• The impact of glucocorticoids and anti-cd20 therapy on cervical human papillomavirus infection risk in women with systemic lupus erythematosus CLINICAL SCIENCES

    Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; Garcia-Carrasco, Mario; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Taboada-Cole, Alejandro; Muñoz-Guarneros, Margarita; Solis-Poblano, Juan Carlos; Pezzat-Said, Elias; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suarez, Luis Felipe; de Lara, Luis Vazquez; Ramos-Alvarez, Gloria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Lopez-Colombo, Aurelio

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with systemic lupus erythematosus METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus-related disease risk factors, including conventional and biologic therapies. A gynecological evaluation and cervical cytology screen were performed. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping were undertaken by PCR and linear array assay. RESULTS: A total of 148 patients were included, with a mean age and disease duration of 42.5±11.8 years and 9.7±5.3 years, respectively. The prevalence of squamous intraepithelial lesions was 6.8%. The prevalence of human papillomavirus infection was 29%, with human papillomavirus subtype 59 being the most frequent. Patients with human papillomavirus were younger than those without the infection (38.2±11.2 vs. 44.2±11.5 years, respectively; p = 0.05), and patients with the virus had higher daily prednisone doses (12.8±6.8 vs. 9.7±6.7 mg, respectively; p = 0.01) and cumulative glucocorticoid doses (14.2±9.8 vs. 9.7±7.3 g, respectively; p = 0.005) compared with patients without. Patients with human papillomavirus infection more frequently received rituximab than those without (20.9% vs. 8.5%, respectively; p = 0.03). In the multivariate analysis, only the cumulative glucocorticoid dose was associated with human papillomavirus infection. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative glucocorticoid dose may increase the risk of human papillomavirus infection. Although rituximab administration was more frequent in patients with human papillomavirus infection, no association was found. Screening for human papillomavirus infection is recommended in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • Ankle-brachial index as a predictor of coronary disease events in elderly patients submitted to coronary angiography CLINICAL SCIENCES

    Papa, Eduardo D. E.; Helber, Izo; Ehrlichmann, Manes R.; Alves, Claudia Maria Rodrigues; Makdisse, Marcia; Matos, Livia N.; Borges, Jairo Lins; Lopes, Renato D.; Stefanini, Edson; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: To correlate the importance of the ankle-brachial index in terms of cardiovascular morbimortality and the extent of coronary arterial disease amongst elderly patients without clinical manifestations of lower limb peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: We analyzed prospective data from 100 patients over 65 years of age with coronary arterial disease, as confirmed by coronary angiography, and with over 70% stenosis of at least one sub-epicardial coronary artery. We measured the ankle-brachial index immediately after coronary angiography, and a value of <0.9 was used to diagnose peripheral arterial disease. RESULTS: The patients' average age was 77.4 years. The most prevalent risk factor was hypertension (96%), and the median late follow-up appointment was 28.9 months. The ankle-brachial index was <0.9 in 47% of the patients, and a low index was more prevalent in patients with multiarterial coronary disease compared to patients with uniarterial disease in the same group. Using a bivariate analysis, only an ankle-brachial index of <0.9 was a strong predictive factor for cardiovascular events, thereby increasing all-cause deaths and fatal and non-fatal acute myocardial infarctions two- to three-fold. CONCLUSION: In elderly patients with documented coronary disease, a low ankle-brachial index (<0.9) was associated with the severity and extent of coronary arterial disease, and in late follow-up appointments, a low index was correlated with an increase in the occurrence of major cardiovascular events.
  • pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers CLINICAL SCIENCES

    Lima, Thamires Marques de; Kazama, Cristiane Mayumi; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Macchione, Mariangela; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Bueno-Garcia, Maria Lucia; Zanetta, Dirce Maria; André, Carmen Diva Saldiva de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study). RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively). Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers.
  • The impact of metabolic syndrome on metabolic, pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic markers according to the presence of high blood pressure criterion CLINICAL SCIENCES

    Gil, Juliana S.; Drager, Luciano F.; Guerra-Riccio, Grazia M.; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria C.; Costa-Hong, Valeria; Bortolotto, Luiz A.; Egan, Brent M.; Lopes, Heno F.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: We explored whether high blood pressure is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 135 consecutive overweight/obese patients. From this group, we selected 75 patients who were not under the regular use of medications for metabolic syndrome as defined by the current Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults criteria. The patients were divided into metabolic syndrome with and without high blood pressure criteria (≥130/≥85 mmHg). RESULTS: Compared to the 45 metabolic syndrome patients without high blood pressure, the 30 patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had significantly higher glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and creatinine values; in contrast, these patients had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values. Metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure also had significantly higher levels of retinol-binding protein 4, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lower levels of adiponectin. Moreover, patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had increased surrogate markers of sympathetic activity and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Logistic regression analysis showed that high-density lipoprotein, retinol-binding protein 4 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were independently associated with metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure. There is a strong trend for an independent association between metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure and glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS: High blood pressure, which may be related to the autonomic dysfunction, is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome.
  • The involvement of multiple thrombogenic and atherogenic markers in premature coronary artery disease CLINICAL SCIENCES

    Mansur, Antonio P.; Takada, Julio Y.; Strunz, Célia M. C.; Avakian, Solange D.; César, Luiz Antonio M.; Ramires, José A.F.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of atherogenic and thrombogenic markers and lymphotoxin-alfa gene mutations with the risk of premature coronary disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional, case-control, age-adjusted study was conducted in 336 patients with premature coronary disease (<50 years old) and 189 healthy controls. The control subjects had normal clinical, resting, and exercise stress electrocardiographic assessments. The coronary disease group patients had either angiographically documented disease (>50% luminal reduction) or a previous myocardial infarction. The laboratory data evaluated included thrombogenic factors (fibrinogen, protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III), atherogenic factors (glucose and lipid profiles, lipoprotein(a), and apolipoproteins AI and B), and lymphotoxin-alfa mutations. Genetic variability of lymphotoxin-alfa was determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis. RESULTS: Coronary disease patients exhibited lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and higher levels of glucose, lipoprotein(a), and protein S. The frequencies of AA, AG, and GG lymphotoxin-alfa mutation genotypes were 55.0%, 37.6%, and 7.4% for controls and 42.7%, 46.0%, and 11.3% for coronary disease patients (p = 0.02), respectively. Smoking, dyslipidemia, family history, and lipoprotein(a) and lymphotoxin-alfa mutations in men were independent variables associated with coronary disease. The area under the curve (C-statistic) increased from 0.779 to 0.802 (p<0.05) with the inclusion of lipoprotein(a) and lymphotoxin-alfa mutations in the set of conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of lipoprotein(a) and lymphotoxin-alfa mutations in the set of conventional risk factors showed an additive but small increase in the risk prediction of premature coronary disease.
  • Reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure changes from the initial values on two different days CLINICAL SCIENCES

    Ash, Garrett I.; Walker, Timothy J.; Olson, Kayla M.; Stratton, Jeffrey H.; Gómez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the reproducibility of changes in the ambulatory blood pressure (BP) from the initial values, an indicator of BP reactivity and cardiovascular health outcomes, in young, healthy adults. METHOD: The subjects wore an ambulatory BP monitor attached by the same investigator at the same time of day until the next morning on two different days (day 1 and day 2) separated by a week. We compared the ambulatory BP change from the initial values at hourly intervals over 24 waking and sleeping hours on days 1 and 2 using linear regression and repeated measures analysis of covariance. RESULTS: The subjects comprised 88 men and 57 women (mean age±SE 22.4±0.3 years) with normal BP (118.3±0.9/69.7±0.6 mmHg). For the total sample, the correlation between the ambulatory BP change on day 1 vs. day 2 over 24, waking, and sleeping hours ranged from 0.37-0.61; among women, the correlation was 0.38-0.71, and among men, it was 0.24-0.52. Among women, the ambulatory systolic/diastolic BP change was greater by 3.1±1.0/2.4±0.8 mmHg over 24 hours and by 3.0±1.1/2.4±0.8 mmHg over waking hours on day 1 than on day 2. The diastolic ambulatory BP change during sleeping hours was greater by 2.2±0.9 mmHg on day 1 than on day 2, but the systolic ambulatory BP change during sleeping hours on days 1 and 2 did not differ. Among men, the ambulatory BP change on days 1 and 2 did not differ. CONCLUSION: Our primary findings were that the ambulatory BP change from the initial values was moderately reproducible; however, it was more reproducible in men than in women. These results suggest that women, but not men, may experience an alerting reaction to initially wearing the ambulatory BP monitor.
  • Predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing pharmacoinvasive treatment CLINICAL SCIENCES

    Falcão, Felipe José de Andrade; Alves, Cláudia Maria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Adriano Henrique Pereira; Caixeta, Adriano; Sousa, José Marconi Almeida; Souza, José Augusto Marcondes; Amaral, Amaury; Wilke, Luiz Carlos; Perez, Fátima Cristina A.; Gonçalves, Iran; Stefanini, Edson; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing pharmacoinvasive treatment. METHODS: This was an observational, prospective study that included 398 patients admitted to a tertiary center for percutaneous coronary intervention within 3 to 24 hours after thrombolysis with tenecteplase. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01791764 RESULTS: The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 5.8%. Compared with patients who survived, patients who died were more likely to be older, have higher rates of diabetes and chronic renal failure, have a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and demonstrate more evidence of heart failure (Killip class III or IV). Patients who died had significantly lower rates of successful thrombolysis (39% vs. 68%; p = 0.005) and final myocardial blush grade 3 (13.0% vs. 61.9%; p<0.0001). Based on the multivariate analysis, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.09; p = 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (odds ratio 0.9, 95% CI 0.89-0.97; p = 0.001), and final myocardial blush grade of 0-2 (odds ratio 8.85, 95% CI 1.34-58.57; p = 0.02) were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study that evaluated patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by a pharmacoinvasive strategy, the in-hospital mortality rate was 5.8%. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score, left ventricular ejection fraction, and myocardial blush were independent predictors of mortality in this high-risk group of acute coronary syndrome patients.
  • Posterior-only spinal fusion without rib head resection for treating type I neurofibromatosis with intra-canal rib head dislocation CLINICAL SCIENCES

    Sun, Dong; Dai, Fei; Liu, Yao Yao; Xu, Jian-Zhong

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with Type I neurofibromatosis scoliosis with intra-canal rib head protrusion are extremely rare. Current knowledge regarding the diagnosis and treatment for this situation are insufficient. The purpose of this study is to share our experience in the diagnosis and surgical treatments for such unique deformities. METHODS: Six patients with Type I neurofibromatosis scoliosis with rib head dislocation into the spinal canal were diagnosed at our institution. Posterior instrumentation and spinal fusion without intra-canal rib head resection via a posterior-only approach was performed for deformity correction and rib head extraction. The efficacy and outcomes of the surgery were evaluated by measurements before, immediately and 24 months after the surgery using the following parameters: coronal spinal Cobb angle, apex rotation and kyphosis of the spine and the intra-canal rib head position. Post-operative complications, surgery time and blood loss were also evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were followed up for at least 24 months post-operatively. The three dimensional spinal deformity was significantly improved and the intra-canal rib head was significantly extracted from the canal immediately after the surgery. At follow-up 24 months after surgery, solid fusions were achieved along the fusion segments, and the deformity corrections and rib head positions were well maintained. There were no surgery-related complications any time after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic examinations are needed to identify patients with Type I neurofibromatosis scoliosis with rib head dislocation into the canal who can be treated by posterior-only spinal fusion without rib head resection.
  • The putative role of ovary removal and progesterone when considering the effect of formaldehyde exposure on lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin BASIC RESEARCHES

    Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Amemiya, Renata Midori; Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro de; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Acceturi, Beatriz Golegã; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Formaldehyde exposure during the menstrual cycle is known to affect the course of allergic lung inflammation. Because our previous data demonstrated that formaldehyde combined with an ovariectomy reduced allergic lung inflammation, we investigated the putative role of ovary removal and progesterone treatment when considering the effect of formaldehyde on allergic lung inflammation. METHOD: Ovariectomized rats and their matched controls were exposed to formaldehyde (1%, 3 days, 90 min/day) or vehicle, and immediately after exposure, the rats were sensitized to ovalbumin by a subcutaneous route. After 1 week, the rats received a booster by the same route, and after an additional week, the rats were challenged with ovalbumin (1%) by an aerosol route. The leukocyte numbers, interleukin-10 (IL-10) release, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability, ex vivo tracheal reactivity to methacholine and mast cell degranulation were determined 24 h later. RESULTS: Our results showed that previous exposure to formaldehyde in allergic rats decreased lung cell recruitment, tracheal reactivity, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability and mast cell degranulation while increasing IL-10 levels. Ovariectomy only caused an additional reduction in tracheal reactivity without changing the other parameters studied. Progesterone treatment reversed the effects of formaldehyde exposure on ex vivo tracheal reactivity, cell influx into the lungs and mast cell degranulation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study revealed that formaldehyde and ovariectomy downregulated allergic lung inflammation by IL-10 release and mast cell degranulation. Progesterone treatment increased eosinophil recruitment and mast cell degranulation, which in turn may be responsible for tracheal hyperreactivity and allergic lung inflammation.
  • Gender differences in microcirculation: Observation using the hamster cheek pouch BASIC RESEARCHES

    Panazzolo, Diogo Guarnieri; da Silva, Lucia Henriques Alves; de Almeida Cyrino, Fátima Zely Garcia; Sicuro, Fernando Lencastre; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Estrogen has been shown to play an important protective role in non-reproductive systems, such as the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to observe gender differences in vivo with regard to the increase in macromolecular permeability and leukocyte-endothelium interaction induced by ischemia/reperfusion as well as in microvascular reactivity to vasoactive substances using the hamster cheek pouch preparation. METHODS: Thirty-six male and 36 female hamsters, 21 weeks old, were selected for this study, and their cheek pouches were prepared for intravital microscopy. An increase in the macromolecular permeability of post-capillary venules was quantified as a leakage of intravenously injected fluorescein-labeled dextran, and the leukocyte-endothelium interaction was measured as the number of fluorescent rolling leukocytes or leukocytes adherent to the venular wall, labeled with rhodamin G, during reperfusion after 30 min of local ischemia. For microvascular reactivity, the mean internal diameter of arterioles was evaluated after the topical application of different concentrations of two vasoconstrictors, phenylephrine (α1-agonist) and endothelin-1, and two vasodilators, acetylcholine (endothelial-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelial-independent). RESULTS: The increase in macromolecular permeability induced by ischemia/reperfusion was significantly lower in females compared with males [19 (17-22) leaks/cm2 vs. 124 (123-128) leaks/cm2, respectively, p<0.001), but the number of rolling or adherent leukocytes was not different between the groups. Phenylephrine-induced arteriolar constriction was significantly lower in females compared with males [77 (73-102)% vs. 64 (55-69)%, p<0.04], but there were no detectable differences in endothelin-1-dependent vasoreactivity. Additionally, arteriolar vasodilatation elicited by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: The female gender could have a direct protective role in microvascular reactivity and the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by ischemia/reperfusion.
  • Biomechanical comparison of the four-strand cruciate and Strickland techniques in animal tendons BASIC RESEARCHES

    Iamaguchi, Raquel Bernardelli; Villani, William; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Wei, Teng Hsiang; Cho, Alvaro B.; Santos, Gustavo Bispo dos; Mattar, Rames

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare two four-strand techniques: the traditional Strickland and cruciate techniques. METHODS: Thirty-eight Achilles tendons were removed from 19 rabbits and were assigned to two groups based on suture technique (Group 1, Strickland suture; Group 2, cruciate repair). The sutured tendons were subjected to constant progressive distraction using a universal testing machine (Kratos®). Based on data from the instrument, which were synchronized with the visualized gap at the suture site and at the time of suture rupture, the following data were obtained: maximum load to rupture, maximum deformation or gap, time elapsed until failure, and stiffness. RESULTS: In the statistical analysis, the data were parametric and unpaired, and by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the sample distribution was normal. By Student's t-test, there was no significant difference in any of the data: the cruciate repair sutures had slightly better mean stiffness, and the Strickland sutures had longer time-elapsed suture ruptures and higher average maximum deformation. CONCLUSIONS: The cruciate and Strickland techniques for flexor tendon sutures have similar mechanical characteristics in vitro.
  • Local and remote ischemic preconditioning protect against intestinal ischemic/reperfusion injury after supraceliac aortic clamping BASIC RESEARCHES

    Erling, Nilon; Montero, Edna Frasson de Souza; Sannomiya, Paulina; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Luiz Francisco

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: This study tests the hypothesis that local or remote ischemic preconditioning may protect the intestinal mucosa against ischemia and reperfusion injuries resulting from temporary supraceliac aortic clamping. METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the sham surgery group, the supraceliac aortic occlusion group, the local ischemic preconditioning prior to supraceliac aortic occlusion group, and the remote ischemic preconditioning prior to supraceliac aortic occlusion group. Tissue samples from the small bowel were used for quantitative morphometric analysis of mucosal injury, and blood samples were collected for laboratory analyses. RESULTS: Supraceliac aortic occlusion decreased intestinal mucosal length by reducing villous height and elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase and lactate levels. Both local and remote ischemic preconditioning mitigated these histopathological and laboratory changes. CONCLUSIONS: Both local and remote ischemic preconditioning protect intestinal mucosa against ischemia and reperfusion injury following supraceliac aortic clamping.
  • Association between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in HCV-infected patients RAPID COMMUNICATION

    Dorna, Mariana de Souza; Costa, Nara Aline; Oliveira, Erick Prado de; Sassaki, Ligia Yukie; Romeiro, Fernando Gomes; Paiva, Sergio Alberto Rupp de; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Silva, Giovanni Faria

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between phase angle, anthropometric measurements, and lipid profile in patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. METHODS: A total of 160 consecutive patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus and who received treatment at the hepatitis C outpatient unit of our hospital from April 2010 to May 2011 were prospectively evaluated. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, anthropometric measurements, and serum lipid profile analysis were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were excluded. A total of 135 patients with a mean age of 49.8±11.4 years were studied. Among these patients, 60% were male. The phase angle and BMI means were 6.5±0.8° and 26.5±4.8 kg/m2, respectively. Regarding anthropometric variables, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, and arm muscle area had a positive correlation with phase angle. In contrast, when analyzing the lipid profile, only HDL was inversely correlated with phase angle. However, in multiple regression models adjusted for age and gender, only mid-arm circumference (p = 0.005), mid-arm muscle circumference (p = 0.003), and arm muscle circumference (p = 0.001) were associated with phase angle in hepatitis C virus-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, phase angle is positively correlated with anthropometric measures in our study. However, there is no association between phase angle and lipid profile in these patients. Our results suggest that phase angle is related to lean body mass in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus.
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