Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Prevention is the best treatment for cerebrovascular disease, which is why early diagnosis and the immediate treatment of carotid stenosis contribute significantly to reducing the incidence of stroke. Given its silent nature, 80% of stroke cases occur in asymptomatic individuals, emphasizing the importance of screening individuals with carotid stenosis and identifying high-risk groups for the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the most frequent risk factors for carotid stenosis. METHODS: A transversal study was conducted in the form of a stroke prevention campaign held on three nonconsecutive Saturdays. During the sessions, carotid stenosis diagnostic procedures were performed for 500 individuals aged 60 years or older who had systemic arterial hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus and/or coronary heart disease and/or a family history of stroke. RESULTS: The prevalence of carotid stenosis in the population studied was 7.4%, and the most frequent risk factors identified were mean age of 70 years, carotid bruit, peripheral obstructive arterial disease, coronary insufficiency and smoking. Independent predictive factors of carotid stenosis include the presence of carotid bruit or peripheral obstructive heart disease and/or coronary insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The population with peripheral obstructive heart disease and carotid bruit should undergo routine screening for carotid stenosis.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare female sexual function after surgical treatment of anterior vaginal prolapse with either small intestine submucosa grafting or traditional colporrhaphy. METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned, preoperatively, to the small intestine submucosa graft (n = 29) or traditional colporrhaphy (n = 27) treatment group. Postoperative outcomes were analyzed at 12 months. The Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used to assess sexual function. Data were compared with independent samples or a paired Student's t-test. RESULTS: In the small intestine submucosa group, the total mean Female Sexual Function Index score increased from 15.5±7.2 to 24.4±7.5 (p<0.001). In the traditional colporrhaphy group, the total mean Female Sexual Function Index score increased from 15.3±6.8 to 24.2±7.0 (p<0.001). Improvements were noted in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. There were no differences between the two groups at the 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Small intestine submucosa repair and traditional colporrhaphy both improved sexual function postoperatively. However, no differences were observed between the two techniques.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on peritoneal membrane transport, peritoneal protein loss, and proteinuria in peritoneal dialysis patients. METHODS: Fifty-four peritoneal dialysis patients were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 34) was treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Group 2 (n = 20) did not receive any antihypertensive drugs during the entire follow-up. Eleven patients were excluded from the study thereafter. Thus, a total of 30 patients in Group 1 and 13 patients in Group 2 completed the study. We observed the patients for six months. Group 1 patients received maximal doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for six months. Parameters at the beginning of study and at the end of six months were evaluated. RESULTS: At the end of six months, total peritoneal protein loss in 24-hour dialysate effluent was significantly decreased in Group 1, whereas it was increased in Group 2. Compared to the baseline level, peritoneal albumin loss in 24-hour dialysate effluent and 4-hour D/P creatinine were significantly increased in Group 2 but were not significantly changed in Group 1. A covariance analysis between the groups revealed a significant difference only in the decreased amount of total protein loss in 24-hour dialysate. Proteinuria was decreased significantly in Group 1. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce peritoneal protein loss and small-solute transport and effectively protect peritoneal membrane transport in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze major histocompatibility complex expression in the muscle fibers of juvenile and adult dermatomyositis. METHOD: In total, 28 untreated adult dermatomyositis patients, 28 juvenile dermatomyositis patients (Bohan and Peter's criteria) and a control group consisting of four dystrophic and five Pompe's disease patients were analyzed. Routine histological and immunohistochemical (major histocompatibility complex I and II, StreptoABComplex/HRP, Dakopatts) analyses were performed on serial frozen muscle sections. Inflammatory cells, fiber damage, perifascicular atrophy and increased connective tissue were analyzed relative to the expression of major histocompatibility complexes I and II, which were assessed as negatively or positively stained fibers in 10 fields (200X). RESULTS: The mean ages at disease onset were 42.0±15.9 and 7.3±3.4 years in adult and juvenile dermatomyositis, respectively, and the symptom durations before muscle biopsy were similar in both groups. No significant differences were observed regarding gender, ethnicity and frequency of organ involvement, except for higher creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in adult dermatomyositis (p<0.050). Moreover, a significantly higher frequency of major histocompatibility complex I (96.4% vs. 50.0%, p<0.001) compared with major histocompatibility complex II expression (14.3% vs. 53.6%, p=0.004) was observed in juvenile dermatomyositis. Fiber damage (p=0.006) and increased connective tissue (p<0.001) were significantly higher in adult dermatomyositis compared with the presence of perifascicular atrophy (p<0.001). The results of the histochemical and histological data did not correlate with the demographic data or with the clinical and laboratory features. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of major histocompatibility complex I was an important finding for the diagnosis of both groups, particularly for juvenile dermatomyositis, whereas there was lower levels of expression of major histocompatibility complex II than major histocompatibility complex I. This finding was particularly apparent in juvenile dermatomyositis.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of orbital apex crowding volume measurements calculated with multidetector-computed tomography to detect dysthyroid optic neuropathy. METHODS: Ninety-three patients with Graves' orbitopathy were studied prospectively. All of the patients underwent a complete neuro-ophthalmic examination and computed tomography scanning. Volumetric measurements were calculated from axial and coronal contiguous sections using a dedicated workstation. Orbital fat and muscle volume were estimated on the basis of their attenuation values (in Hounsfield units) using measurements from the anterior orbital rim to the optic foramen. Two indexes of orbital muscle crowding were calculated: i) the volumetric crowding index, which is the ratio between soft tissue (mainly extraocular muscles) and orbital fat volume and is based on axial scans of the entire orbit; and ii) the volumetric orbital apex crowding index, which is the ratio between the extraocular muscles and orbital fat volume and is based on coronal scans of the orbital apex. Two groups of orbits (with and without dysthyroid optic neuropathy) were compared. RESULTS: One hundred and two orbits of 61 patients with Graves' orbitopathy met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Forty-one orbits were diagnosed with Graves' orbitopathy, and 61 orbits did not have optic neuropathy. The two groups of orbits differed significantly with regard to both of the volumetric indexes (p<0.001). Although both indexes had good discrimination ability, the volumetric orbital apex crowding index yielded the best results with 92% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 81%/94% positive/negative predictive value and 88% accuracy at a cutoff of 4.14. CONCLUSION: This study found that the orbital volumetric crowding index was a more effective predictor of dysthyroid optic neuropathy than previously described computed tomography indexes were.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Hemodynamic support is aimed at providing adequate O2 delivery to the tissues; most interventions target O2 delivery increase. Mixed venous O2 saturation is a frequently used parameter to evaluate the adequacy of O2 delivery. METHODS: We describe a mathematical model to compare the effects of increasing O2 delivery on venous oxygen saturation through increases in the inspired O2 fraction versus increases in cardiac output. The model was created based on the lungs, which were divided into shunted and non-shunted areas, and on seven peripheral compartments, each with normal values of perfusion, optimal oxygen consumption, and critical O2 extraction rate. O2 delivery was increased by changing the inspired fraction of oxygen from 0.21 to 1.0 in steps of 0.1 under conditions of low (2.0 L.min-1) or normal (6.5 L.min-1) cardiac output. The same O2 delivery values were also obtained by maintaining a fixed O2 inspired fraction value of 0.21 while changing cardiac output. RESULTS: Venous oxygen saturation was higher when produced through increases in inspired O2 fraction versus increases in cardiac output, even at the same O2 delivery and consumption values. Specifically, at high inspired O2 fractions, the measured O2 saturation values failed to detect conditions of low oxygen supply. CONCLUSIONS: The mode of O2 delivery optimization, specifically increases in the fraction of inspired oxygen versus increases in cardiac output, can compromise the capability of the "venous O2 saturation" parameter to measure the adequacy of oxygen supply. Consequently, venous saturation at high inspired O2 fractions should be interpreted with caution.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Tumor-associated macrophages that generally exhibit an alternatively activated (M2) phenotype have been linked to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the role of M2-polarized macrophages in the growth and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma remains enigmatic. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of M2 macrophages on the proliferation and migration of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells and tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis. METHODS: Trypan blue staining and the Transwell migration assay were performed to evaluate the effects of activated (M1 or M2) macrophages on the proliferation and migration of Lewis cells. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in Lewis cells and nitric oxide secretion from activated macrophages were detected during the co-culture assay. Following treatment with activated macrophages, lymphatic endothelial cells differentiated into capillary-like structures, and the induction of Lewis cell migration was assessed using a twodimensional Matrigel-based assay. RESULTS: In the co-culture Transwell system, the proliferation and migration of Lewis cells were promoted by M2 macrophages. Moreover, the co-culture significantly increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C by Lewis cells and reduced the secretion of nitric oxide from M2 macrophages, which subsequently led to the capillary morphogenesis of lymphatic endothelial cells. Interestingly, following co-culture with Lewis cells, the function of RAW264.7 cells was polarized toward that of the M2 macrophage phenotype. CONCLUSION: M2-polarized macrophages promoted the metastatic behavior of Lewis cells by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression. Thus, the interruption of signaling between M2 macrophages and Lewis cells may be considered to be a new therapeutic strategy.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic nephrectomy for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is currently associated with great operative difficulty and surgical complications. Herein, we report on our single-center experience and describe predictive factors for successfully accomplishing this procedure. METHOD: Between March 1998 and April 2010, 66 patients (27 men and 39 women) underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy for the treatment of a unilateral nonfunctioning kidney. These patients had previous diagnoses of renal chronic inflammation associated with calculi and previous pyonephrosis. All of the nephrectomies were performed using the transperitoneal approach, and a similar technique was used for radical nephrectomy. RESULTS: Laparoscopic nephrectomy for the treatment of renal chronic inflammation was successful in 58/66 cases (87.9%). Eight cases were converted to the open technique because of difficulty in progression, which was related to the discovery of dense adhesions in the hilar or perirenal region. One major (colonic lesion) and two minor (wound infection) complications occurred in the conversion group. A diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis was confirmed pathologically for all of the specimens. Of the factors examined, a longitudinal renal length greater than 12 cm (laparoscopy group - 7.2±1.8 cm, versus open group - 13.6±1.5 cm; p<0.05) and time to access the renal vessels (laparoscopy group - 32±18 min, versus open group - 91±11 min; p<0.05) were associated with a higher conversion rate. Although the number of patients in the conversion group was small, the majority of these patients received right-sided nephrectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic nephrectomy for the treatment of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is feasible and associated with low levels of morbidity. Factors including the time required to control the renal vessels, renal length and right-sided nephrectomy were associated with higher chances of conversion into an open procedure.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Prader-Willi Syndrome is a common etiology of syndromic obesity that is typically caused by either a paternal microdeletion of a region in chromosome 15 (microdeletions) or a maternal uniparental disomy of this chromosome. The purpose of this study was to describe the most significant clinical features of 35 Brazilian patients with molecularly confirmed Prader-Willi syndrome and to determine the effects of growth hormone treatment on clinical outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed based on the medical records of a cohort of 35 patients diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome. The main clinical characteristics were compared between the group of patients presenting with microdeletions and the group presenting with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. Curves for height/length, weight and body mass index were constructed and compared between Prader-Willi syndrome patients treated with and without growth hormone to determine how growth hormone treatment affected body composition. The curves for these patient groups were also compared with curves for the normal population. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified between patients with microdeletions and patients with maternal uniparental disomy for any of the clinical parameters measured. Growth hormone treatment considerably improved the control of weight gain and body mass index for female patients but had no effect on either parameter in male patients. Growth hormone treatment did not affect height/length in either gender. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rates of several clinical features in this study are in agreement with the rates reported in the literature. Additionally, we found modest benefits of growth hormone treatment but failed to demonstrate differences between patients with microdeletions and those with maternal uniparental disomy. The control of weight gain in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome is complex and does not depend exclusively on growth hormone treatment.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Ischemic preconditioning and some drugs can protect tissues from injury by preserving microcirculation. This study evaluated vascular permeability in a hamster cheek pouch preparation using either short ischemic periods or bradykinin as preconditioning stimuli followed by 30 min of ischemia/reperfusion. METHOD: Sixty-six male hamsters were divided into 11 groups: five combinations of different ischemic frequencies and durations (one, three or five shorts periods of ischemia, separated by one or five minutes) with 10 min intervals between the ischemic periods, followed by 30 min ischemia/reperfusion; three or five 1 min ischemic periods with 10 min intervals between them followed by the topical application of histamine (2 µM); bradykinin (400 nM) followed by 30 min of ischemia/reperfusion; and three control groups (30 min of ischemia/reperfusion or histamine or bradykinin by themselves). Macromolecular permeability was assessed by injection of fluorescein-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran, MW= 150 kDa; 250 mg/Kg body weight), and the number of leaks/cm2 was counted using an intravital microscope and fluorescent light in the cheek pouch. RESULTS: Plasma leakage (number of leaks/cm²) was significantly reduced by preconditioning with three and five 1 min ischemic periods, one and three 5 min ischemic periods and by bradykinin. Histamine-induced macromolecular permeability was also reduced after three periods of 5 min of ischemia. CONCLUSION: Short ischemic periods and bradykinin can function as preconditioning stimuli of the ischemia/reperfusion response in the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Short ischemic periods also reduced histamineinduced macromolecular permeability.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Acute retinal necrosis is a rapidly progressive and devastating viral retinitis caused by the herpesvirus family. Systemic acyclovir is the treatment of choice; however, the progression of retinal lesions ceases approximately 2 days after treatment initiation. An intravitreal injection of acyclovir may be used an adjuvant therapy during the first 2 days of treatment when systemically administered acyclovir has not reached therapeutic levels in the retina. The aims of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of acyclovir in the rabbit vitreous after intravitreal injection and the functional effects of acyclovir in the rabbit retina. METHODS: Acyclovir (Acyclovir; Bedford Laboratories, Bedford, OH, USA) 1 mg in 0.1 mL was injected into the right eye vitreous of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, and 0.1 mL sterile saline solution was injected into the left eye as a control. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 9, 14, or 28 days. The eyes were enucleated, and the vitreous was removed. The half-life of acyclovir was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Electroretinograms were recorded on days 2, 9, 14, and 28 in the eight animals that were sacrificed 28 days after injection according to a modified protocol of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision. RESULTS: Acyclovir rapidly decayed in the vitreous within the first two days after treatment and remained at low levels from day 9 onward. The eyes that were injected with acyclovir did not present any electroretinographic changes compared with the control eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The vitreous half-life of acyclovir is short, and the electrophysiological findings suggest that the intravitreal delivery of 1 mg acyclovir is safe and well tolerated by the rabbit retina.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in threedimensional cultures. METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period. RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05). The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05), indicating cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.
Abstract in English:Although fine-needle aspiration cytology is considered to be the reference method for evaluating thyroid nodules, the results are inaccurate in approximately 10-30% of cases. Several studies have attempted to predict the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules based on age, nodularity, thyrotropin values, thyroid autoimmune disease, hot/cold nodule status, and ultrasound parameters. However, no consensus has been found, and none of these parameters has significantly affected patient management. The management of indeterminate thyroid nodules and re-biopsies of nodules with initially benign cytological results remain important and controversial topics of discussion. The Bethesda cytological system and several studies on the use of molecular markers to predict malignancy from cytological samples of thyroid nodules need further clarification. More in-depth discussions among and continuous education of the specialists involved in treating thyroid disease are necessary to improve the management of these patients. This review aims to examine the clinical, laboratory, ultrasound, and scintigraphic parameters that can be used for thyroid nodule management.
Abstract in English:Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.