techniques have excellent reproducibility for the assessment of aneurysms embolized exclusively with coils. In those cases also treated with stent remodeling, digital subtraction angiography may still be necessary to confirm eventual parent artery stenosis, as identified by magnetic resonance angiography.
  • Noninvasive measurement of cardiac performance in recovery from exercise in heart failure patients Clinical Sciences

    Myers, Jonathan N; Gujja, Pradeep; Neelagaru, Suresh; Hsu, Leon; Burkhoff, Daniel

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cardiac performance during recovery and the severity of heart failure, as determined by clinical and cardiopulmonary exercise test responses. METHODS: As part of a retrospective cohort study, 46 heart failure patients and 13 normal subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing while cardiac output was measured using a noninvasive device. Cardiac output in recovery was expressed as the slope of a single exponential relationship between cardiac output and time; the recovery-time constant was assessed in relation to indices of cardiac function, along with clinical, functional, and cardiopulmonary exercise responses. RESULTS: The recovery time constant was delayed in patients with heart failure compared with normal subjects (296.7 + 238 vs. 110.1 +27 seconds, p <0.01), and the slope of the decline of cardiac output in recovery was steeper in normal subjects compared with heart failure patients (p,0.001). The slope of the decline in cardiac output recovery was inversely related to peak VO2 (r = -0.72, p<0.001) and directly related to the VE/VCO2 slope (r = 0.57, p,0.001). Heart failure patients with abnormal recovery time constants had lower peak VO2, lower VO2 at the ventilatory threshold, lower peak cardiac output, and a heightened VE/VCO2 slope during exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cardiac output recovery kinetics can identify heart failure patients with more severe disease, lower exercise capacity, and inefficient ventilation. Estimating cardiac output in recovery from exercise may provide added insight into the cardiovascular status of patients with heart failure.
  • Treatment of chronic periodontitis decreases serum prohepcidin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease Clinical Sciences

    Vilela, Eduardo Machado; Bastos, Jessica Amaral; Fernandes, Natalia; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Chaoubah, Alfredo; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of periodontal treatment on serum levels of prohepcidin (the prohormone of hepcidin) and systemic inflammation markers, as well as correlations among these markers, in patients with chronic periodontitis and chronic kidney disease who were not undergoing dialysis. METHODS: We included 56 chronic periodontitis patients, 36 with chronic kidney disease and 20 without systemic diseases and with normal renal function (control group). Chronic kidney disease was defined as suggested by the clinical practice guidelines in the National Kidney Foundation. Chronic periodontitis was defined through clinical attachment level and by probing pocket depth, according to the American Association of Periodontology. The inflammatory markers ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and prohepcidin were evaluated before and 3 months after periodontal treatment. RESULTS: The efficacy of periodontal treatment was confirmed by the improvement in clinical parameters of chronic periodontitis in the control and chronic kidney disease groups. Periodontal treatment resulted in significant reductions in ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and serum prohepcidin levels in both groups. Moreover, in multivariate linear regression, the reduction in prohepcidin after periodontal treatment was significantly and independently associated with interleukin-6 levels in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: By inducing a decline in the systemic inflammatory response and a decrease in serum prohepcidin, successful periodontal treatment may represent an important means of ameliorating the inflammatory burden seen in patients with chronic kidney disease.
  • Enhancement of basolateral amygdaloid neuronal dendritic arborization following Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats Basic Researchs

    Vollala, Venkata Ramana; Upadhya, Subramanya; Nayak, Satheesha

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: In the ancient Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, Bacopa monniera is classified as Medhya rasayana, which includes medicinal plants that rejuvenate intellect and memory. Here, we investigated the effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region that is concerned with learning and memory. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 2¹/2-month-old Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups. Rats in each of these groups were further divided into 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg dose groups (n = 8 for each dose). After the treatment period, treated rats and age-matched control rats were subjected to spatial learning (T-maze) and passive avoidance tests. Subsequently, these rats were killed by decapitation, the brains were removed, and the amygdaloid neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Basolateral amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and dendritic intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. These data were compared with the data from the age-matched control rats. RESULTS: The results showed an improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in rats treated with Bacopa monniera extract. Furthermore, a significant increase in dendritic length and the number of dendritic branching points was observed along the length of the dendrites of the basolateral amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Bacopa monniera (BM) for longer periods of time (i.e., 4 and 6 weeks). CONCLUSION: We conclude that constituents present in Bacopa monniera extract have neuronal dendritic growth-stimulating properties.
  • Chronic treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, attenuates estradiol-mediated improvement of learning and memory in ovariectomized rats Basic Researchs

    Azizi-Malekabadi, Hamid; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Saffarzadeh, Fatima; Karami, Reza; Khodabandehloo, Fatimeh

    Abstract in English:

    INTRODUCTION: The role of ovarian hormones and nitric oxide in learning and memory has been widely investigated. OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on the ability of estradiol to improve learning in OVX rats using the Morris water maze. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into five groups: (1) ovariectomized (OVX), (2) ovariectomized-estradiol (OVX-Est), (3) ovariectomized-L-NAME 10 (OVX-LN 10), (4) ovariectomized-L-NAME 50 (OVX-LN 50) and (5) ovariectomized-estradiol-L-NAME 50 (OVX-Est-LN 50). The animals in the OVX-Est group were treated with a weekly injection of estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; i.m.). The OVX-LN 10 and OVX-LN 50 groups were treated with daily injections of 10 and 50 mg/kg L-NAME (i.p.), respectively. The animals in the OVX-Est-LN 50 group received a weekly injection of estradiol valerate and a daily injection of 50 mg/kg L-NAME. After 8 weeks, all animals were tested in the Morris water maze. RESULTS: The animals in the OVX-Est group had a significantly lower latency in the maze than the OVX group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in latency between the OVX-LN 10 and OVX-LN 50 groups in comparison with the OVX group. The latency in the OVX-Est-LN 50 group was significantly higher than that in the OVX-Est group (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: These results show that L-NAME treatment attenuated estradiol-mediated enhancement of spatial learning and memory in OVX rats, but it had no significant effect in OVX rats without estrogen, suggesting an interaction of nitric oxide and estradiol in these specific brain functions.
  • A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy Review

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simoes; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies.
  • An update on the clinical assessment of the infertile male Invited Review

    Esteves, Sandro C.; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Agarwal, Ashok

    Abstract in English:

    Male infertility is directly or indirectly responsible for 60% of cases involving reproductive-age couples with fertility-related issues. Nevertheless, the evaluation of male infertility is often underestimated or postponed. A coordinated evaluation of the infertile male using standardized procedures improves both diagnostic precision and the results of subsequent management in terms of effectiveness, risk and costs. Recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have made it possible to identify and overcome previously untreatable causes of male infertility. To properly utilize the available techniques and improve clinical results, it is of the utmost importance that patients are adequately diagnosed and evaluated. Ideally, this initial assessment should also be affordable and accessible. We describe the main aspects of male infertility evaluation in a practical manner to provide information on the judicious use of available diagnostic tools and to better determine the etiology of the most adequate treatment for the existing condition.
  • Characteristics of chronically critically ill patients: comparing two definitions Rapid Communications

    Boniatti, Márcio Manozzo; Friedman, Gilberto; Castilho, Rodrigo Kappel; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios; Fialkow, Léa
  • Desmoid tumors of the chest wall: surgical challenges and possible risk factors Rapid Communications

    Abrão, Fernando Conrado; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Fernandez, Angelo; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli
  • A comparison of the TruView EVO2 and macintosh laryngoscope blades Technical Note

    Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Kaya, Guner; Tunali, Yusuf; Altintas, Fatis; Dilmen, Ozlem Korkmaz
  • Auditory training and cognitive functioning in adult with traumatic brain injury Case Reports

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Fillippini, Renata; Palma, Debora; Zalcman, Tatiane Eisencraft; Lima, Janaína Patrício; Schochat, Eliane
  • Acute treatment of uncompensated heart failure with 10% hypertonic saline and its subsequent effect on respiratory patterns Case Reports

    Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Caruso, Pedro
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