Clinics, Volume: 69, Issue: 8, Published: 2014
  • Cross-sectional study comparing different therapeutic modalities for cystic lymphangiomas in children Clinical Sciences

    Olímpio, Hugo de Oliveira; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim; Oliveira Filho, Antonio Gonçalves de; Araujo, Kleber Cursino de

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Here, we describe our experience with different therapeutic modalities used to treat cystic lymphangiomas in children in our hospital, including single therapy with OK-432, bleomycin and surgery, and a combination of the three modalities. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study including patients treated from 1998 to 2011. The effects on macrocystic lymphangiomas and adverse reactions were evaluated. Twenty-nine children with cystic lymphangiomas without any previous treatment were included. Under general anesthesia, patients given sclerosing agents underwent puncture of the lesion (guided by ultrasound when necessary) and complete aspiration of the intralesional liquid. The patients were evaluated with ultrasound and clinical examinations for a maximum follow-up time of 4 years. RESULTS: The proportions of patients considered cured after the first therapeutic approach were 44% in the surgery group, 29% in the bleomycin group and 31% in the OK-432 group. These proportions were not significantly different. Sequential treatment increased the rates of curative results to 71%, 74% and 44%, respectively, after the final treatment, which in our case was approximately 1.5 applications per patient. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that most patients with cystic lymphangiomas do not show complete resolution after the initial therapy, regardless of whether the therapy is surgical or involves the use of sclerosing agents. To achieve complete resolution of the lesions, either multiple operations or a combination of surgery and sclerotherapy must be used and should be tailored to the characteristics of each patient.
  • Treatment priorities in oncology: do we want to live longer or better? Clinical Sciences

    Marta, Guilherme Nader; Del Nero, Luís G.; Marta, Gustavo Nader; Mangabeira, Andrea; Critchi, Gabriela; Kovács, Maria J.; Silva, João Luis Fernandes da; Saad, Everardo D.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the progress achieved in the fight against cancer over the past several years, assessing the needs, goals and preferences of patients with cancer is of the utmost importance for the delivery of health care. We sought to assess priorities regarding quantity versus quality of life among Brazilian patients, comparing them with individuals without cancer. METHODS: Using a questionnaire presenting four hypothetical cancer cases, we interviewed cancer patients, oncology health-care professionals and laypersons, most of whom had administrative functions in our hospital. RESULTS: A total of 214 individuals participated: 101 patients, 44 health-care professionals and 69 laypersons. The mean ages in the three groups were 56, 34 and 31 years old, respectively (p<0.001). The patients had gastrointestinal (25%), breast (22%), hematologic (10%), lung (8%) or other tumors (36%) and the tumor-node- metastasis (TNM) stage was I, II, III or IV in 22%, 13%, 34% and 31% of cases, respectively. Treatment priorities differed significantly among the three groups (p = 0.005), with survival time being a higher priority for patients than for the other two groups and with opposite trends regarding quality of life. In multivariate analysis, the age and sex distributions were not associated with the choice to maximize quality of life. In this limited sample of cancer patients, there were no associations between treatment priorities and disease stages. CONCLUSIONS: Both survival time and quality of life appeared to be important to cancer patients, oncology health-care professionals and laypersons, but survival time seemed to have higher priority for people diagnosed with cancer than for healthy people. Additionally, survival seemed to be more important than quality of life for all three groups assessed.
  • Breast hamartoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 27 cases and a literature review Clinical Sciences

    Sevim, Yusuf; Kocaay, Akin Firat; Eker, Tevfik; Celasin, Haydar; Karabork, Ayca; Erden, Esra; Genc, Volkan

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Breast hamartoma is an uncommon breast tumor that accounts for approximately 4.8% of all benign breast masses. The pathogenesis is still poorly understood and breast hamartoma is not a well-known disorder, so its diagnosis is underestimated by clinicians and pathologists. This study was designed to present our experience with breast hamartoma, along with a literature review. METHOD: We reviewed the demographic data, pathologic analyses and imaging and results of patients diagnosed with breast hamartoma between December 2003 and September 2013. RESULTS: In total, 27 cases of breast hamartoma operated in the Ankara University Medicine Faculty's Department of General Surgery were included in the study. All patients were female and the mean age was 41.8±10.8 years. The mean tumor size was 3.9±2.7 cm. Breast ultrasound was performed on all patients before surgery. The most common additional lesion was epithelial hyperplasia (22.2%). Furthermore, lobular carcinoma in situ was identified in one case and invasive ductal carcinoma was observed in another case. Immunohistochemical staining revealed myoid hamartoma in one case (3.7%). CONCLUSION: Breast hamartomas are rare benign lesions that may be underdiagnosed because of the categorization of hamartomas as fibroadenomas by pathologists. Pathologic examinations can show variability from one case to another. Thus, the true incidence may be higher than the literature indicates.
  • Effects of placebo-controlled continuous and pulsed ultrasound treatments on carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized trial Clinical Sciences

    Armagan, Onur; Bakilan, Fulya; Ozgen, Merih; Mehmetoglu, Ozlem; Oner, Setenay

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound treatments combined with splint therapy on patients with mild and moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: The study included 46 carpal tunnel syndrome patients who were randomly divided into 3 groups. The first group (n = 15) received a 0 W/cm2 ultrasound treatment (placebo); the second group (n = 16) received a 1.0 W/cm2 continuous ultrasound treatment and the third group (n = 15) received a 1.0 W/cm2 1:4 pulsed ultrasound treatment 5 days a week for a total of 15 sessions. All patients also wore night splints during treatment period. Pre-treatment and post-treatment Visual Analogue Scale, Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale scores, median nerve motor conduction velocity and distal latency and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve in the 2nd finger and palm were compared. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02054247. RESULTS: There were significant improvements in all groups in terms of the post-treatment Functional Status Scale score (p<0.05 for all groups), Symptom Severity Scale score (first group: p<0.05, second group: p<0.01, third group: p<0.001) and Visual Analogue Scale score (first and third groups: p<0.01, second group: p<0.001). Sensory conduction velocities improved in the second and third groups (p<0.01). Distal latency in the 2nd finger showed improvement only in the third group (p<0.01) and action potential latency in the palm improved only in the second group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that splinting therapy combined with placebo and pulsed or continuous ultrasound have similar effects on clinical improvement. Patients treated with continuous and pulsed ultrasound showed electrophysiological improvement; however, the results were not superior to those of the placebo.
  • Controlled medial branch anesthetic block in the diagnosis of chronic lumbar facet joint pain: the value of a three-month follow-up Clinical Sciences

    Rocha, Ivan Dias da; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa de

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: To verify the incidence of facetary and low back pain after a controlled medial branch anesthetic block in a three-month follow-up and to verify the correlation between the positive results and the demographic variables. METHODS: Patients with chronic lumbar pain underwent a sham blockade (with a saline injection) and then a controlled medial branch block. Their symptoms were evaluated before and after the sham injection and after the real controlled medial branch block; the symptoms were reevaluated after one day and one week, as well as after one, two and three months using the visual analog scale. We searched for an association between the positive results and the demographic characteristics of the patients. RESULTS: A total of 104 controlled medial branch blocks were performed and 54 patients (52%) demonstrated >50% improvements in pain after the blockade. After three months, lumbar pain returned in only 18 individuals, with visual analogue scale scores >4. Therefore, these patients were diagnosed with chronic facet low back pain. The three-months of follow-up after the controlled medial branch block excluded 36 patients (67%) with false positive results. The results of the controlled medial branch block were not correlated to sex, age, pain duration or work disability but were correlated with patient age (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patient diagnosis with a controlled medial branch block proved to be effective but was not associated with any demographic variables. A three-month follow-up is required to avoid a high number of false positives.
  • Fluid distribution kinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass Clinical Sciences

    Törnudd, Mattias; Hahn, Robert G.; Zdolsek, Joachim H.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the isovolumetric distribution kinetics of crystalloid fluid during cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting participated in this prospective observational study. The blood hemoglobin and the serum albumin and sodium concentrations were measured repeatedly during the distribution of priming solution (Ringer's acetate 1470 ml and mannitol 15% 200 ml) and initial cardioplegia. The rate of crystalloid fluid distribution was calculated based on 3-min Hb changes. The preoperative blood volume was extrapolated from the marked hemodilution occurring during the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01115166. RESULTS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's acetate averaged 8 minutes, corresponding to a transcapillary escape rate of 0.38 ml/kg/min. The intravascular albumin mass increased by 5.4% according to mass balance calculations. The preoperative blood volume, as extrapolated from the drop in hemoglobin concentration by 32% (mean) at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass, was 0.6-1.2 L less than that estimated by anthropometric methods (p<0.02). The mass balance of sodium indicated a translocation from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid space in 8 of the 10 patients, with a median volume of 236 ml. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's solution during isovolumetric cardiopulmonary bypass was 8 minutes, which is the same as for crystalloid fluid infusions in healthy subjects. The intravascular albumin mass increased. Most patients were hypovolemic prior to the start of anesthesia. Intracellular edema did not occur.
  • The association of vitamin D deficiency with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Clinical Sciences

    Küçükazman, Metin; Ata, Naim; Dal, Kürşat; Yeniova, Abdullah Özgür; Kefeli, Ayşe; Basyigit, Sebahat; Aktas, Bora; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Ağladioğlu, Kadir; Üre, Öznur Sari; Topal, Firdes; Nazligül, Yaşar; Beyan, Esin; Ertugrul, Derun Taner

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency has been related to diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and peripheral vascular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of vitamin D status in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: We included 211 consecutive subjects to examine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Of these subjects, 57 did not have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 154 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. RESULTS: The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p = 0.005), uric acid (p = 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p<0.001), γ-glutamyltransferase (p<0.0001), alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.028), HbA1c (p<0.001), ferritin (p<0.001), insulin (p = 0.016), C-peptide (p = 0.001), HOMA-IR (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.001) and white blood cell (p = 0.04) levels. In contrast, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (12.3±8.9 ng/dl, p<0.001) compared with those of the control group (20±13.6 ng/dl). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found lower serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than in subjects without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. To establish causality between vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, further interventional studies with a long-term follow-up are needed.
  • Randomized double-blind clinical trial of a new human epoetin versus a commercially available formula for anemia control in patients on hemodialysis Clinical Sciences

    Picon, Paulo D.; Pribbernow, Suzane Cristina M.; Prompt, Carlos A.; Schacher, Suzana C.; Antunes, Veronica V.H.; Mentz, Bianca P.; Oliveira, Fabiane L.; Souza, Celia Mariana B. de; Schacher, Fernando C.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Anemia is a common complication among chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis, occurring mostly due to erythropoietin deficiency. This randomized noninferiority trial sought to compare the efficacy and safety of a new epoetin formulation developed by Bio-Manguinhos, a biologics manufacturer affiliated with the Brazilian government, with those of a commercially available product currently used in Brazil (a biosimilar epoetin formulation). METHODS: The sample size needed to enable demonstration of noninferiority with a statistical power of 85% for a between-group difference in hemoglobin levels of no more than 1.5 g/dL was calculated. In total, 74 patients were randomly assigned to receive the epoetin formulation from Bio-Manguinhos (n = 36) or the biosimilar epoetin formulation (n = 38) in a double-blind fashion. The inclusion criteria were current epoetin therapy and stable hemoglobin levels for at least 3 months prior to the study. The primary and secondary outcomes were mean monthly hemoglobin levels and safety, respectively. The dose was calculated according to international criteria and adjusted monthly in both groups according to hemoglobin levels and at the assistant physicians' discretion. Iron storage was estimated at baseline and once monthly. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01184495. RESULTS: The study was conducted for 6 months after randomization. The mean baseline hemoglobin levels were 10.9±1.2 and 10.96±1.2 g/dL (p = 0.89) in the Bio-Manguinhos epoetin and biosimilar epoetin groups, respectively. During the study period, there was no significant change in hemoglobin levels in either group (p = 0.055, ANOVA). The epoetin from Bio-Manguinhos was slightly superior in the last 3 months of follow-up. The adverse event profiles of the two formulations were also similar. CONCLUSIONS: The epoetin formulations tested in this study are equivalent in efficacy and safety.
  • Effects of ovariectomy on the secretory apparatus in the right atrial cardiomyocytes of middle-aged mice Basic Researchs

    Souza, Romeu R. de; Oliveira, Vanessa C. de; Curi, Tania Cristina P.; Maldonado, Diogo C.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on the secretory apparatus of natriuretic peptides in right atrial cardiomyocytes. METHODS: Nine-month-old mice underwent bilateral ovariectomy or sham surgery. The blood exam of the ovariectomized mice showed results consistent with castrated females. Systolic blood pressure was measured after ovariectomy (9 mo of age) and at the moment of sacrifice (12 mo of age). Fragments of the right atrium were collected and prepared for electron microscopy examination. The following variables were quantified: the quantitative density and area of the natriuretic peptide granules, the relative volume of euchromatin in the nucleus, the number of pores per 10 μm of the nuclear membrane and the relative volumes of the mitochondria and Golgi complex. RESULTS: The cardiomyocytes obtained from ovariectomized mice indicated that the quantitative density and the area of secretory granules of natriuretic peptides were significantly lower compared with the sham-operated mice. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the relative volume of euchromatin, a lower density of nuclear pores, and lower relative volumes of the mitochondria and Golgi complex in the ovariectomized mice compared with the sham-operated mice. These findings suggest a pool with a low turnover rate, i.e., low synthesis and elimination of natriuretic peptides. CONCLUSION: A lack of estrogen caused hypotrophy of the secretory apparatus in right atrial cardiomyocytes that could explain the weak synthesis of natriuretic peptides in mice. Furthermore, one of the mechanisms of blood pressure control was lost, which may explain, in part, the elevated blood pressure in ovariectomized mice.
  • Neuroprotective effect of epidural hypothermia after spinal cord lesion in rats Basic Researchs

    Barbosa, Marcello Oliveira; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Santos, Gustavo Bispo dos; Ferreira, Ricardo; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa de

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of epidural hypothermia in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord lesion. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 30) weighing 320-360 g were randomized to two groups (hypothermia and control) of 15 rats per group. A spinal cord lesion was induced by the standardized drop of a 10-g weight from a height of 2.5 cm, using the New York University Impactor, after laminectomy at the T9-10 level. Rats in the hypothermia group underwent epidural hypothermia for 20 minutes immediately after spinal cord injury. Motor function was assessed for six weeks using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan motor scores and the inclined plane test. At the end of the final week, the rats' neurological status was monitored by the motor evoked potential test and the results for the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Analysis of the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores obtained during the six-week period indicated that there were no significant differences between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the inclined plane test scores during the six-week period. Furthermore, at the end of the study, the latency and amplitude values of the motor evoked potential test were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Hypothermia did not produce a neuroprotective effect when applied at the injury level and in the epidural space immediately after induction of a spinal cord contusion in Wistar rats.
  • Update on hypertrophic scar treatment Review

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Farina Júnior, Jayme Adriano

    Abstract in English:

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin.
  • Adolescents with HIV and facial lipoatrophy: response to facial stimulation Rapid Communication

    Gabana-Silveira, Jesus Claudio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Braga, Arnaldo Feitosa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment.
Faculdade de Medicina / USP Rua Dr Ovídio Pires de Campos, 225 - 6 and., 05403-010 São Paulo SP - Brazil, Tel.: (55 11) 2661-6235 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: clinics@hc.fm.usp.br