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Clinics, Volume: 67, Issue: 6, Published: 2012
  • Warfarin doses for anticoagulation therapy in elderly patients with chronic atrial fibrillation Clinical Sciences

    Mansur, Antonio de Padua; Takada, Julio Yoshio; Avakian, Solange Desiree; Strunz, Celia M.C.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Anticoagulation is a challenge for the prophylaxis of thromboembolic events in elderly patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Stable anticoagulation is defined as the time within >70% of the therapeutic range. However, the dosage required to achieve stable anticoagulation remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the warfarin dose necessary for the maintenance of stable oral anticoagulation therapy in elderly patients. METHODS: We analyzed 112 consecutive outpatients with atrial fibrillation who were >65 years of age, had received anticoagulation therapy with warfarin for more than 1 year and had a stable international normalized ratio between 2.0 and 3.0 for >6 months. The international normalized ratio was measured in the central laboratory using the traditional method. RESULTS: The patients were stratified according to the following age groups: <75 or >75 years and <80 or >80 years. The mean daily doses of warfarin were similar for patients <75 or >75 years (3.34+1.71 versus 3.26 +1.27 mg/ day, p = 0.794) and <80 or >80 years (3.36+ 1.49 versus 3.15 + 1.23 mg/day, p = 0.433). In 88 (79%) patients, the daily warfarin dose was between 2 and 5 mg/day; in 13 (11%) patients, the daily warfarin dose was <2.0 mg/day; and in 11 (10%) patients, the daily warfarin dose was >5.0 mg/day. The correlation between the daily warfarin dose and the international normalized ratio was 0.22 (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Stable anticoagulation was achieved in 80% of patients who received doses of 2 to 5 mg/day of warfarin, and the mean daily dose was similar across the age groups analyzed.
  • Early interdisciplinary hospital intervention for elderly patients with hip fractures : functional outcome and mortality Clinical Sciences

    Tarazona-Santabalbina, Francisco José; Belenguer-Varea, Ángel; Rovira-Daudi, Eduardo; Salcedo-Mahiques, Enmanuel; Cuesta-Peredó, David; Doménech-Pascual, Juan Ramón; Salvador-Pérez, María Isabel; Avellana-Zaragoza, Juan Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Hip fractures are associated with high levels of co-morbidity and mortality. Orthogeriatric units have been shown to be effective with respect to functional recovery and mortality reduction. The aim of this study is to document the natural history of early multidisciplinary intervention in elderly patients with hip fractures and to establish the prognostic factors of mortality and walking ability after discharge. METHODS: This observational, retrospective study was performed in an orthogeriatric care unit on patients aged >70 years with a diagnosis of hip fracture between 2004 and 2008. This study included 1363 patients with a mean age of 82.7 + 6.4 years. RESULTS: On admission to the unit, the average Barthel score of these patients was 77.2 + 27.8 points, and the average Charlson index score was 2.14 + 2.05. The mean length of stay was 8.9 + 4.26 days, and the readmission rate was 2.3%. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.7%, and the mortality rates at one, six, and 12 months after discharge were 8.7%, 16.9%, and 25.9%, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards model estimated that male sex, Barthel scale, heart failure, and cognitive impairment were associated with an increased risk of death. With regard to functionality, 63.7% of the patients were able to walk at the time of discharge, whereas 77.4% and 80.1% were able to walk at one month and six months post-discharge, respectively. The factors associated with a worse functional recovery included cognitive impairment, performance status, age, stroke, Charlson score, and delirium during the hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Early multidisciplinary intervention appears to be effective for the management of hip fracture. Age, male sex, baseline function, cognitive impairment and previous comorbidities are associated with a higher mortality rate and worse functional recovery.
  • Does videothoracoscopy improve clinical outcomes when implemented as part of a pleural empyema treatment algorithm? Clinical Sciences

    Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Almeida, José Luiz Jesus de; Devido, Marcela Santana; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether the inclusion of videothoracoscopy in a pleural empyema treatment algorithm would change the clinical outcome of such patients. METHODS: This study performed quality-improvement research. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent pleural decortication for pleural empyema at our institution from 2002 to 2008. With the old algorithm (January 2002 to September 2005), open decortication was the procedure of choice, and videothoracoscopy was only performed in certain sporadic mid-stage cases. With the new algorithm (October 2005 to December 2008), videothoracoscopy became the first-line treatment option, whereas open decortication was only performed in patients with a thick pleural peel (>2 cm) observed by chest scan. The patients were divided into an old algorithm (n = 93) and new algorithm (n = 113) group and compared. The main outcome variables assessed included treatment failure (pleural space reintervention or death up to 60 days after medical discharge) and the occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Videothoracoscopy and open decortication were performed in 13 and 80 patients from the old algorithm group and in 81 and 32 patients from the new algorithm group, respectively (p<0.01). The patients in the new algorithm group were older (41 +1 vs. 46.3+ 16.7 years, p = 0.014) and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores [0(0-3) vs. 2(0-4), p = 0.032]. The occurrence of treatment failure was similar in both groups (19.35% vs. 24.77%, p = 0.35), although the complication rate was lower in the new algorithm group (48.3% vs. 33.6%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The wider use of videothoracoscopy in pleural empyema treatment was associated with fewer complications and unaltered rates of mortality and reoperation even though more severely ill patients were subjected to videothoracoscopic surgery.
  • Oxidative stress and quality of life in elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: are there differences after six months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment? Clinical Sciences

    Yagihara, Fabiana; Lucchesi, Ligia Mendonca; D'Almeida, Vânia; Mello, Marco Túlio de; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment on oxidative stress parameters and the quality of life of elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. METHODS: In total, 30 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients and 27 subjects without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were included in this study. Both groups underwent quality of life and oxidative stress evaluations at baseline and after six months. Polysomnography was performed in both groups at baseline and a second time in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group after six months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment. All of the variables were compared between the control and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome groups in this prospective case-control study. RESULTS: The baseline concentrations of the antioxidant enzyme catalase were higher in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group than the control group. After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment, the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group exhibited a reduction in the level of oxidative stress, as indicated by a decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation measured by the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration [pre: 2.7 nmol malondialdehyde/mL (95% 1.6-3.7) vs. post: 1.3 nmol MDA/mL (0.7-1.9), p<0.01]. Additionally, improvements were observed in two domains covered by the SF-36 questionnaire: functional capacity [pre: 77.4 (69.2-85.5) vs. post: 83.4 (76.9-89.9), p = 0.002] and pain [pre: 65.4 (52.8-78.1) vs. post: 77.8 (67.2-88.3), p = 0.004]. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure to treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in elderly patients reduced oxidative stress and improved the quality of life.
  • Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study Clinical Sciences

    Costa, Edméa Fontes de Oliva; Santos, Shirley Andrade; Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues de Abreu; Melo, Enaldo Vieira de; Andrade, Tarcísio Matos de

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS) and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369). The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio-OR = 6.47), those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76), and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68). CONCLUSION: There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted.
  • Prognostic value of the six-minute walk test in end-stage renal disease life expectancy: a prospective cohort study Clinical Sciences

    Kohl, Leandro de Moraes; Signori, Luis Ulisses; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Silva, Antonio Marcos Vargas; Moreira, Paulo Ricardo; Dipp, Thiago; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Lukrafka, Janice Luisa; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Méa

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The six-minute walk test has been widely used to evaluate functional capacity and predict mortality in several populations. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the six-minute walk test for the life expectancy of end-stage renal disease patients. METHODS: Patients over 18 years old who underwent hemodialysis for at least six months were included. Patients with hemodynamic instability, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physical incapacity and acute myocardial stroke in the preceding three months were excluded. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (54% males; 36+11 years old) were followed for 144 months. The distance walked in the six-minute walk test was a survival predictor for end-stage renal disease patients. In the multivariate analysis, for each 100 meters walked with a 100-meter increment, the hazard ratio was 0.53, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.37-0.74. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked in the six-minute walk test and peak oxygen consumption (r = 0.508). In the multivariate analysis, each year of dialysis treatment represented a 10% increase in death probability; in the severity index analysis, each point on the scale represented an 11% increase in the death risk. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that survival increased approximately 5% for every 100 meters walked in the six-minute walk test, demonstrating that the test is a viable option for evaluating the functional capacity in patients with end-stage renal disease.
  • Interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 production by mononuclear cells from patients with advanced head and neck cancer Clinical Sciences

    Conti-Freitas, Luiz C.; Foss-Freitas, Maria C.; Mamede, Rui C. M.; Foss, Norma T.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from patients with supraglottic laryngeal cancer before and after surgical treatment. METHODS: Fourteen patients with advanced supraglottic laryngeal cancer were studied. Cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated during the preoperative and late postoperative periods were stimulated with concanavalin A and Bacille Calmette-Guerin, and the supernatant concentrations of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 were measured. RESULTS: For non-stimulated cultures, the interferon-gamma levels produced by the preoperative period and the late postoperative period cultures were lower than the levels produced by the control group cultures. The interferon-gamma levels after stimulation with concanavalin A were higher in the late postoperative period cultures than in the preoperative evaluation cultures. Stimulation with Bacille Calmette-Guerin led to the production of similar levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 by all cultures; thus, stimulation increased the levels of interferon-gamma produced by both the preoperative and postoperative cultures relative to the levels produced by the corresponding unstimulated cultures. CONCLUSION: Patients with advanced supraglottic laryngeal cancer exhibit an in vitro deficiency in interferongamma secretion by mononuclear cells. Stimulated cells seem to recover this function during the postoperative period.
  • Bone mineral density and body composition in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty before and after treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist Clinical Sciences

    Alessandri, Sandra B.; Pereira, Francisco de A.; Villela, Rosângela A.; Antonini, Sonir R. R.; Elias, Paula C. L.; Martinelli Jr., Carlos E.; Castro, Margaret de; Moreira, Ayrton C.; Paula, Francisco J. A. de

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic central precocious puberty and its postponement with a (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) GnRH agonist are complex conditions, the final effects of which on bone mass are difficult to define. We evaluated bone mass, body composition, and bone remodeling in two groups of girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty, namely one group that was assessed at diagnosis and a second group that was assessed three years after GnRH agonist treatment. METHODS: The precocious puberty diagnosis and precocious puberty treatment groups consisted of 12 girls matched for age and weight to corresponding control groups of 12 (CD) and 14 (CT) girls, respectively. Bone mineral density and body composition were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was estimated after correction for bone age and the mathematical calculation of volumetric bone mineral density. CONEP: CAAE-0311.0.004.000-06. RESULTS: Lumbar spine bone mineral density was slightly increased in individuals diagnosed with precocious puberty compared with controls; however, after correction for bone age, this tendency disappeared (CD = -0.74 + 0.9 vs. precocious puberty diagnosis = -1.73 + 1.2). The bone mineral density values of girls in the precocious puberty treatment group did not differ from those observed in the CT group. CONCLUSION: There is an increase in bone mineral density in girls diagnosed with idiopathic central precocious puberty. Our data indicate that the increase in bone mineral density in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty is insufficient to compensate for the marked advancement in bone age observed at diagnosis. GnRH agonist treatment seems to have no detrimental effect on bone mineral density.
  • Reconstruction of chronic lesions in the posterolateral corner of the knee with autologous biceps femoralis and fascia lata grafts Clinical Sciences

    Oliveira, Marcus Guilherme de; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Kawano, Cezar Teruyuki

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of patients with chronic lesions in the posterolateral corner of the knee with reconstruction of the fibular collateral ligament, popliteus tendon and popliteofibular ligament and with autografts of the biceps femoris and fascia lata. METHOD: A total of 129 patients with injuries of the posterolateral corner of the knee that lasted for more than three weeks and were associated with the lesion of at least one of the cruciate ligaments were included. All of the patients were operated on consecutively in the same hospital between March 2004 and April 2009. Clinical evaluation using the Lyshom scale and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC, item 4, assessment ligament) protocol was performed in 114 patients for whom there were complete data available. RESULTS: There was significant improvement in the Lyshom score and improved stability according to the IKDC protocol in the pre- compared to postoperative varus stress test at 30 degrees and the posterolateral rotation test. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical reconstruction of the posterolateral corner of the knee with biceps femoris tendon and fascia lata autografts is effective in stabilizing the posterolateral corner of the knee.
  • Motivation and frustration in cardiology trial participation: the patient perspective Clinical Sciences

    Meneguin, Silmara; Cesar, Luiz Antônio Machado

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The participation of humans in clinical cardiology trials remains essential, but little is known regarding participant perceptions of such studies. We examined the factors that motivated participation in such studies, as well as those that led to participant frustration. METHODS: Patients who had participated in hypertension and coronary arterial disease (phases II, III, and IV) clinical trials were invited to answer a questionnaire. They were divided into two groups: Group I, which included participants in placebo-controlled clinical trials after randomization, and Group II, which included participants in clinical trials in which the tested treatment was compared to another drug after randomization and in which a placebo was used in the washout period. RESULTS: Eighty patients (47 patients in Group I and 33 patients in Group II) with different socio-demographic characteristics were interviewed. Approximately 60% of the patients were motivated to participate in the trial with the expectation of personal benefit. Nine participants (11.2%) expressed the desire to withdraw, which was due to their perception of risk during the testing in the clinical trial (Group I) and to the necessity of repeated returns to the institution (Group II). However, the patients did not withdraw due to fear of termination of hospital treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study had a small patient sample, the possibility of receiving a benefit from the new tested treatment was consistently reported as a motivation to participate in the trials.
  • The diameter of the originating vein determines esophageal and gastric fundic varices in portal hypertension secondary to posthepatitic cirrhosis Clinical Sciences

    Zhou, Hai-ying; Chen, Tian-wu; Zhang, Xiao-ming; Wang, Li-ying; Zhou, Li; Dong, Guo-li; Zeng, Nan-lin; Li, Hang; Chen, Xiao-li; Li, Rui

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether and how the diameter of the vein that gives rise to the inflowing vein of the esophageal and gastric fundic varices secondary to posthepatitic cirrhosis, as measured with multidetector-row computed tomography, could predict the varices and their patterns. METHODS: A total of 106 patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis underwent multidetector-row computed tomography. Patients with and without esophageal and gastric fundic varices were enrolled in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Group 1 was composed of Subgroup A, consisting of patients with varices, and Subgroup B consisted of patients with varices in combination with portal vein-inferior vena cava shunts. The diameters of the originating veins of veins entering the varices were reviewed and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The originating veins were the portal vein in 8% (6/75) of patients, the splenic vein in 65.3% (49/75) of patients, and both the portal and splenic veins in 26.7% (20/75) of patients. The splenic vein diameter in Group 1 was larger than that in Group 2, whereas no differences in portal vein diameters were found between groups. In Group 1, the splenic vein diameter in Subgroup A was larger than that in Subgroup B. A cut-off splenic vein diameter of 8.5 mm achieved a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 58.1% for predicting the varices. For discrimination of the varices in combination with and without portal vein-inferior vena cava shunts, a cut-off diameter of 9.5 mm achieved a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 60.0%. CONCLUSION: The diameter of the splenic vein can be used to predict esophageal and gastric fundic varices and their patterns.
  • The effect of acute magnesium loading on the maximal exercise performance of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients Clinical Sciences

    Amaral, Angélica Florípedes do; Gallo Jr., Lourenco; Vannucchi, Hélio; Crescêncio, Júlio César; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira; Martinez, José Antônio Baddini

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The potential influence of magnesium on exercise performance is a subject of increasing interest. Magnesium has been shown to have bronchodilatatory properties in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute magnesium IV loading on the aerobic exercise performance of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. METHODS: Twenty male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (66.2 + 8.3 years old, FEV1: 49.3+19.8%) received an IV infusion of 2 g of either magnesium sulfate or saline on two randomly assigned occasions approximately two days apart. Spirometry was performed both before and 45 minutes after the infusions. A symptom-limited incremental maximal cardiopulmonary test was performed on a cycle ergometer at approximately 100 minutes after the end of the infusion. NCT00500864 RESULTS: Magnesium infusion was associated with significant reductions in the functional residual capacity (-0.41 l) and residual volume (-0.47 l), the mean arterial blood pressure (-5.6 mmHg) and the cardiac double product (734.8 mmHg.bpm) at rest. Magnesium treatment led to significant increases in the maximal load reached (+8 w) and the respiratory exchange ratio (0.06) at peak exercise. The subgroup of patients who showed increases in the work load equal to or greater than 5 w also exhibited significantly greater improvements in inspiratory capacity (0.29 l). CONCLUSIONS: The acute IV loading of magnesium promotes a reduction in static lung hyperinflation and improves the exercise performance in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Improvements in respiratory mechanics appear to be responsible for the latter finding.
  • Effect of continuous and interval exercise training on the PETCO2 response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease Clinical Sciences

    Rocco, Enéas A.; Prado, Danilo M. L.; Silva, Alexandre G.; Lazzari, Jaqueline M. A.; Bortz, Pedro C.; Rocco, Débora F. M.; Rosa, Carla G.; Furlan, Valter

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the following: 1) the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2) response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease; and 2) the effects of exercise training modalities on the association between PETCO2 at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and indicators of ventilatory efficiency and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients (59.7 + 1.7 years) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercise training (n = 20) and interval exercise training (n = 17). All patients performed a graded exercise test with respiratory gas analysis before and after three months of the exercise training program to determine the VAT, respiratory compensation point (RCP) and peak oxygen consumption. RESULTS: After the interventions, both groups exhibited increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Indeed, the continuous exercise and interval exercise training groups demonstrated increases in both ventilatory efficiency and PETCO2 values at VAT, RCP, and peak of exercise. Significant associations were observed in both groups: 1) continuous exercise training (PETCO2VAT and cardiorespiratory fitness r = 0.49; PETCO2VAT and ventilatory efficiency r = -0.80) and 2) interval exercise training (PETCO2VAT and cardiorespiratory fitness r = 0.39; PETCO2VAT and ventilatory efficiency r = -0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Both exercise training modalities showed similar increases in PETCO2 levels during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease, which may be associated with an improvement in ventilatory efficiency and cardiorespiratory fitness.
  • In vitro comparative study of white and dark polycaprolactone trifumarate in situ cross-linkable scaffolds seeded with rat bone marrow stromal cells Basic Researches

    Muhammad, Kama Bistari; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan; Kim, Kah Hwi; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Zain, Norita Mohd; Akram, Haris

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Dark poly(caprolactone) trifumarate is a successful candidate for use as a bone tissue engineering scaffold. Recently, a white polymeric scaffold was developed that shows a shorter synthesis time and is more convenient for tissue-staining work. This is an in vitro comparative study of both the white and dark scaffolds. METHODS: Both white and dark poly(caprolactone) trifumarate macromers were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before being chemically cross-linked and molded into disc-shaped scaffolds. Biodegradability was assessed by percentage weight loss on days 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 (n = 5) after immersion in 10% serum-supplemented medium or distilled water. Static cell seeding was employed in which isolated and characterized rat bone marrow stromal cells were seeded directly onto the scaffold surface. Seeded scaffolds were subjected to a series of biochemical assays and scanning electron microscopy at specified time intervals for up to 28 days of incubation. RESULTS: The degradation of the white scaffold was significantly lower compared with the dark scaffold but was within the acceptable time range for bone-healing processes. The deoxyribonucleic acid and collagen contents increased up to day 28 with no significant difference between the two scaffolds, but the glycosaminoglycan content was slightly higher in the white scaffold throughout 14 days of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy at days 1 and 14 revealed cellular growth and attachment. CONCLUSIONS: There was no cell growth advantage between the two forms, but the white scaffold had a slower biodegradability rate, suggesting that the newly synthesized poly(caprolactone) trifumarate is more suitable for use as a bone tissue engineering scaffold.
  • Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions Basic Researches

    André, Paulo Afonso de; Veras, Mariana Matera; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur) was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 μm, [PM2.5]). This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1) the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2) the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years) method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies.
  • The effects on mucociliary clearance of prednisone associated with bronchial section Basic Researches

    Braga, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira; Nepomuceno, Natalia Aparecida; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Infections have been and remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Because mucociliary clearance plays an important role in human defense mechanisms, the influence of drugs on the mucociliary epithelium of patients undergoing lung transplantation must be examined. Prednisone is the most important corticosteroid used after lung transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bronchial transection and prednisone therapy on mucociliary clearance. METHODS: A total of 120 rats were assigned to 4 groups according to surgical procedure or drug therapy: prednisone therapy (1.25 mg/kg/day); bronchial section and anastomosis + prednisone therapy (1.25 mg/kg/day); bronchial section + saline solution (2 ml/day); and saline solution (2 ml/day). After 7, 15, or 30 days, the animals were sacrificed, and the lungs were removed from the thoracic cavity. The in situ mucociliary transport velocity, ciliary beat frequency and in vitro mucus transportability were evaluated. RESULTS: Animals undergoing bronchial section surgery and anastomosis had a significant decrease in the ciliary beat frequency and mucociliary transport velocity 7 and 15 days after surgery (p<0.001). These parameters were normalized 30 days after the surgical procedure. Prednisone improved mucous transportability in the animals undergoing bronchial section and anastomosis at 15 and 30 days (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Bronchial section and anastomosis decrease mucociliary clearance in the early postoperative period. Prednisone therapy improves mucus transportability in animals undergoing bronchial section and anastomosis.
  • Is exercise an alternative treatment for chronic insomnia? Reviews

    Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva Lucia Rollemberg; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Marco Túlio de

    Abstract in English:

    The purposes of this systematic/critical review are: 1) to identify studies on the effects of exercise on chronic insomnia and sleep complaints in middle-aged and older adults and to compare the results of exercise with those obtained with hypnotic medications and 2) to discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise could promote sleep in insomniac patients. We identified studies from 1983 through 2011 using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Web of Science. For systematic analyses, only studies assessing the chronic effects of exercise on sleep in people with sleep complaints or chronic insomnia were considered. We used the following keywords when searching for articles: insomnia, sleep, sleep complaints, exercise and physical activity. For a critical review, studies were selected on the effects of exercise and possible mechanisms that may explain the effects of exercise on insomnia. We identified five studies that met our inclusion criteria for systematic review. Exercise training is effective at decreasing sleep complaints and insomnia. Aerobic exercise has been more extensively studied, and its effects are similar to those observed after hypnotic medication use. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the effects of exercise on insomnia. There is additional documented evidence on the antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects of exercise. Exercise is effective to decrease sleep complaints and to treat chronic insomnia. Exercise presented similar results when compared with hypnotics; however, prospective studies comparing the effects of exercise with medical and non-medical treatments are warranted before including exercise as a first-line treatment for chronic insomnia are necessary.
  • Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention Reviews

    Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

    Abstract in English:

    Lower urinary tract infections are very common diseases. Recurrent urinary tract infections remain challenging to treat because the main treatment option is long-term antibiotic prophylaxis; however, this poses a risk for the emergence of bacterial resistance. Some options to avoid this risk are available, including the use of cranberry products. This article reviews the key methods in using cranberries as a preventive measure for lower urinary tract infections, including in vitro studies and clinical trials.
  • A familial rearrangement(3;5;9) with paternal and maternal transmission leading to a duplication 3p/ deletion 5p infant Reviews

    Rivera, Horacio; Domínguez, María G.
  • Cardiorespiratory parameters before and after acupuncture: observations in a healthy and diseased state Reviews

    Mohan, Vikram; Das, Srijit
  • Anesthesia-related mortality in children: the better we know the patient, the better we can predict it Reviews

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo
  • Endothelial function in patients with slow coronary flow and normal coronary angiography Rapid Communication

    Signori, Luis Ulisses; Quadros, Alexandre Schaan de; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Dipp, Thiago; Lopes, Renato D.; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord
  • Prophylaxis of fungal infections in transplant patients Technical Note

    Abdala, Edson; Costa, Sílvia Figueiredo; Strabelli, Tania Mara Varejão; Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Caramori, Marlova Luzzi; Azevedo, Luis Sérgio Fonseca de; Ibrahim, Karim Y.; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Varkulja, Glaucia Fernanda; Castro Junior, Gilberto de; Almeida, Gisele Madeira Duboc de; Marques, Heloisa Helena de Souza; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida
  • Abdominal pain, arthritis, and nephrotic syndrome in a Syrian patient Case Reports

    Balbo, Bruno Eduardo P.; Silva, André Albuquerque; Amaral, Andressa Godoy; Malheiros, Denise M. A. C.; Onuchic, Luiz Fernando; Barros, Rui Toledo
  • An atypical presentation of Kawasaki disease: a 10-year-old boy with acute exudative tonsillitis and bilateral cervical lymphadenitis Case Reports

    Yap, Chiew-Yee; Lin, Lung-Huang; Wang, Nan-Koong
  • Anesthesia in a child with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome undergoing mitral valve replacement Case Reports

    Sayilgan, Cem; Yuceyar, Lale; Akbas, Sedat; Erolcay, Hulya
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