Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine prevalences of injuries associated with CrossFit® training and assess profiles of these injuries and the affected athletes. METHODS: Data were collected over a 12-month period using a questionnaire administered directly to practitioners at CrossFit®-affiliated fitness centers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 414 participants, 157 (37.9%) participants reported having suffered an injury while practicing CrossFit®. RESULTS: The injury rate was 3.24 injuries per 1,000 hours of training. The probability of injury for athletes who had practiced CrossFit® for longer than 12 months was 82.2%, which was higher than the corresponding probability for beginner athletes. The probability of injury was 5-fold higher among competitive-level athletes than that among less-experienced athletes. No evidence of an association between the occurrence of injuries during CrossFit® practice and any of the following athlete characteristics was found: age, gender, practice of other sports, weight, and height. The incidence of injuries in this sports modality was similar to that in other modalities, including Olympic weight lifting (OWL), basic weight lifting, and artistic gymnastics. CONCLUSION: CrossFit® appears to be a training program that is suitable for different age groups when performed in a safe environment and with assistance from qualified professionals.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with cystitis symptoms who underwent pelvic radiation therapy and identify correlated predictive factors. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted of patients who met the following: primary pelvic cancer treated with curative intent, older than 18 years old, and good performance status. The exclusion criteria were patients being treated for a UTI, using a urinary catheter, in dialysis or with cystostomy or nephrostomy, and using antibiotics during treatment. Urinalysis and urine culture were collected before the beginning of radiation therapy. Weekly evaluations of urinary symptoms were subsequently performed. In cases of new or worsening symptoms, a questionnaire was applied, and new urine exams were collected. The UTI diagnosis was defined by uroculture as bacterial growth greater than 104 CFU/mL. RESULTS: From September 2014 to November 2015, 112 patients were sequentially recruited, and 72 (64%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. During follow-up, 24 (33%) patients had new urinary symptoms or worse preexisting symptoms. A UTI was confirmed in the second urinary culture in only one (1.4%) patient. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of UTI was much lower than expected, suggesting that asymptomatic bacteriuria develops symptoms due to radiotherapy. Due to the low rate of UTI, no predictive factor was identified.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This is a randomized controlled trial that aims to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on reducing pharmacotherapy problems in the 30-day postdischarge period of cardiology patients from a tertiary hospital in Brazil. METHODS: At discharge, two cardiovascular pharmacy residents performed a medication counseling session with the intervention group, and the follow-up was performed by telephone (3 and 15 days after discharge). The number of pharmacotherapy problems was evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 66 and 67 patients were randomized to the intervention and control groups, respectively, but only 51 patients were analyzed in each group, all with similar baseline characteristics. The intervention group had significantly fewer pharmacotherapy problems compared to the control (p<0.001), and 100% of the patients had at least one problem. We observed five problems significantly more frequently in the control group: “incorrect time of taking” (p=0.003), “use higher dose of medication” (p=0.007), “use lower dose of medication” (p=0.014), “restart discontinued medication” (p=0.011), and “underdosing prescription” (p=0.009). Simvastatin, enalapril, carvedilol, and atorvastatin were the medications more associated with pharmacotherapy problems. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that pharmacist-led discharge counseling should be an indispensable service, as patients exhibited less pharmacotherapy problems in the 30-day postdischarge period, especially related to drug administration and adherence.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) on the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in nonglaucomatous patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: This is a prospective, single center, observational study. Thirty-eight eyes of 26 diabetic patients underwent PRP for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC; by Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Heidelberg Spectralis, Carlsbad, USA) at baseline and 12 months after PRP was performed. RESULTS: Thirty-eight eyes of 26 patients (15 female) with a mean age of 53.7 years (range 26 to 74 years) were recruited. No significant difference was found among all RNFL thickness parameters tested by GDx VCC software (p=0.952, 0.464 and 0.541 for temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average, superior average, inferior average, respectively). The nerve fiber indicator (NFI) had a nonsignificant increase (p=0.354). The OCT results showed that the average RNFL thickness (360° measurement) decreased nonsignificantly from 97.2 mm to 96.0 mm at 1 year post-PRP (p=0.469). There was no significant difference when separately analyzing all the peripapillary sectors (nasal superior, temporal superior, temporal, temporal inferior, nasal inferior and nasal thickness). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PRP, as performed in our study, does not cause significant changes in peripapillary RNFL in diabetic PDR patients after one year of follow-up.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Tranexamic acid (TXA) and the hemostatic agent Floseal® have already been used to minimize bleeding during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized study of 90 patients with indications for TKA. Following inclusion, the participants were randomly allocated in blocks to the following 3 groups: control, Floseal® and TXA. Bleeding parameters, including decreases in hemoglobin (Hb), drain output, number of blood transfusions and complications, were assessed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02152917. RESULTS: The mean decrease in Hb was highest in the control group (4.81±1.09 g/dL), followed by the Floseal® (3.5±1.03 g/dL) and TXA (3.03±1.2 g/dL) groups. The Floseal® and TXA groups did not differ, and both performed better than the control group. The mean total drain output was 901.3±695.7 mL in the control group, 546.5±543.5 mL in the TXA group and 331.2±278.7 mL in the Floseal® group. Both TXA and Floseal® had significantly less output than the control group, and Floseal® had significantly less output than TXA. The number of blood transfusions was very small in all 3 groups. CONCLUSION: The use of TXA or Floseal® was associated with less blood loss than that of the control group among patients undergoing primary TKA, as measured both directly (intraoperative bleeding + drainage) and on the basis of a decrease in Hb, without differences in the rate of complications. TXA and Floseal® showed similar decreases in Hb and total measured blood loss, but the drain output was smaller in the Floseal® group.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of intra-articular infiltration with hyaluronic acid and dexamethasone alone and in combination in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: This prospective randomized trial evaluated 44 patients undergoing treatment for OA. Patients were selected through clinical and radiological analysis using the American College of Rheumatology criteria. We included patients aged between 50 and 70 years who presented with K-L stage ≤2 knee OA and normal limb alignment. Patients with a previous history of knee injury (ligamentous, meniscal or traumatic), infection, patellofemoral OA or chondroprotective drug use in the previous year were excluded. Participants were randomized into 3 groups and underwent treatment with viscosupplementation (VS, n=16), viscosupplementation plus dexamethasone (VD, n=16) or dexamethasone (DX, n=12). All patients were evaluated before and 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after infiltration. Analysis included a physical examination, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire (total score and domain subscores) and an evaluation of knee extensor and flexor strength and proprioception using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: VS significantly improved the WOMAC total score and subscores for pain, stiffness and function for up to 6 months after infiltration. It also improved knee extensor and flexor strength during the same period. Proprioception was not affected by any of the treatments. CONCLUSIONS: VS alone improved pain, stiffness and function according to the WOMAC total score and subscores and improved knee extensor and flexor strength, but not proprioception, for up to six months after infiltration. These findings suggest that VS has a positive effect on quadriceps arthrogenic inhibition.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors play important roles in angiogenesis. Melatonin plays an important role in gonadal development; thus, its effect on the reproductive system is evident. We investigated the influence of melatonin on the expression of VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), as well as on changes in oxidative stress markers and follicle numbers in rat ovaries. METHODS For this purpose, 45 Wistar rats were separated into the following groups: Group 1, control; Group 2, vehicle; and Group 3, melatonin. Rats in Group 3 were treated with melatonin at 50 mg/kg/day for 30 days. The effects of melatonin on the expression of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were established by immunohistochemistry analysis. The effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzyme activities were demonstrated by spectrophotometric analysis. RESULTS Based on immunohistochemistry analysis, VEGFR2 was predominantly localized to theca cells in the ovary. Our data indicate that melatonin treatment can significantly increase VEGF and VEGFR1 expression in the ovary ( p <0.05). Additionally, the number of degenerated follicles significantly decreased with melatonin treatment ( p <0.05). Melatonin administration also led to significant increases in antioxidant enzyme levels in the ovary. CONCLUSION Melatonin treatment exerts protective effects on follicles against increased lipid peroxidation through modulating tissue antioxidant enzyme levels. These effects may be related to angiogenesis and antioxidant activities.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the differential gene expression resulting from tocotrienol-rich fraction and α-tocopherol supplementation in healthy older adults. METHODS A total of 71 eligible subjects aged 50 to 55 years from Gombak and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo (n=23), α-tocopherol (n=24) or tocotrienol-rich fraction (n=24). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months of supplementation for microarray analysis. RESULTS The number of genes altered by α-tocopherol was higher after 6 months (1,410) than after 3 months (273) of supplementation. α-Tocopherol altered the expression of more genes in males (952) than in females (731). Similarly, tocotrienol-rich fraction modulated the expression of more genes after 6 months (1,084) than after 3 months (596) and affected more genes in males (899) than in females (781). α-Tocopherol supplementation modulated pathways involving the response to stress and stimuli, the immune response, the response to hypoxia and bacteria, the metabolism of toxins and xenobiotics, mitosis, and synaptic transmission as well as activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase and complement pathways after 6 months. However, tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation affected pathways such as the signal transduction, apoptosis, nuclear factor kappa B kinase, cascade extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2, immune response, response to drug, cell adhesion, multicellular organismal development and G protein signaling pathways. CONCLUSION Supplementation with either α-tocopherol or tocotrienol-rich fraction affected the immune and drug response and the cell adhesion and signal transduction pathways but modulated other pathways differently after 6 months of supplementation, with sex-specific responses.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in the body composition of morbidly obese patients induced by a very low-calorie diet. METHODS: We evaluated 120 patients selected from a university hospital. Body composition was assessed before and after the diet provided during hospitalization, and changes in weight, body mass index, and neck, waist and hip circumferences were analyzed. Bioimpedance was used to obtain body fat and fat-free mass values. The data were categorized by gender, age, body mass index and diabetes diagnosis. RESULTS: The patients consumed the diet for 8 days. They presented a 5% weight loss (without significant difference among groups), which represented an 85% reduction in body fat. All changes in body circumference were statistically significant. There was greater weight loss and a greater reduction of body fat in men, but the elderly showed a significantly higher percentage of weight loss and greater reductions in body fat and fat-free mass. Greater reductions in body fat and fat-free mass were also observed in superobese patients. The changes in the diabetic participants did not differ significantly from those of the non-diabetic participants. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a VLCD before bariatric surgery led to a loss of weight at the expense of body fat over a short period, with no significant differences in the alteration of body composition according to gender, age, body mass index and diabetes status.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and interrelationship between lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction in men with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 41 men (mean age 41.1±9.9 years) with MS from February 2011 to March 2013, who were invited to participate irrespective of the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms or sexual dysfunction. Neurological impairment was assessed with the Expanded Disability Status Scale; lower urinary tract symptoms were evaluated with the International Continence Society male short-form questionnaire, and sexual dysfunction was evaluated with the International Index of Erectile Function. All patients underwent transabdominal urinary tract sonography and urine culture. RESULTS: The mean disease duration was 10.5±7.3 years. Neurological evaluation showed a median Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 3 [2-6]. The median International Continence Society male short-form questionnaire score was 17 [10-25]. The median International Index of Erectile Function score was 29 [15-46]. Twenty-nine patients (74.4%) had sexual dysfunction as defined by an International Index of Erectile Function score <45. Voiding dysfunction and sexual dysfunction increased with the degree of neurological impairment (r=0.02 [0.02 to 0.36] p=0.03 and r=-0.41 [-0.65 to -0.11] p=0.008, respectively). Lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction also displayed a significant correlation (r=-0.31 [-0.56 to -0.01] p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Most male patients with MS have lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction. The severity of the neurological disease is a predictive factor for the occurrence of voiding and sexual dysfunctions.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: In this study, the relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fractures and 9041 Guanine/Adenine and 3673 Guanine/Adenine polymorphisms related to the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit-1 (VKORC1) gene in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was investigated. METHOD: DNA was isolated from blood samples collected from 150 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Genotyping of the two polymorphic regions (9041 Guanine/Adenine and 3673 Guanine/Adenine) in VKORC1 was performed using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The presence of radiographic fractures among the 150 patients was ascertained by using the Genant method. RESULT: At least one fracture was detected in 98 patients, and no fracture was observed in 52 patients on radiological images. We found no association between the 9041 Guanine/Adenine (p=0.283) and 3673 Guanine/Adenine (p=0.232) polymorphisms of the VKORC1 gene and the development of secondary postosteoporotic fractures in our study. CONCLUSION: There was no relationship between osteoporotic vertebral fracture and VKORC1 gene polymorphism in a postmenopausal Turkish population.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The halo ring can be applied in children, through skeletal traction or a halo vest device, to treat many cervical spine pathologies, including traumatic injuries and pathologies related to deformities. However, the procedure is associated with various complications, such as infection, pin loosening, and respiratory and neurological problems. Although widely studied in adults, the best pin insertion site in children and the correlations of pin insertion sites with outcomes and complications have not been completely elucidated. This study aimed to determine alternative pin placement sites based on a morphological analysis of the infant skull by computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: An analytical-descriptive study was performed using 50 CT scans from children. The Wilcoxon and Friedman tests were used. RESULTS: A linear and directly proportional relation was found between cranial thickness and patient age. The average thicknesses of the anterior points across all ages analyzed ranged from 4.16 mm to 4.98 mm. The thicknesses of the posterior points varied from 3.94 mm to 4.27 mm. Within each age range, points 1 cm above the standard insertion sites had thicknesses similar to those of the standard sites, and points 2 cm above the standard insertion sites had thicknesses greater than those of the standard sites. CONCLUSIONS: The cranial thickness at all points increases linearly with age. Points 1 and 2 cm above the standard insertion sites are viable alternatives for the placement of halo pins. Preoperative CT can aid in choosing the best positioning sites for pins in the skull.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Currently, cochlear implant procedures are becoming increasingly broad and have greatly expanded. Bilateral cochlear implants and cochlear implants are more frequently applied in children. Our hypothesis is that the video head impulse test may be more sensitive than the caloric test in detecting abnormal vestibular function before cochlear implant surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the video head impulse test and caloric test results of patients selected for cochlear implant procedures before surgery. METHODS: The patients selected for cochlear implant surgery were submitted to a bithermal caloric test and video head impulse test. RESULTS: By comparing angular slow phase velocity values below 5° in the bithermal caloric test (hypofunction) and video head impulse test with a gain lower than 0.8, we identified 37 (64.9%) patients with vestibular hypofunction or canal paresis and 21 (36.8%) patients with abnormal video head impulse test gain before the cochlear implant procedure. Of the 37 patients with caloric test vestibular hypofunction, 20 (54%) patients exhibited an abnormal gain in the video head impulse test. CONCLUSION: The caloric test is more sensitive than the video head impulse test (Fisher’s exact test, p=0.0002) in detecting the impaired ear before cochlear implant delivery. The proportion of caloric test/video head impulse test positive identification of abnormal vestibular function or caloric test/video head impulse test sensitivity was 1.8:1.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Cystathionine β-synthase is a major enzyme in the metabolism of plasma homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia is positively associated with hypertension and stroke. The present study was performed to examine the possible effects of Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation on the development of hypertension and stroke. METHODS: Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR, we determined the Cystathionine β-synthase methylation levels in 218 healthy individuals and 132 and 243 age- and gender-matched stroke and hypertensive patients, respectively. The relative changes in Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation were analyzed using the 2–ΔΔCt method. The percent of the methylated reference of Cystathionine β-synthase was used to represent the Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation levels. RESULTS: In this study, the Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation levels of hypertensive and stroke participants were both higher than that of the healthy individuals (median percentages of the methylated reference were 50.61%, 38.05% and 30.53%, respectively, all p<0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that Cystathionine β-synthase promoter hypermethylation increased the risk of hypertension [odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, CI)=1.035 (1.025–1.045)] and stroke [OR (95% CI)=1.015 (1.003–1.028)]. The area under the curve of Cystathionine β-synthase promoter methylation was 0.844 (95% CI: 0.796–0.892) in male patients with hypertension and 0.722 (95% CI: 0.653–0.799) in male patients with stroke. CONCLUSION: Cystathionine β-synthase promoter hypermethylation increases the risk of hypertension and stroke, especially in male patients.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: We conducted this retrospective study to elucidate the clinical presentation and outcomes of anal abscess in chronic dialysis patients. METHODS: We performed a chart review of patients who were hospitalized for anal abscess from Jan. 2002 to Dec. 2015. A total of 3,074 episodes of anal abscess were identified. Of these, 43 chronic dialysis patients with first-time anal abscess were enrolled. Patients were divided into a surgical group and a nonsurgical group according to the treatment received during hospitalization. The baseline characteristics, clinical findings, treatments and outcomes were obtained and analyzed. The endpoints of this study were in-hospital mortality, one-year mortality and one-year recurrence. RESULTS: Of the 43 patients, 27 (62.7%) received surgical treatment, and 16 (37.2%) received antibiotic treatment alone. There was no significant difference in age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, comorbidities, or dialysis characteristics between the two groups. Perianal abscess was the most common type of anal abscess, and 39.5% of patients experienced fistula formation. Most patients had mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora. Our data demonstrate that there was no significant difference in hospital stay, one-year survival or recurrence rate between the surgical group and nonsurgical group. However, there was a trend toward better in-hospital survival in patients who received surgical treatment (p=0.082). CONCLUSION: In chronic dialysis patients with anal abscess, there was no statistically significant difference in clinical presentation and outcomes between the surgical and nonsurgical groups, although the surgical group had a trend of better in-hospital survival.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess work ability and productivity in patients with diabetic foot. METHODS: This investigation was a cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 117 individuals were selected from March to June 2014 and allocated to group A (patients without diabetes, n=43), group B (diabetes patients without foot ulcers, n=43), or group C (patients with diabetic foot, n=31). Two validated instruments, the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire General Health v2.0 (WPAI-GH), were used to assess work ability and productivity. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous regarding age and sex; however, patients in group C had a lower education level than the other participants (p=0.006). The median WLQ scores for groups A, B, and C were 0.0121, 0.0146, and 0.0852, respectively (p<0.0001). The WPAI-GH scores revealed a mean productivity loss of 20% for groups A and B and 100% for group C (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diabetic foot showed decreased work ability and productivity.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize and compare the handwriting performance of Brazilian students from the 3rd to the 5th grade level of elementary school I with a computerized instrument that allowed the real performance to be observed during the execution of the handwriting. METHODS: Ninety-five students, aged 8 years to 11 years and 11 months, were assigned the production tasks of handwriting letters and pseudocharacters to assess the variables of latency, letter duration production and movement fluency. The stimulus presentation and the analysis of the movements were analyzed by Ductus software. RESULTS: In relation to the writing duration, latency and fluency of the alphabet letters, there was a diminution of values from the 3rd to 5th grade. For the comparison between alphabet and pseudocharacter latency, the results indicated a difference between the alphabet letter and its corresponding pseudocharacter, with greater latency for the pseudocharacter. This finding suggests that a motor sequence has not been established, so it cannot be assumed that the production of the alphabet letters was automatic. CONCLUSION: The results of this study make it possible to verify the interaction failures between the central and peripheral processes, with progression between the 3rd and 5th grade. It also highlights the influence of the lack of systematized teaching of the tracing of letters for Brazilian students since proficiency in calligraphy is critically linked to academic performance. These findings provide a great contribution to Brazilian educational psychology and reflect both educational and clinical practices.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the magnitude and distribution of stresses generated on implants, abutments and first molar metal-ceramic crowns using finite element analysis. METHODS: Preliminary three-dimensional models were created using the computer-aided design software SolidWorks. Stress and strain values were observed for two distinct virtual models: model 1 - Morse taper and solid abutment; model 2 - Morse taper and abutment with screw. A load (250 N) was applied to a single point of the occlusal surface at 15° to the implant long axis. Von Mises stresses were recorded for both groups at four main points: 1) abutment-retaining screws; 2) abutment neck; 3) cervical bone area; 4) implant neck. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Model 1 showed a higher stress value (1477.5 MPa) at the abutment-retaining screw area than the stresses found in model 2 (1091.1 MPa for the same area). The cervical bone strain values did not exceed 105 µm for either model.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To compare signs and symptoms of dysphagia in individuals with cervical dystonia (CD) before and after application of botulinum toxin (BTX). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 20 patients diagnosed with CD with indications for BTX application. We selected 18 patients who met the study inclusion criteria. All individuals were patients from the Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Federal University of São Paulo. BTX was applied in the cervical region at the necessary dose for each individual. To identify signs/complaints of changes in swallowing, we used a specific questionnaire that was completed by patients and/or their companions on the day of BTX injection and repeated 10 to 15 days after BTX injection. RESULTS: Among the 18 study subjects, 15 (83.3%) showed primary and three (16.7%) showed secondary cervical dystonia. The most frequent dystonic movements were rotation (18), tilt (5), forward shift (3), backward shift (7), shoulder elevation (12), shoulder depression (2), and cervical tremor (6). The main complaints reported before BTX application were voice changes in 10 (55.6%), need for adjustment of eating position in 10 (55.6%), coughing and/or choking while eating in nine (50%), and increased eating time in nine (50%) individuals. The main complaints reported after BTX application were coughing and/or choking while eating in 11 (61.1%), voice changes in nine (50%), sensation of food stuck in the throat in eight (44%), and increased eating time in eight (44%) individuals. CONCLUSION: The administration of a swallowing-specific questionnaire to individuals with CD before and after BTX application enabled the identification of possible dysphagia symptoms prior to drug treatment resulting from CD, which are often subsequently interpreted as side effects of the drug treatment. Thus, dysphagia can be managed, and aspiration symptoms can be prevented.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia is a common treatable geriatric condition. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its associated factors in community-dwelling elderly living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to discuss the impact of different muscle mass, handgrip strength and gait speed cut-off values on the reported frequency of sarcopenia. METHODS: The health habits, functional capacity, and anthropometric measurements of 745 individuals aged ≥65 years from the Frailty in Brazilian Older People study were analyzed. The participants were classified into the following four groups: no sarcopenia, pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Muscle mass, handgrip strength and gait speed cut-off thresholds tailored to the sample and those proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People were used to compare the prevalence rates of sarcopenia. RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of the participants were female, 61.9% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 76.6 years. The prevalence rates of sarcopenia were 10.8% and 18% using the sample-tailored and European consensus cut-off values, respectively. Sarcopenia was associated with advanced age (OR: 37.2; CI95%12.35-112.48), Caucasian race (OR: 1.89; CI 95% 1.02-3.52), single marital status (OR:6; CI95% 2.2-16.39), low income (OR:3.64; CI 95% 1.58-8.39), and the presence of comorbidities (OR:3.26; CI 95%1.28-8.3). CONCLUSION: In this study, the estimated prevalence of sarcopenia was similar to that reported in most studies after the tailored handgrip strength and gait speed cut-off values were adopted. A higher prevalence was observed when the cut-off values suggested by the European consensus were used. This indicates that the prevalence of sarcopenia must be estimated using population-specific reference values.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema by investigating the clinical characteristics and chest computed tomography imaging features of patients with pulmonary abscesses. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the chest computed tomography findings and clinical features of 101 cases of pulmonary abscess, including 25 cases with empyema (the experimental group) and 76 cases with no empyema (the control group). The potential risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema were compared between the groups by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The incidence of pulmonary abscess-related empyema was 24.8% (25/101). Univariate analysis showed that male gender, diabetes, pleuritic symptoms, white blood cells >10×109/L, albumin level <25 g/L, and positive sputum cultures were potential clinical-related risk factors and that an abscess >5 cm in diameter and transpulmonary fissure abscesses were potential computed tomography imaging-related risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that transpulmonary fissure abscesses (odds ratio=9.102, p=0.003), diabetes (odds ratio=9.066, p=0.003), an abscess >5 cm in diameter (odds ratio=8.998, p=0.002), and pleuritic symptoms (odds ratio=5.395, p=0.015) were independent risk factors for pulmonary abscess-related empyema. CONCLUSIONS: Transpulmonary fissure abscesses, diabetes, giant pulmonary abscesses, and pleuritic symptoms increased the risk of empyema among patients with pulmonary abscesses.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative serum level of infliximab (IFX) as well as the detection of anti-infliximab antibodies (ATIs) in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). METHOD: Forty patients with CD under treatment at a tertiary center in southeastern Brazil were evaluated. Their use of infliximab was continuous and regular. We analyzed and compared the differences in the IFX and ATI levels between the patients with active CD (CDA) and those with CD in remission (CDR). RESULTS: There was no difference in the IFX level between the CDA and CDR groups (p>0.05). Eighty percent of all patients had IFX levels above the therapeutic concentration (6-10 μg/mL). Two (9%) of the 22 patients with active disease and four (22.2%) of the 18 patients in remission had undetectable levels of IFX. Four (66.6%) of the six patients with undetectable levels of IFX had positive ATI levels; three of these patients were in remission, and one had active disease. In addition, the other two patients with undetectable levels of IFX presented ATI levels close to positivity (2.7 and 2.8 AU/ml). None of the patients with therapeutic or supratherapeutic IFX levels had positive ATI levels. CONCLUSIONS: The undetectable levels of IFX correlated with the detection of ATIs, which was independent of disease activity. Immunogenicity was not the main factor for the loss of response to IFX in our study, and the majority of patients in both groups (CDA and CDR) had supratherapeutic levels of IFX.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the effects of diet on the inflammatory response in middle-aged and elderly people with hypertension. METHODS: Thirty overweight or obese patients with stage one hypertension (age range, 45-75 years) were allocated to either the intervention or control group (n=15 per group; age- and sex-matched). Patients in the intervention group consumed a food powder supplement (100 g) instead of a regular meal. The control group maintained their normal dietary habits. This study lasted for six weeks. Blood pressure, inflammatory marker levels, and energy intake were measured before and after the study. RESULTS: After 6 weeks, the diet composition of the intervention group changed significantly (p<0.05). The intake of proteins, dietary fibre, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat increased significantly (p<0.05), while the total energy intake trended towards an increase (p>0.05). In the control group, the total energy intake decreased significantly (p<0.05). The levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) decreased, and adiponectin increased significantly in the intervention group (p<0.05); however, no significant changes were observed in the inflammatory marker levels of the control group. In the intervention group, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p<0.05), and diastolic blood pressure also exhibited a decreasing trend. No significant change in blood pressure was observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: The consumption of a food powder supplement can improve diet composition, decrease blood pressure and reduce inflammation in middle-aged and elderly overweight or obese hypertensive patients. The food powder supplement may also have an anti-atherosclerotic effect in hypertensive patients.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To compare the ultrasonographic findings of entheses in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with those of healthy control individuals and to assess the ability of ultrasound (US) to identify aspects related to the disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with AS and 30 healthy controls was performed. Clinical assessment included the use of a visual analog scale for pain, assessment of swelling of the enthesis, global assessments for patients and physician, use of a disease activity index, mobility and dysfunctional indices, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and clinical enthesitis index. US was performed for the following entheses by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists: brachial triceps, distal quadriceps, proximal and distal patellar tendons, calcaneal tendon, and plantar fascia; the total and subitems of the Madrid Sonographic Enthesitis Index were used for evaluations. RESULTS: Comparison between groups showed a statistically significant difference with worse scores in AS patients, with bone erosion of the calcaneal enthesis and bone erosion and thickening of the plantar fascia. The odds ratio for thickening of the plantar fascia in the AS group was 3.47, according to logistic regression analysis. The AS group also had worse scores regarding the presence of calcification in the quadriceps enthesis, with a fivefold increased risk. CONCLUSION: US analysis showed that only entheses of the foot and quadriceps were able to differentiate AS patients from healthy individuals.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To report our experience using conventional culture methods (CM) and pediatric blood culture bottles (PBCBs) for vitreous sample culture of acute postoperative endophthalmitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital das Clinicas, HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BR, from January 2010 to December 2015, and it included 54 patients with clinically suspected acute postoperative endophthalmitis. Vitreous samples were obtained by vitreous tap or vitrectomy. Samples from January 2010 to December 2011 were cultivated in CM, whereas samples from January 2012 to December 2015 were inoculated in PBCBs. The measured outcome was the yield of positive cultures. RESULTS: Twenty cases were included in the CM group, and 34 cases were included in the PBCB group. The yield of positive cultures in PBCBs (64.7%) was significantly higher than that in conventional CM (35%, p=0.034). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus viridans were the two most commonly found agents. CONCLUSION: PBCBs can be used successfully in clinically suspected endophthalmitis. The method showed a higher yield of positive cultures than the conventional method. This technique appears to have several advantages over the traditional method: it saves time, as only one medium needs to be inoculated; transportation to a laboratory is easier than in the traditional method, and there is no need to maintain a supply of fresh agar media. The use of PBCBs may be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis and is especially suitable for office settings and remote clinics.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive paracentetic suprapubic cystostomy is a technique that should be learned by all surgical trainees and residents. This study aimed to develop a self-made training model for paracentetic suprapubic cystostomy and placement of the suprapubic catheter and then to evaluate its effectiveness in training fourth-year medical students. METHODS: Medical students were divided into an experimental group receiving comprehensive training involving literature, video, and model use and a control group receiving all the same training protocols as the experimental group except without hands-on practice using the model. Each student’s performance was video-recorded, followed by subjective and objective evaluations by urology experts and statistical analysis. RESULTS: All students completed the surgical procedures successfully. The experimental group’s performance scores were significantly higher than those of the control group (median final performance scores of 91.0 vs. 86.8, respectively). Excellent scores were achieved by more students in the experimental group than in the control group (55% vs. 20%), and fewer poor scores were observed in the experimental group than in the control group (5% vs. 30%). CONCLUSIONS: Based on its cost-effectiveness, reusability, and training effectiveness, this paracentetic suprapubic cystostomy training model is able to achieve goals in teaching practice quickly and easily. Use of the model should be encouraged for training senior medical students and resident physicians who may be expected to perform emergent suprapubic catheter insertion at some time.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is considered a promising new target for neurostimulation in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with postural instability and gait disturbance that is refractory to other treatment modalities. However, the PPN is typically difficult to visualize with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at clinical field strengths, which greatly limits the PPN as a viable surgical target for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Thus, the aim of this study is to directly visualize the PPN based on 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI. METHODS: Five PD patients were enrolled and scanned using the MP2RAGE sequence on a 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI scanner. Then, the MP2RAGE sequences were imported into a commercially available navigation system. The coordinates of the directly localized PPN poles were recorded in the navigation system relative to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure plane. RESULTS: Our results indicated that the PPN presented intermediate signal intensity in the 7.0T ultrahigh-field MR images in comparison with the surrounding structure, such as the hypo-intensity of the periaqueductal gray and the hyperintensity of the neighboring white matter tracts, in PD patients. The mean coordinates for the rostral and caudal poles of PPN were 6.50 mm and 7.20 mm lateral, 1.58 mm and 2.21 mm posterior, and 8.89 mm and 13.83 mm relative to the posterior commissure. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide, for the first time, direct visualization of the PPN using the MP2RAGE sequence on a 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI, which may improve the accuracy of stereotactic targeting of the PPN and improve the outcomes in patients undergoing DBS.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Thirty to sixty percent of prepared blood products are not transfused. Blood reserves for surgeries lead to many unused blood products, which increases hospital costs. The aim of this study is to identify the request and use profiles of blood products for elective surgeries in different surgical specialties, the influence of surgery time and demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on the number of red blood cells (RBCs) used and to calculate the rate of transfused patients (RTP) and cross-matched and transfused (C/T) RBCs. METHODS: Observational and prospective studies. Sociodemographic, clinical and quantitative data on the request and use of blood products were collected. The influence of the data on the use of RBCs was examined by binary logistic regression. Chi-square, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized to compare the data among the specialties. RESULTS: In total, 822 procedures were included. Most of the requested blood products were not used, even 24 hours postoperatively. Of the 2,483 RBC units, 314 were transfused, leaving 87.6% unused; however, cardiac, digestive tract, vascular, gynecologic, urologic and thoracic surgery procedures transfused 50%, 25%, 16.5%, 11%, 9.5% and 8.1% of requested RBCs, respectively. The factors that influenced the transfusions were age, time of surgery and cardiac surgeries. The RTP was >10% in 22 surgical types and <1% in 24 surgical types, and 88% of samples presented a C/T ratio >2.5. CONCLUSION: The RTP and C/T ratios can guide RBC requests in the preoperative period. Knowing the standard of use of blood products and developing protocols enables the optimization of reserves, reduction of costs and improvement of care.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Osteosarcoma of the jaw (OSAJ) is fundamentally different in clinical practice from its peripheral counterparts. Studies are difficult to conduct due to low incidence rates. The primary aim of this study was to provide for the first time a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the treatment concepts and outcome data of OSAJ patients treated at the University Hospital Vienna and to compare these with two recently published studies on OSAJ. The clinical study was accompanied by a biomarker study investigating the prognostic relevance of melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A) in OSAJ specimens. METHOD: Eighteen patients were included, and their outcomes were compared to published data. Immunohistochemistry was performed with mouse monoclonal antibodies against MAGE-A. Survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meyer method. The log-rank test was used to analyze potential prognostic parameters. Fisher’s exact test was performed to define the significant differences between the survival rates of the current study and the DOESAK registry. RESULTS: Disease-specific survival was 93.8% after five and 56.3% after ten years. The development of metastases (p=0.033) or relapse (p=0.037) was associated with worsened outcomes in our group as well as in the comparative group. Despite the different treatment concepts of the study groups, survival rates were comparable. MAGE-A failed to show prognostic relevance for OSAJ patients. CONCLUSIONS: Uncertainties about the optimal treatment strategies of OSAJ patients will currently remain. Thus, prospective studies of OSAJ are needed but are only feasible in a multicenter study setting, conducted over a prolonged time period.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Despite the contribution of awareness campaigns to the rise of organ donation rates in Brazil, younger folks are subject to few awareness actions. Records on the effect of informative campaigns at improving opinion and knowledge of undergraduates about organ donation are scarce. This study aimed to assess the effect of informative material about organ donation on changes in the trend of answers to a questionnaire compared to the answers of a control group. METHODS: Two randomized groups were compared, receiving the same standardized questionnaire. One group was supplied informative material on the subject, while the other was not. The questionnaire was sent to undergraduate students from two Brazilian universities. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, Chi-square test and multinomial regression tests. Adopted significance was 5%. RESULTS: There were 739 responses to the questionnaire. Mean age was 22 years, with a majority of women. Six of 14 questions displayed a change in the answer pattern of the experimental group compared to controls (p<0.05). Opinion on organ donation had changes in 2 of 7 analyzed questions (p<0.05). Knowledge on the subject had a shift in answer patterns in 4 of 7 questions. Regression demonstrated 3 items that were not influenced by respondents’ age. CONCLUSION: There is controversy regarding the benefit of exposure to informative material. Negative changes were noted in the trust in transplantation as a safe treatment. Positive results regarding technical knowledge were obtained. Better results may be obtained by designing informative material tailored towards the student’s specific concerns.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin compared with voglibose added to combined metformin and insulin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: In this 12-week prospective, randomized, parallel trial, 70 newly diagnosed T2DM patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥9% and/or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥11.1 mmol/L were randomized (1:1) to receive sitagliptin 100 mg per day + metformin + insulin glargine or voglibose 0.2 mg three times daily + metformin + insulin glargine. Change in HbA1c at week 12 was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: The mean baseline HbA1c was 11.0% in the patients. The changes in HbA1c from baseline were -6.00% in the sitagliptin group and -3.58% in the voglibose group, and the between-group difference was -2.42% (95% CI -1.91 to -2.93, p=0.02). The differences in FPG and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) and the change in body weight between groups from baseline were -2.95 mmol/L (p=0.04), 43.91 (p=0.01) and -2.23 kg (p=0.01), respectively. One patient (2.9%) in the sitagliptin group and three patients (8.6%) in the voglibose group exhibited hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Sitagliptin added to combined metformin and insulin therapy showed greater efficacy and good safety regarding hypoglycemia in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM compared with voglibose.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To test whether swimming training benefits femoral neck strength in young diabetic rats under insulin therapy. METHODS: A total of 60 male Wistar rats (age: 40 days) were divided equally into the following six groups: control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary plus insulin and diabetic exercise plus insulin. Diabetes was induced with a unique intraperitoneal injection (60 mg/kg body weight) of streptozotocin. Seven days after the injection and after 12 hours of fasting, the animals with blood glucose levels ≥300 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Seven days after the induction of diabetes, the animals in the exercise groups were subjected to progressive swimming training (final week: 90 min/day; 5 days/week; 5% load) for eight weeks. The animals in the insulin groups received a daily dose of insulin (2-4 U/day) for the same period. RESULTS: Severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduced the structural properties of the femoral neck (trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness and collagen fiber content). The femoral neck mechanical properties (maximum load and tenacity) were also impaired in the diabetic rats. Insulin therapy partially reversed the damage induced by diabetes on the structural properties of the bone and mitigated the reductions in the mechanical properties of the bone. The combination of therapies further increased the femoral neck trabecular bone volume (∼30%), trabecular thickness (∼24%), collagen type I (∼19%) and type III (∼13%) fiber contents, maximum load (∼25%) and tenacity (∼14%). CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of swimming training potentiates the recovery of femoral neck strength in young rats with severe streptozotocin-induced diabetes under insulin therapy.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Poststroke shoulder pain occurs very frequently and compromises function and quality of life. Because treatment depends on a multidisciplinary approach, it is desirable to optimize effectiveness. Myofascial pain syndrome is defined by the presence of trigger points that can also be found in spastic stroke patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of myofascial pain in the shoulder girdle muscles in patients with poststroke shoulder pain and to document the clinical and functional results obtained with specific treatment for this condition. METHODS: Spastic stroke hemiplegic patients undergoing rehabilitation at the Rehabilitation Center of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School of the University of São Paulo were evaluated regarding the intensity and characteristics of shoulder pain, previous therapeutic interventions, shoulder goniometry and the presence of trigger points. Patients underwent trigger point blockade by intramuscular infiltration of 1% lidocaine. The evaluation and treatment procedures were repeated in the subsequent 3 weeks as long as the pain intensity was greater than 5 on a visual analog scale (VAS). In the fourth week, the evaluation procedures were repeated. Patients who were in a multiprofessional rehabilitation program were instructed to continue the treatment, and the others received complementary therapeutic advice if necessary to initiate it. The evaluations were performed at 0, 1, and 3 weeks and after 4 months. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (13 men; age=67.8±10.2 years; right hemiparesis: 11) participated in the study, and there was a reduction in pain assessed by VAS from baseline (7.6±2.7) to the first week (5.8±3.6; p<0.05) through the end of the third week (5.2±3.5; p<0.05), but not at the end of four months (6.6±2.9; p=0.11). Good responders had significantly lower pain levels after the third week and presented with a larger range of motion for passive abduction by the end of 4 months. These results demonstrate that the myofascial component of pain should be considered in poststroke shoulder pain and that its treatment may be a pathway for the rapid and long-lasting relief of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Trigger point blockade with lidocaine can reduce pain perception in spastic hemiplegic shoulder in as much as 50% of stroke survivors for four months.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide evidence for understanding how to treat osteoarthritis (OA) in our country. Therefore, it was necessary to match information and investigations related to the treatment of the disease from the three main types of specialists involved: physiatrists, orthopedists and rheumatologists. METHODS: The authors acted as a scientific advisory committee. From the initial discussions, a structured questionnaire was developed for use with a group of specialists on OA using the Delphi technique. The questionnaire was sent to 21 experts appointed by the authors, and the results obtained were critically analyzed and validated. RESULTS: The prevalence of OA was 33% in Brazil, corresponding to one-third of the individuals in the reference population, which included individuals over 25 years of age. Another significant finding was that most patients did not receive any form of treatment in the early stages of OA. CONCLUSION: The committee pointed to the need for early intervention and that the available medicinal resources can fulfil this important role, as is the case with SYSADOA treatments. Glucosamine-based medicinal products with or without chondroitin could also fulfill this need for early treatment. The other generated evidence and included investigations were then grouped together and are the subject of this publication.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Bone cancers occur frequently in children, adolescents, and young adults aging 15 to 29 years. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most frequent subtypes in this population. The aim of this study was to describe incidence and mortality trends of bone cancers among Brazilian children, adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Incidence information was obtained from 23 population-based cancer registries. Mortality data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality from 1979 to 2013. Specific and adjusted rates per million were analyzed according to gender, morphology and age at diagnosis. Median rates were used as a measure of central tendency. Joinpoint regression was applied to analyze trends. RESULTS: Median incidence rates were 5.74 and 11.25 cases per million in children and young adults respectively. Osteosarcoma in the 15-19 years aged group had the highest incidence rates. Stable incidence rates were observed among five registries in 0-14 year's age group. Four registries had a decreased incidence trend among adolescents and young adults. Median mortality rates were 1.22 and 5.07 deaths per million in children and young adults respectively. Increased mortality was observed on the North and Northeast regions. Decreased mortality trends were seen in the South (children) and Southeast (adolescents and young adults). CONCLUSION: Osteosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma are the most incident bone cancers in all Brazilian regions. Bone cancers showed incidence and mortality patterns variation within the geographic regions and across age groups, although not significant. Despite limitations, it is crucial to monitor cancer epidemiology trends across geographic Brazilian regions.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) affect the elderly population, especially postmenopausal women. Percutaneous kyphoplasty is designed to treat painful vertebral compression fractures for which conservative therapy has been unsuccessful. High-viscosity cement can be injected by either a hydraulic pressure delivery system (HPDS) or a balloon tamp system (BTS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the safety and clinical outcomes of these two systems. METHODS: A random, multicenter, prospective study was performed. Clinical and radiological assessments were carried out, including assessments of general surgery information, visual analog scale, quality of life, cement leakage, and height and angle restoration. RESULTS: Using either the HPDS or BTS to inject high-viscosity cement effectively relieved pain and improved the patients’ quality of life immediately, and these effects lasted at least two years. The HPDS using high-viscosity cement reduced cost, surgery time, and radiation exposure and showed similar clinical results to those of the BTS. In addition, the leakage rate and the incidence of adjacent vertebral fractures after the HPDS treatment were reduced compared with those after treatment using the classic vertebroplasty devices. However, the BTS had better height and angle restoration abilities. CONCLUSIONS: The percutaneous HPDS with high-viscosity cement has similar clinical outcomes to those of traditional procedures in the treatment of vertebral fractures in the elderly. The HPDS with high-viscosity cement is better than the BTS in the treatment of mild and moderate OVCFs and could be an alternative method for the treatment of severe OVCFs.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) childhood survivors of hematologic malignancies are prone to develop late osteopenia and osteoporosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to quantitatively and qualitatively assess bone mineral density (BMD) in HSCT childhood survivors and to compare the effectiveness of both qualitative and quantitative assessment methods. METHODS: DESIGN BMD assessment using panoramic radiographs of childhood HSCT survivors aged 3.69-18.88 years using two radiomorphometric indexes. Case-control double-blinded comparison of panoramic radiographic images from childhood HSCT survivors and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Quantitative assessment was performed by measuring the cortical bone width bilaterally at the mental foramen level. Qualitative assessment was performed using the mandibular cortical index bilaterally on all panoramic images. RESULTS: Radiographs were taken 6.59-83.95 months after bone marrow transplantation [median±SD=25.92±24.9 months]. Fifty-two panoramic radiographic images were analyzed: 21 from HSCT survivors and 31 from healthy controls aged 3.69-25.1 years [mean±SD=11.89±5.28 years]. The mandibular cortical bone width was 17% smaller in childhood HSCT survivors than in healthy controls (case group: 2.420, control group: 3.307; p=0.00617). Qualitative analysis revealed an increased frequency of severe mandibular cortical erosion in childhood HSCT survivors, although no significant difference was observed (case group: 1.540, control group: 1.490; p=0.32). The interobserver agreement was 85% (Kappa index). CONCLUSIONS: HSCT childhood survivors exhibit quantitative and qualitative mandibular bone impairments. Further studies are needed to establish an association between mandibular cortical bone impairment and osteoporosis.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the incidence of pancreatic alterations in Crohn's disease using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and to correlate the number of alterations with current clinical data. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease (n=51) were examined using EUS, and 11 variables were analyzed. A control group consisted of patients with no history of pancreatic disease or Crohn's disease. Patients presenting with three or more alterations underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pancreatic function was determined using a fecal elastase assay. RESULTS: Two of the 51 patients (3.9%) presented with four EUS alterations, 3 (5.9%) presented with three, 11 (21.5%) presented with two, and 13 (25.5%) presented with one; in the control group, only 16% presented with one EUS alteration (p<0.001). Parenchymal abnormalities accounted for 39 of the EUS findings, and ductal abnormalities accounted for 11. Pancreatic lesions were not detected by MRI. Low fecal elastase levels were observed in 4 patients, none of whom presented with significant pancreatic alterations after undergoing EUS. Ileal involvement was predictive of the number of EUS alterations. CONCLUSION: A higher incidence of pancreatic abnormalities was found in patients with Crohn's disease than in individuals in the control group. The majority of these abnormalities are related to parenchymal alterations. In this group of patients, future studies should be conducted to determine whether such morphological abnormalities could evolve to induce exocrine or endocrine pancreatic insufficiency and, if so, identify the risk factors and determine which patients should undergo EUS.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of breast reconstruction after mastectomy on sexual function, body image, and depression. METHODS: This cross-sectional, comparative, controlled study was conducted with 90 women between 18 and 65 years of age who had undergone either mastectomy alone (mastectomy group, n=30) or mastectomy combined with breast reconstruction (mastectomy-reconstruction group, n=30) at least one year prior to the study or who had no breast cancer (control group, n=30). Patients were assessed for sexual function, depression, and body image using the validated Brazilian-Portuguese versions of the Female Sexual Function Index, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination, respectively. RESULTS: The three groups were homogeneous for age, marital status, body mass index, and education level. The women in the mastectomy group reported significantly worse sexual function, greater depressive symptoms, and lower body image than those in the mastectomy-reconstruction and control groups. In the mastectomy group, the frequency of sexual dysfunction was significantly greater among patients without a marital partner and those with a higher level of education than among patients in the other two groups with the same characteristics. CONCLUSION: Patients who had undergone breast reconstruction after mastectomy reported better sexual function and body image and fewer depressive symptoms than patients who had undergone mastectomy alone. Sexual dysfunction was associated with the absence of a marital partner and a higher level of education and was more frequent in the mastectomy group.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screw augmented with polymethylmethacrylate in osteoporotic spinal surgery. METHODS: This study included 128 patients with osteoporosis (BMD T-score −3.2±1.9; range, −5.4 to -2.5) who underwent spinal decompression and instrumentation with a polymethylmethacrylate-augmented bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screw. Postoperative Visual Analogue Scale scores and the Oswestry Disability Index were compared with preoperative values. Postoperative plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed immediately after surgery; at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months; and annually thereafter. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 42.4±13.4 months (range, 23 to 71 months). A total of 418 polymethylmethacrylate-augmented bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws were used. Cement extravasations were detected in 27 bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws (6.46%), mainly in cases of vertebral fracture, without any clinical sequela. The postoperative low back and lower limb Visual Analogue Scale scores were significantly reduced compared with the preoperative scores (<0.01), and similar results were noted for the Oswestry Disability Index score (p<0.01). No significant screw migration was noted at the final follow-up relative to immediately after surgery (p<0.01). All cases achieved successful bone fusion, and no case required revision. No infection or blood clots occurred after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The polymethylmethacrylate-augmented bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screw is safe and effective for use in osteoporotic patients who require spinal instrumentation.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Hyperinfection or disseminated strongyloidiasis has been frequently reported after transplants and is related to high mortality. This study aimed to screen for strongyloidiasis using serological diagnoses in transplant candidates. METHODS: An ELISA test was performed with filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis as a source of antigen. RESULTS: In the serum from transplant candidates, anti-Strongyloides IgG antibodies were detected in 35/150 (23.3%) samples by soluble fractions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 31/150 (20.7%) samples by soluble fractions in Tris-HCl, 27/150 (18.0%) samples by membrane fractions in PBS and 22/150 (14.7%) samples by membrane fractions in Tris-HCl. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest the ELISA test, ideally using soluble fractions of filariform larvae S. venezuelensis in PBS, as an additional strategy for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in transplant candidates.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Intestinal obstruction has a high mortality rate when therapeutic treatment is delayed. Resuscitation in intestinal obstruction requires a large volume of fluid, and fluid combinations have been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HS) with pentoxifylline (PTX) on apoptosis, oxidative stress and survival rate. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal obstruction and ischemia through a closed loop ligation of the terminal ileum and its vessels. After 24 hours, the necrotic bowel segment was resected, and the animals were randomized into four groups according to the following resuscitation strategies: Ringer's lactate solution (RL) (RL-32 ml/kg); RL+PTX (25 mg/kg); HS+PTX (HS, 7.5%, 4 ml/kg), and no resuscitation (IO-intestinal obstruction and ischemia). Euthanasia was performed 3 hours after resuscitation to obtain kidney and intestine samples. A malondialdehyde (MDA) assay was performed to evaluate oxidative stress, and histochemical analyses (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL], Bcl-2 and Bax) were conducted to evaluate kidney apoptosis. Survival was analyzed with another series of animals that were observed for 15 days. RESULTS: PTX in combination with RL or HS reduced the MDA levels (nmol/mg of protein), as follows: kidney IO=0.42; RL=0.49; RL+PTX=0.31; HS+PTX=0.34 (p<0.05); intestine: IO=0.42; RL=0.48; RL+PTX=0.29; HS+PTX=0.26 (p<0.05). The number of labeled cells for TUNEL and Bax was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 15th day was higher in the HS+PTX group (77%) than in the RL+PTX group (11%). CONCLUSION: PTX in combination with HS enhanced survival and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, when combined with RL, PTX did not reduce apoptosis or mortality.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes dry eye and mouth. No laboratory parameters to monitor the activation of this disease have been identified. Therefore, any possible relationships between salivary and blood myxovirus resistance 1 (MX1) and pSjS must be prospectively studied. METHODS: Thirty female patients with pSjS, 30 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without secondary Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) and 28 healthy control women were enrolled in this investigation. Analyses of MX1 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, SS-A (Ro) and SS-B (La) tests by the strip immunoblot method, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) tests by immunofluorescence and the measurement of serum rheumatoid factor (RF), C3, C4, immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed. RESULTS: The serum level of MX1 in patients without Raynaud phenomenon was higher than in those with Raynaud phenomenon (p:0.029, p<0.05, statistically significant). There was a statistically significant positive association between hemoglobin levels and MX1 serum levels. No statistically significant association was found among the other parameters. Low MX1 levels were shown to be associated with both a low disease activity score based on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) and hydroxychloroquine use in all patients. CONCLUSION: MX1 levels have a considerable impact on the assessment of the disease activity in SjS. We believe that more-comprehensive studies should be performed on patients with pSjS who do not use hydroxychloroquine to prove this relationship and that MX1 levels should be used as a routine marker for the assessment of pSjS disease activity. Further studies are needed to create awareness of the role that MX1 has in the diagnosis of pSjS, which may help to uncover novel pathways for new therapeutic modalities.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Follow-up studies of girls with premature adrenarche have reported the development of polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia and a propensity to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of these conditions in patients previously treated at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro. METHODS: A total of 130 medical records reported premature adrenarche. One hundred and twenty-two patients were invited to participate, of whom 54 accepted; 34 patients were selected, as they had reached their final height. Anthropometric, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid and hormonal profile (LH, FSH, estradiol, 17α-OH-progesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone) data were obtained, the HOMA-IR index was calculated, and pelvic ultrasonography was performed. To characterize polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome, the Rotterdam and International Diabetes Federation criteria, respectively, were used. Data were analyzed according to measures of dispersion, frequency and correlations of interest. RESULTS: The age of the participants ranged from 15.2 to 28.2 years/months; 23.5% of the patients were overweight, 11.8% were obese, 29.4% had a large waist circumference, and 8.8% were hypertensive. None of the patients had altered glucose levels, and insulin levels and HOMA-IR were elevated in 29.4% and 38.2% of the participants, respectively; 14.7% of the patients exhibited acanthosis nigricans. The lipid profiles of the participants were variable, and one patient (2.9%) had metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome was found in 41.2% of patients. CONCLUSION: The percentage of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who also had overweight, obesity and insulin resistance corroborates the literature data about the need for follow-up aiming at interventions, especially for conditions associated with cardiometabolic risk.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To evaluate cardiovascular involvement in children and adolescents with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and to characterize the main risk factors associated with this outcome. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 69 children and adolescents at renal transplantation and 33 healthy individuals matched by age and gender. The study outcomes were left ventricular mass z-score (LVMZ) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). The potential risk factors considered were age, gender, CKD etiology, use of oral vitamin D and calcium-based phosphate binders, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index z-score, time since diagnosis, dialysis duration, serum levels of ionic calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor (FGF 23), uric acid, homocysteine, cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), vitamin D and hemoglobin. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with LVMZ were dialysis duration, age, systolic blood pressure, serum hemoglobin and HDL cholesterol levels. Regarding CIMT, in the multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure was the only factor associated with the outcome. CONCLUSION: Children exhibited important cardiovascular involvement at the time of the renal transplantation. Both of the studied outcomes were independently associated with systolic blood pressure. For this reason, controlling blood pressure seems to be the main therapy to minimize cardiovascular involvement in children with ESRD.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Women with invasive placentation (IP) are at high risk of life-threatening hemorrhage. In the last two decades, less invasive surgical approaches combined with endovascular procedures have proven to be safe. Most case series describe the use of temporary balloon occlusion and embolization, either combined or not. Concerning hemorrhage rates, each separate interventional approach performs better than surgery alone does, yet it is not clear whether the combination of multiple interventional techniques can be beneficial and promote a lower incidence of intrapartum bleeding. We aim to evaluate whether combining temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac artery and uterine artery embolization promotes better hemorrhage control than do other individual interventional approaches reported in the scientific literature in the context of cesarean birth followed by hysterectomy in patients with IP. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with confirmed IP who underwent temporary balloon occlusion and embolization of the internal iliac arteries followed by puerperal hysterectomy. We compared patient results to data extracted from a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the current literature that focused on interventional procedures in patients with IP. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients underwent the procedure during the study period in our institution. The mean volume of packed red blood cells and the estimated blood loss were 487.9 mL and 1193 mL, respectively. Four patients experienced complications that were attributed to the endovascular procedure. CONCLUSION: The combination of temporary balloon occlusion and uterine artery embolization does not seem to promote better hemorrhage control than each procedure performed individually does.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic exercise on mental health, functional autonomy and oxidative stress parameters in depressed elderly individuals. METHODS: Initially, ninety-two elderly individuals were included in the study and were allocated into the depression group (n=16) and nondepression group (n=14). Both groups engaged in the aquatic exercise program for 12 weeks, including two weekly sessions (45 min/session) at a low intensity (between 50% and 60% of maximal heart rate or Borg scale scores of 13 to 14) throughout the intervention. All outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 12 weeks later. RESULTS: The patients were 63.5±8.8 years old. The following scores were decreased after training in the depressed group: depression (53%), anxiety (48%), and Timed Up & Go (33%). The following scores increased: Berg Balance Scale (9%) and flexibility (44%). Regarding the blood-based parameters, there were decreases in protein carbonylation (46%) and nitric oxide (60%) and increases in glutathione (170%) and superoxide dismutase (160%) in the depression group (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The aquatic exercise program reduces depression and anxiety, improves functional autonomy and decreases oxidative stress in depressed elderly individuals.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze our experience and learning curve for robotic pyeloplasty during this robotic procedure. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients underwent 100 consecutive procedures. Cases were divided into 4 groups of 25 consecutive procedures to analyze the learning curve. RESULTS: The median anastomosis times were 50.0, 36.8, 34.2 and 29.0 minutes (p=0.137) in the sequential groups, respectively. The median operative times were 144.6, 119.2, 114.5 and 94.6 minutes, with a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p=0.015), 1 and 3 (p=0.002), 1 and 4 (p<0.001) and 2 and 4 (p=0.022). The mean hospital stay was 7.08, 4.76, 4.88 and 4.20 days, with a difference between groups 1 and 2 (p<0.001), 1 and 3 (p<0.001) and 1 and 4 (p<0.001). Clinical and radiological improvements were observed in 98.9% of patients. One patient presented with recurrent obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a high success rate with low complication rates. A significant decrease in hospital stay and surgical time was evident after 25 cases.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Progressive decline of physiological processes with aging is normal. Aging is also associated with decreased functional capacity and onset of many diseases. This study evaluated the changes in physical fitness (PF), body composition (BC), and lipid profile (LP) in elderly men completing different training protocols. METHODS: Fifty-five men (age 60-80 years) were randomized into the following groups: without training, aerobic training on dry land, combined training on dry land, and combined training in water. Training was conducted for 8 weeks, and PF, LP, and BC were assessed at the beginning and end of the intervention. RESULTS: Significant improvements were observed in all parameters; however, combined programs on land or in water were more effective at improving strength and aerobic fitness. Combined exercise produced greater effects on BC and LP and some muscle fitness parameters; however, improvements in muscular and aerobic capacities occurred independently of exercise type or model. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the effects of training occur regardless of training type or model, and are directly associated with training periodization, adherence, and regularity.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Muscle wasting contributes to the reduced quality of life and increased mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Muscle atrophy in mice with cachexia was caused by Activin A binding to ActRIIB. The role of circulating Activin A leading to muscle atrophy in COPD remains elusive. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between serum levels of Activin A and skeletal muscle wasting in COPD patients. The expression levels of serum Activin A were measured in 78 stable COPD patients and in 60 healthy controls via ELISA, which was also used to determine the expression of circulating TNF-α levels. Total skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was calculated according to a validated formula by age and anthropometric measurements. The fat-free mass index (FFMI) was determined as the fat-free mass (FFM) corrected for body surface area. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, COPD patients had upregulated Activin A expression. The elevated levels of Activin A were correlated with TNF-α expression, while total SMM and FFMI were significantly decreased in COPD patients. Furthermore, serum Activin A expression in COPD patients was negatively associated with both FFMI and BMI. CONCLUSION: The above results showed an association between increased circulating Activin A in COPD patients and the presence of muscle atrophy. Given our previous knowledge, we speculate that Activin A contributes to skeletal muscle wasting in COPD.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China. METHODS: In total, 909 patients with CAP were recruited for this study from January 2010 to June 2015. All patients were selected and divided into 4 groups according to their body mass index (BMI) values. All patients’ clinical information was recorded. The associations among mortality; BMI; the 30-day, 6-month and 1-year survival rates for different BMI classes; the etiology of pneumonia in each BMI group; and the risk factors for 1-year mortality in CAP patients were analyzed. RESULT: With the exception of the level of C-reactive protein (CRP), no other clinical indexes showed significant differences among the different BMI groups. No significant differences were observed among all groups in terms of the 30-d and 6-month mortality rates (p>0.05). There was a significantly lower risk of 1-year mortality in the obese group than in the nonobese group, (p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that there were seven independent risk factors for 1-year mortality in CAP patients, namely, age, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, obesity, APACHE II score, level of CRP and CAP severity. CONCLUSION: Compared with nonobese patients with CAP, obese CAP patients may have a lower mortality rate, especially with regard to 1-year mortality, and CRP may be associated with the lower mortality rate in obese individuals than in nonobese individuals.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in diffuse peritonitis treatment protocols, some cases develop unfavorably. With the advent of vacuum therapy, the use of laparostomy to treat peritonitis has gained traction. Another treatment modality is continuous peritoneal lavage. However, maintaining this technique is difficult and has been associated with controversial results. We propose a new model of continuous peritoneal lavage that takes advantage of the features and benefits of vacuum laparostomy. METHOD: Pigs (Landrace and Large White) under general anesthesia were submitted to laparostomy through which a multiperforated tube was placed along each flank and exteriorized in the left and lower right quadrants. A vacuum dressing was applied, and intermittent negative pressure was maintained. Peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS) was then infused through the tubes for 36 hours. The stability of peritoneostomy with intermittent infusion of fluids, the system resistance to obstruction and leakage, water balance, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Fluid disposition in the abdominal cavity was analyzed through CT. RESULTS: Even when negative pressure was not applied, the dressing maintained the integrity of the system, and there were no leaks or blockage of the catheters during the procedure. The aspirated volume by vacuum laparostomy was similar to the infused volume (9073.5±1496.35 mL versus 10165±235.73 mL, p=0.25), and there were no major changes in hemodynamic or biochemical analysis. According to CT images, 60 ml/kg PDS was sufficient to occupy all intra-abdominal spaces. CONCLUSION: Continuous peritoneal lavage with negative pressure proved to be technically possible and may be an option in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Rapidly dividing cells in multiple types of cancer and inflammatory diseases undergo high low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake for membrane synthesis, and coupling an LDL-like nanoemulsion, containing lipid nanoparticles (LDE) to a chemotherapeutic agent efficiently targets these cells without significant systemic effects. This was a prospective exploratory study that evaluated the uptake of a radioactively labeled LDE emulsion by receptors of endometriotic foci and the capacity of the LDE for cellular internalization. METHODS: The lipid profile of each patient was determined before surgery, and labeled LDE were injected into fourteen patients with intestinal or nonintestinal endometriosis. The radioactivity of each tissue sample (intestinal endometriosis, nonintestinal endometriosis, healthy peritoneum, or topical endometrium) was measured. RESULTS: The group with intestinal endometriosis presented higher levels of plasma LDL but lower LDE uptake by foci than the nonintestinal group, suggesting less cell division and more fibrosis. The uptake of LDE was highest in the topical endometrium, followed by the healthy peritoneum, and lowest in the endometriotic lesion. Since the endometriotic foci showed significant LDE uptake, there was likely increased consumption of LDL by these cells, similar to cells in cancers and inflammatory diseases. Plasma cholesterol levels had no influence on LDE uptake, which showed that the direct delivery of the nanoemulsion to target tissues was independent of serum lipoproteins. There were no significant differences in the parameters (p>0.01) because of the small sample size, but the findings were similar to those of previous studies. CONCLUSION: Nanotechnology is a promising therapeutic option for surgery and hormonal blockage for deep endometriosis, with a lower complication rate and no systemic side effects.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Approximately one-third of candidates for epilepsy surgery have no visible abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging. This is extremely discouraging, as these patients have a less favorable prognosis. We aimed to evaluate the utility of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in patients with drug-resistant neocortical focal epilepsy and negative imaging. METHODS: A prospective study including 46 patients evaluated through individualized postprocessing of five quantitative measures: cortical thickness, white and gray matter junction signal, relaxation rate, magnetization transfer ratio, and mean diffusivity. Scalp video-electroencephalography was used to suggest the epileptogenic zone. A volumetric fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence was performed to aid visual inspection. A critical assessment of follow-up was also conducted throughout the study. RESULTS: In the subgroup classified as having an epileptogenic zone, individualized postprocessing detected abnormalities within the region of electroclinical origin in 9.7% to 31.0% of patients. Abnormalities outside the epileptogenic zone were more frequent, up to 51.7%. In five patients initially included with negative imaging, an epileptogenic structural abnormality was identified when a new visual magnetic resonance imaging inspection was guided by information gleaned from postprocessing. In three patients, epileptogenic lesions were detected after visual evaluation with volumetric fluid-attenuated sequence guided by video electroencephalography. CONCLUSION: Although quantitative magnetic resonance imaging analyses may suggest hidden structural lesions, caution is warranted because of the apparent low specificity of these findings for the epileptogenic zone. Conversely, these methods can be used to prevent visible lesions from being ignored, even in referral centers. In parallel, we need to highlight the positive contribution of the volumetric fluid-attenuated sequence.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To compare long-term postoperative complications of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation associated with posterior capsulotomy (PC) and anterior vitrectomy (AV) between patients treated with a corneal or pars plicata/pars plana approach. METHODS: Children who underwent cataract surgery with in-the-bag primary IOL implantation were divided into two groups according to PC and AV surgical approach: a corneal approach (group 1) and a pars plicata/pars plana approach (group 2). Only patients with a follow-up duration of more than two years were included. Long-term surgical outcomes were retrospectively reported. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 10.00±3.13 years. No cases of glaucoma or retinal detachment were reported. The mean age at surgery was 34.57±22.66 months. Forty-six children were included (27 eyes in group 1 and 29 eyes in group 2). The most frequent postoperative complication was corectopia, followed by visual axis opacification. Both complications occurred more frequently in group 1 (p<0.001). After cataract surgery, the rate of additional surgeries in group 1 was 51.9%, while in group 2, the rate was 27.6% (p=0.1132). CONCLUSION: The pars plicata/pars plana approach with PC and vitrectomy with primary in-the-bag IOL implantation for pediatric cataracts is a safe procedure.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Bilirubin is considered an important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory factor and immunomodulator. The current investigation aimed to explore the association between bilirubin and white blood cell (WBC) count in a large Chinese cohort. METHODS: A total of 61091 participants (29259 males, 31832 females) were recruited from a Chinese tertiary hospital. Data were sorted by sex, and the association between bilirubin and WBC count was analyzed after dividing bilirubin levels into quartiles. RESULTS: Most parameters (including age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides and WBC count) were significantly higher in men than in women. Bilirubin displayed significant negative relationships with most other measured variables. Linear logistic regression analysis further indicated their negative relationships. Females showed a significantly higher frequency of leucopenia than males. Significant associations of leucopenia with high bilirubin quartiles were shown in binary logistic regression models for both sexes, with a much closer association in men than in women. For instance, for men with bilirubin levels in quartile 4, the adjusted likelihood of leucopenia was 1.600-times higher than that of men with values in quartile 1. For women with bilirubin levels in quartile 4, the adjusted likelihood of leucopenia was 1.135-times higher than that of women with values in quartile 1. CONCLUSION: Bilirubin is negatively related to WBC count. Significant associations exist between leucopenia and high bilirubin quartiles, and these associations are more obvious in men than in women.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of NLRP3 and HMGB-1 and the prognosis of patients with severe blunt abdominal trauma. METHODS: In total, 299 patients were included in the current study from July 2014 to December 2015. All patients were divided into the mild/moderate blunt abdominal trauma group and the severe blunt abdominal trauma group according to their injury severity scores. Serum levels of NLRP3 and HMGB-1 were measured upon admission (0 h) and at 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 days after admission. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, both the mild/moderate and severe blunt abdominal trauma groups had higher serum levels of NLRP3 and HMGB-1 at admission. At all points, the serum levels of NLRP3 and HMGB-1 were significantly higher in the severe group than in the mild/moderate group. The serum levels of both NLRP3 and HMGB-1 were significantly higher in the deceased patients than in the living patients. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that compared with patients with higher levels of NLRP3 or HMGB-1, those with lower levels had longer survival times. The serum levels of both NLRP3 and HMGB-1 were independent risk factors for 6-month mortality in severe blunt abdominal trauma patients. CONCLUSION: The serum levels of NLRP3 and HMGB-1 were significantly elevated in severe blunt abdominal trauma patients, and the serum levels of both NLRP3 and HMGB-1 were correlated with 6-month mortality in severe blunt abdominal trauma patients.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is not yet fully understood, especially considering different body positions and the mathematical influence of heart rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of HRV in supine and standing positions, with and without mathematical adjustment of HRV by the average R-R interval (iRR). METHODS: We evaluated 37 young males (23.1±4 years; 25.1±3 kg/m2). A 5-min segment of the iRR was collected in the supine and standing positions on three occasions separated by 48-hour intervals. Absolute and relative reliability of temporal and spectral indices were assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. RESULTS: We did not observe differences in HRV indices in the three occasions in the supine or standing position (p>0.05). Moderate to good reproducibility was observed for temporal and spectral indices of HRV in the supine position (ICC: 0.65-0.89; CV: 0.9-19.8). In the orthostatic position, low to good reproducibility was observed (ICC: 0.35-0.89; CV: 1.1-34.8), with higher ICCs for temporal indices. After mathematical adjustment, only a small modification in HRV reliability was observed in both positions. CONCLUSIONS: In young adult males, the mathematical adjustment of HRV by the average iRR led to a nonsignificant effect on HRV reliability. Additionally, HRV reliability is dependent on body position and the index analyzed. Promising measures in both supine and standing positions include r-MSSD and the HF band (parasympathetic indices).
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the use of probiotics as an additional therapy in the treatment of children and adolescents with asthma in Belo Horizonte, MG-Brazil. METHODS: A pilot longitudinal, experimental and nonrandomized study with 30 patients from six to 17 years old from Belo Horizonte. In the baseline appointment, all patients received beclomethasone, and one group also received a probiotic containing Lactobacillus reuteri (n=14). The patients were reassessed after at least 60 days with the Asthma Control Test, spirometry and self-report of the symptoms they experienced associated with asthma. RESULTS: A predominance of male patients (56.7%) and a mean age of 10.6 years were observed. The groups using probiotics did not differ in terms of sex, age or atopy. In the longitudinal evaluation, an increase in the Asthma Control Test scores and a reduction in the number of symptoms were observed in the probiotic group. There was an increase in the peak expiratory flow among those who used probiotics. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study supports the hypothesis that the administration of probiotics as a supplementary therapy for the treatment of children and adolescents with asthma improves the clinical condition of the patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of probiotics in asthma treatment.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and erythropoietin (EPO) in experimental acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. METHODS: Using standardized equipment, namely, a New York University (NYU) Impactor, a SCI was produced in 50 Wistar rats using a 10-g weight drop from a 12.5-mm height. The rats were divided into the following 5 groups of 10 animals each: “Group EPO”, treated with erythropoietin only; “Group EPO + IL-6”, treated with both substances; “Group IL-6”, receiving IL-6 administration only; “Group Placebo”, receiving a placebo solution; and “Group Sham”, submitted to an incomplete procedure (only laminectomy, without SCI). All drugs and the placebo solution were administered intraperitoneally for three weeks. The animals were followed up for 42 days. Functional motor recovery was monitored by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale on days 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Motor-evoked potential tests were performed on the 42nd day. Histological analysis was performed after euthanasia. RESULTS: The group receiving EPO exhibited superior functional motor results on the BBB scale. IL-6 administration alone was not superior to the placebo treatment, and the IL-6 combination with EPO yielded worse results than did EPO alone. CONCLUSIONS: Using EPO after acute SCI in rats yielded benefits in functional recovery. The combination of EPO and IL-6 showed benefits, but with inferior results compared to those of isolated EPO; moreover, isolated use of IL-6 resulted in no benefit.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This pilot study investigated the safety and efficacy of a novel shunt surgery combined with foam sclerotherapy of varices in patients with prehepatic portal hypertension. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients who were diagnosed with prehepatic portal hypertension and underwent shunt surgeries were divided into three groups by surgery type: shunt surgery alone (Group A), shunt surgery and devascularization (Group B), and shunt surgery combined with foam sclerotherapy (Group C). Between-group differences in operation time, intraoperative blood loss, portal pressure decrease, postoperative complications, rebleeding rates, encephalopathy, mortality rates and remission of gastroesophageal varices were compared. RESULTS: Groups A, B and C had similar operation times, intraoperative bleeding, and portal pressure decrease. The remission rates of varices differed significantly (p<0.001): one patient in Group A and 6 patients in Group B had partial response, and all 9 patients in Group C had remission (2 complete, 7 partial). Two Group A patients and one Group B patient developed recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding postoperatively within 12 months. No postoperative recurrence or bleeding was observed in Group C, and no sclerotherapy-related complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Shunt surgery combined with foam sclerotherapy obliterates varices more effectively than shunt surgery alone does, decreasing the risk of postoperative rebleeding from residual gastroesophageal varices. This novel surgery is safe and effective with good short-term outcomes.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the self-perception of oral health according to the physical, psychosocial and pain/discomfort dimensions related to clinical conditions and orofacial pain of elderly people living in three different environments. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional, quantitative study with a population-based approach and nonprobabilistic convenience sampling that included 81 elderly people: 27 resided in institutional homes for elderly individuals, 27 resided in an urban area and 27 resided in a rural area in the interior of Paraíba (PB) in northeastern Brazil. RESULTS: The Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was used to assess self-perception of oral health, while the Questionnaire for Screening of Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders (QST/TMD) was used to assess the influences of orofacial pain and the biofilm indexes of teeth and prostheses. There was a statistically significant difference in the GOHAI scores among the places of residence, with the worst values associated with the rural area. According to the QST/TMD, the majority of individuals were affected by TMDs, with statistical differences for both sex and income. CONCLUSION: The biofilm analysis showed a higher incidence of clinical conditions in the rural population. The place of residence also influenced self-perception and the clinical oral health condition of elderly people; the rural population presented the worst results.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent types of malignant neoplasms. Age is a risk factor for this disease, with 75% of cases diagnosed in patients older than 65 years. Complications such as obstruction, hemorrhage, and perforation are present in more than one-third of cases and require emergency treatment. We aim to analyze the profile of elderly patients undergoing surgery for complicated colorectal cancer, and to evaluate factors related to worse short-term prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent emergency surgical treatment for complicated colorectal cancer was performed. Demographics, clinical, radiological and histological data were collected. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients were analyzed. The median age was 72 years, and almost half (46%) of the patients were female. Obstruction was the most prevalent complication at initial presentation (72%). The most common sites of neoplasia were the left and sigmoid colon in 22 patients (32.8%), and the right colon in 17 patients (25.4%). Resection was performed in 88% of cases, followed by primary anastomosis in almost half. The most frequent clinical stages were II (48%) and III (22%). Forty-three patients (65.7%) had some form of postoperative complication. Clavien-Dindo grades 1, 2, and 4, were the most frequent. Complete oncologic resection was observed in 80% of the cases. The thirty-day mortality rate was 10.4%. Advanced age was associated with worse morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with complicated colorectal cancer undergoing emergency surgery have high morbidity and mortality rates. Advanced age is significantly associated with worse outcomes.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze a new protocol for the extraction of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for use in clinical practice and compare this technique with methods that have been previously described in the medical literature. METHODS: We extracted PRP from 20 volunteers using four different protocols (single spin at 1600 ×g, single spin at 600 ×g, double spin at 300 and 700 ×g, and double spin at 600 and 900 ×g). In another group of 12 individuals, we extracted PRP with our new technique (named ‘turn down-turn up’) consisting of a double spin (200 ×g and 1600 ×g) closed system using standard laboratory equipment (including an ordinary benchtop centrifuge), where the blood remained in the same tube during all processes, reducing the risk of contamination. Platelet counts adjusted to baseline values were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). RESULTS: Using the four previously described protocols (mentioned above), we obtained concentrations of platelets that were 1.15-, 2.07-, 2.18-, and 3.19-fold greater than the baseline concentration, respectively. With the turn down-turn up technique, we obtained a platelet count that was 4.17-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.09 to 5.25) greater than the baseline platelet count (p=0.063 compared with the double spin at 600 and 900 ×g method). The total cost of the disposable materials used in the extraction process was less than US$10.00 per individual. CONCLUSION: In the present study, we described a simple and safe method for obtaining PRP using low-cost devices.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Evaluate adherence to the therapeutic prophylaxis protocol for venous thromboembolism (VTE) as well as the costs of this practice. METHODS: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted at a State General Hospital in Brazil through reports of drug dispensions, prescriptions and risk stratification of patients. Adherence to the VTE prophylaxis protocol was monitored. The tests for VTE diagnosis measured the adherence to therapeutic prophylaxis treatment, and the purchase prices of the drugs went into the calculation of drug therapy costs. The level of adherence to prescriptions for VTE prophylaxis in the hospital was classified as “adherence”, “non-adherence” and “justified non-adherence” when compared with the protocol. RESULTS: Protocol adherence was observed for 50 (30.9%) patients, and non-adherence was observed for 63 (38.9%) patients, generating an additional cost of $180.40/month. Justified non-adherence in 49 (30.2%) patients generated $514.71/month in savings due to a reduction in the number of daily administrations of unfractionated heparin while still providing an effective method for preventing VTE. Twenty-six patients stratified as having medium to high risk of VTE who did not receive prophylaxis were identified, generating $154.41 in savings. However, these data should be evaluated with caution since the risks and outcomes associated with not preventing VTE outweigh the economy achieved from not prescribing a drug when a patient needs it. The only case of VTE identified during the study period was related to justified non-adherence to the protocol. CONCLUSION: The protocol is based on scientific evidence that describes an effective therapy to prevent VTE. However, the protocol should be updated because the justifications for non-adherence are based on scientific evidence, and this justified non-adherence generates savings and yields effective disease prevention.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of combinations of resistance training (RT) and static stretching (SS) on heart rate (HR), systolic pressure (SBP), diastolic pressure (DBP), rate pressure product (RPP), oxygen saturation (SpO2), rating of perceived effort (RPE), and heart rate variability (HRV) in men. METHODS: Twelve normotensive healthy men participated in four protocols: a) SS+RT, b) RT+SS, c) RT, and d) SS. Variables were measured before, immediately after, and 15, 30, and 45 min after the sessions. RESULTS: The combination of SS and RT increased (p<0.001) HR when compared to the effects of the noncombined protocols (from 2.38 to 11.02%), and this result indicated metabolic compensation. Regarding DBP, there were differences (p<0.001) between the RT and SS groups (53.93±8.59 vs. 67.00±7.01 mmHg). SS has been shown to be able to reduce (p<0.001) SpO2 (4.67%) due to the occlusion caused by a reduction in the caliber of the blood vessels during SS compared to during rest. The increase in RPP (6.88% between RT and SS+RT) along with the HR results indicated higher metabolic stress than that reflected by the RPE (combined protocols increased RPE from 21.63 to 43.25%). The HRV analysis confirmed these results, showing increases (p<0.01) in the LF index between the combined and noncombined protocols. Compared to the effect of RT, the combination of SS and RT promoted a vagal suppression root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD) index (from 9.51 to 21.52%) between the RT and SS+RT groups (p<0.01) and between the RT and RT+SS groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Static stretching increases cardiac overload and RPE, reducing oxygen supply, especially when performed in combination with RT.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Despite the number of surgical advances and innovations in techniques over time, radical vulvectomy frequently results in substantial loss of tissue that cannot be primarily closed without tension, the mobilization of surrounding tissues or even the rotation of myocutaneous flaps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of leaving the surgical vulvar open wound for secondary healing in situations where primary closure of the vulvar wound is not possible. METHODS: This case-control pilot study analyzed 16 women with a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva who first underwent inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, 6-week sessions of chemotherapy and 25 daily sessions of radiotherapy. Afterward, excision of the vulvar lesion with free margins was performed between January 2011 and July 2017. Twelve patients underwent primary closure of the wound (control), and in 4 patients, the surgical wound was left open for secondary healing by means of a hydrofiber (case). The inclusion criteria were a) FIGO-2009 stage II up to IIIC; b) squamous cell carcinoma; and c) no evidence of pelvic or extrapelvic disease or pelvic nodal involvement. The exclusion criteria were extrapelvic disease or pelvic nodal involvement, another primary cancer, or a poor clinical condition. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02067052. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients at the time of the intervention was 62.1. The distribution of the stages was as follows: II, n=6 (37 %); IIIA, n=1 (6%), IIIB, n=1 (6%) and IIIC, n=8 (51%). The mean operative time was 45 minutes. The hospital stay duration was 2 days. Full vulvar healing occurred after an average of 30 days in the control group and after an average of 50 days in the case group. CONCLUSION: A secondary healing strategy may be an option for the treatment of vulvar cancer in situations of non-extensive surgical wounds when primary closure of the wound is not possible.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: How much force is needed to stretch skeletal muscle is still unknown. The aim of this study was to develop a device that mechanically stretches rat muscle to compare the force (N) required to stretch the soleus muscle of young and aged rats and the tibio-tarsal angle joint at neutral and stretched positions. METHODS: Twelve female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a young group (YG, n=6, 311±11 g) of rats 3 months old and an aged group (AG, n=6, 351±43 g) of rats 15 months old. The left soleus muscle was mechanically held in full dorsal flexion and submitted to mechanical passive stretching: 1 bout of 10 repetitions, each repetition lasted 60 seconds with an interval of 45 seconds between repetitions, performed once a day, twice a week, for 1 week. The force required during stretching was measured by a load cell, and the tibio-tarsal angle joint was measured by photometry. RESULTS: The load cell calibration showed excellent reliability, as confirmed by the intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.93. A decrease in delta force was found in the comparison between YG and AG (0.11±0.03 N vs 0.08±0.02 N, p<0.05, repeated measures ANOVA). There was no difference between the YG and the AG in the tibio-tarsal angle at resting position (87.1±3.8° vs 87.1±3.5°, p=0.35, Kruskal Wallis) and at the end of the stretching protocol (43.9±4.4° vs 42.6±3.4°, p=0.57, Kruskal Wallis). CONCLUSION: The device presented in this study is able to monitor the force necessary to stretch hindlimb rat muscles. Aged rats required less force than young rats to stretch the soleus muscle, and there was no difference regarding the tibio-tarsal angle between the two groups.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of epoetin (EPO) alfa treatment on overall survival, event-free survival and response duration in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who were treated at a haematological referral centre in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 36 patients diagnosed with MDS and treated with EPO alfa at 30,000 to 60,000 IU per week. Clinical data were collected from medical records. The events assessed were non-response to treatment and progression to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism 7 and SPSS 24 software. RESULTS: The overall survival of patients who received EPO alfa treatment was 51.64%, with a median of 65 months of treatment, and the overall survival of this group was 100% during the first 24 months. We detected a 43.5-month median event-free survival, with a response rate of 80.5%. We observed responses from 25 to 175 months. Patients with transfusion dependence and those with a high-risk stratification, as determined by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R), the WHO classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) and the WHO 2016, had a lower event-free survival than other patients. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the wide use of EPO alfa in the treatment of anaemia in patients with MDS, the median response duration is approximately only 24 months. Our data provide encouraging results concerning the benefits of using EPO alfa for the improvement of the quality of life, as patients treated with EPO showed higher overall survival, event-free survival rates and longer response durations than have been previously described in the literature.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effects of cataract surgery on cardiac autonomic modulation. METHODS: A cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted at the Hospital Maria Braido in the city of São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, between 2015 and 2016. We investigated 19 patients of both sexes who were all over 50 years old; all patients had a diagnosis of senile or bilateral cataracts and were recommended to undergo implantation of the intraocular lens. Heart rate variability (HRV) was evaluated before, during and after cataract surgery. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in the time and geometric domains of HRV before, during or after surgery. The high-frequency (HF) band in normalized units (nu) on the spectral analysis significantly increased (p=0.02, Cohen’s d=0.9, large effect size). However, the low-frequency (LF) band in nu significantly decreased during surgery (p=0.02, Cohen’s d=0.9, large effect size). CONCLUSION: Throughout the intraocular lens implantation cataract surgery, there was an increase in parasympathetic modulation and a decrease in the sympathetic component of the heart rate (HR). We propose that this result is attributable to the supine position of the patients during surgery and the trigeminal reflex.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with the prescription of vaginal pessaries (VPs) as a conservative treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed during two annual urogynecology and general obstetrics and gynecology meetings in 2017 (São Paulo, SP, Brazil). A 19-item deidentified questionnaire regarding experiences and practices in prescribing VPs for POP patients was distributed among gynecologists. Our primary outcome was the frequency of prescribing VPs as a conservative treatment for POP. The reasons for prescribing or not prescribing VPs were also investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses with crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were performed for variables associated with the prescription of pessaries. RESULTS: Three hundred forty completed surveys were analyzed. Half of the respondents (53.53%) were between 30-49 years old; most of them were female (73.53%), were from the Southeast Region (64.12%), were trained in obstetrics and gynecology (80.24%) or urogynecology (61.18%) and worked in private offices (63.42%). More than one-third (36.48%) attended four or more POP cases/week, and 97.65% (n=332) had heard or knew about VPs for POP; however, only 47.06% (n=160) prescribed or offered this treatment to patients. According to the multivariate analysis, physicians aged 18-35 years (OR=1.97[1.00-3.91]; p=0.04), those who participated in a previous urogynecology fellowship (OR=2.34[1.34-4.09]; p<0.01), those with relatively high volumes of POP cases (4 or +) (OR=2.23[1.21-4.47]; p=0.01) and those with PhD degrees (OR=2.75[1.01-7.54]; p=0.05) prescribed more pessaries. CONCLUSIONS: Most gynecologists did not prescribe VPs. Younger physician age, participation in a previous urogynecology fellowship, a PhD degree, and a relatively high volume of POP cases were associated with increased VP prescription rates.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Machinery injuries account for a substantial share of traumatic upper limb injuries (TULIs) affecting young active individuals. This study is based on the hypothesis that there is an important relationship between the improper use of power saws and TULIs. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence and epidemiology of TULIs caused by power saws and determine the risks related to power saw use. METHODS: A cross-sectional evaluation of medical records from a two-year period was performed. Patients sustaining TULIs related to power saws were analyzed. Data on the epidemiology, site of injury, mechanism of trauma, technical specifications of the tool, cutting material, personal protective equipment, time lost and return to work were obtained. RESULTS: A database search retrieved 193 TULI records, of which 104 were related to power saws. The majority of patients were male (102/104; 98.1%), right-handed (97/104; 93.3%), and manual workers (46/104; 44.2%), with an average age of 46.8 years. The thumb was the most frequently injured site (32/93; 34.4%). Most of the injuries were caused by manual saws (85/104; 81.7%), and masonry saws accounted for 68.2% (58/85) of the cases. Masonry saws improperly used for woodwork resulted in 86.2% (50/58) of the injuries. TULI caused by masonry saws was 5 times higher in manual workers than in other patients. In addition, masonry saws had a risk of kickback 15 times higher than that of other saws, and the risk of injury increased by 5.25 times when the saws were used improperly for wood cutting. CONCLUSIONS: The profile of TULIs related to power saws was demonstrated and was mainly associated with manual saws operated by manual workers that inappropriately used masonry saws for woodworking.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The increasing demand for medical specialties with flexible working hours has been associated with the important role of quality of life as a determining factor when choosing a career in medicine, which might change the motivations for pursuing a career in ophthalmology. We aim to identify the main determinants of ophthalmology as a career choice as well as the reasons that motivated previous generations to follow this path. METHODS: Responses to self-administered online questionnaires were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 225 responses were analyzed, including those of baby boomers (21), generation X (48), generation Y (131) and generation Z (25). Although the main reasons for choosing ophthalmology as a career are the same for all the generations in this study (flexible working hours, self-satisfaction from helping people improve their vision and the possibility of performing surgical procedures), some reasons for this career choice are more important to the younger generations (short-term results and short procedures), and some are more important to the older generations (the influence of an ophthalmologist in the family). CONCLUSION: The main reasons for choosing ophthalmology as a career are essentially the same over time. The differences in secondary motivations could be explained by generational differences.
Abstract in English:OJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the ability of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade to control pain and to reduce the side effects of general anesthesia in patients submitted to thyroidectomy. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, we prospectively studied 100 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The simple random patient sample was divided into two groups: 50 patients received general anesthesia alone (group 1 [G1]), and 50 patients received general anesthesia with bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade (group 2 [G2]). Statistical analyses were performed, and a 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS: The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were 12% lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients 60 minutes after surgery (101 mmHg for G1 vs. 92.3 mmHg for G2; p<0.001). G2 patients reported less pain than G1 patients, and opioid consumption was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients, not upon postanesthesia care unit arrival, but at 30 minutes (2% vs. 34%; p<0.001, respectively), 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively), and 4 hours postoperatively (6% vs. 20%; p=0.037, respectively). The incidence of nausea and vomiting was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients from 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively) to 8 hours postoperatively (0% vs. 14%; p=0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that the combination of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade with general anesthesia for thyroidectomy is feasible, safe, and effective for achieving pain control and improving patient outcomes.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of exercise testing alterations in middle-aged women without symptoms of heart disease and to verify the associations of functional capacity and heart rate behavior during and after exercise with cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 asymptomatic women aged between 46 and 65 years who underwent clinical evaluations and exercise testing (Bruce protocol). The heart rate behavior was evaluated by the maximal predicted heart rate achieved, chronotropic index and recovery heart rate. RESULTS: The mean age was 56.4±4.8 years, and 13.4% of the patients had a Framingham risk score above 10%. In the exercise treadmill testing, 58.0% presented one or more of the following alterations (listed in order of ascending prevalence): symptoms (angina, dyspnea, and dizziness), ST-segment depression, arrhythmia, reduction in recovery heart rate of ≤12 bpm at 1 minute, altered maximal predicted heart rate achieved, abnormal blood pressure, functional capacity deficiency, and altered chronotropic index. In the multivariate analysis, the following associations (odds ratio) were observed for these alterations: chronotropic index was associated with obesity (2.08) and smoking (4.47); maximal predicted heart rate achieved was associated with smoking (6.45); reduction in the recovery heart rate at 1 minute was associated with age (1.09) and obesity (2.78); functional capacity was associated with age (0.92), an overweight status (2.29) and obesity (6.51). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of middle-aged women without cardiovascular symptoms present alterations in one or more exercise testing parameters. Alterations in the functional capacity or heart rate behavior, as verified by exercise testing, are associated with age, smoking, an overweight status and obesity.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The benefits of implementing point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in the emergency department are well established. Ideally, physicians should be taught POCUS during medical school. Several different courses have been designed for that purpose and have yielded good results. However, medical students need specifically designed courses that address the main objectives of knowledge acquisition and retention. Despite that, there is limited evidence to support knowledge retention, especially in the mid-term. The purpose of this study is to evaluate short- and mid-term knowledge retention after a student-aimed ultrasound course. METHODS: Medical students participating in a medical student trauma symposium (SIMPALT) in 2017 were included. Their profiles and baseline ultrasound knowledge were assessed by a precourse questionnaire (PRT). The same questionnaire was used one week (1POT) and three months (3POT) after the course. RESULTS: Most of the participants were 1st- to 4th- year medical students. None had prior ultrasound knowledge. They reported costs as the major barrier (65%) to enrollment in an ultrasound course. A comparison between the PRT and 1POT results showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.02), while no difference was found between 1POT and 3POT (p>0.09). CONCLUSION: Our findings support the use of a tailored ultrasound course for medical students. Knowledge acquisition and mid-term retention may be achieved by this specific population.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a complex-care-based medical school in the context of the Brazilian health care system on students’ career choices. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study based on medical regulatory organization records. It included records for 7,419 physicians who graduated from FMUSP. Geographic data were analyzed using Kernel maps, and the statistical analysis was performed with SPSS® version 24.0. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Of the 7,419 physicians, 68.6% (95% CI 67.5-69.7) were male, and 20.7% (95% CI 19.8%-21.7%) had no medical specialty, compared to 46.4% nationwide. Internal medicine and surgery-based specialties were more popular, accounting for 39.4% (95% CI 38.3%-40.5%) and 16.8% (95% CI 15.5%-17.6%) of our study group, compared to the Brazilian averages of 25.9% and 13.5%. Our graduates also had a higher probability of staying in São Paulo City, especially when born outside the city. CONCLUSION: We believe that FMUSP remains an interesting model for studying the impact of a highly specialized center on the education and career choices of medical students.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: An objective of clinical autopsies is to determine the final cause of death and the pathological changes that may have triggered it. Despite advances in Medicine, the level of discrepancy between clinical and autopsy diagnoses remains significant. The aim of this study was to compare the data obtained from autopsies carried out at the São Bernardo do Campo/SP Death Verification Section with clinical diagnostic hypotheses proposed during medical care. METHOD: This was a retrospective study involving the comparison of necroscopic reports issued by the São Bernardo do Campo/São Paulo Death Verification Section in 2014 and 2015 and the Cadaver Referral Guides completed by attending physicians prior to the necroscopic examination. RESULTS: A total of 465 cases were analyzed. In general, discrepancies between the clinical diagnostic hypothesis and the autopsy diagnosis occurred in 28% of the cases. A logistic regression model, with diagnostic discrepancy as a response variable and sex, age, duration of care, type of institution providing medical care and organ system as explanatory variables, was fit to the data; the results indicated that all explanatory variables with the exception of organ system are not significant (p>0.132). CONCLUSIONS: Discrepancies between clinical diagnostic hypotheses and autopsy diagnoses continue to occur, despite new developments in complementary examinations and therapies. The odds of a discrepancy when patients present with diseases of the cardiac system are greater than those when there are problems in the vascular, endocrine and neurological systems.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of voluntary dehydration based on urine osmolarity in elementary school students from two public educational institutions in the metropolitan region of São Paulo and evaluate whether there is a relationship between voluntary dehydration and nutritional status or socioeconomic status. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study with students from two public schools in the city of Osasco. The determination of urine osmolarity was performed using the freezing method of the Advanced® Osmometer Model 3W2. Urine osmolarity greater than 800 mOsm/kg H2O was considered voluntary dehydration. During data collection, the weights and heights of the students, environmental temperatures and air humidity levels were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 475 students aged six to 12 years were evaluated, of whom 188 were male. Voluntary dehydration occurred in 63.2% of the students and was more frequent in males than in females. The prevalence of voluntary dehydration was more frequent in males aged six to nine years than in females. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between males and females aged 10 to 12 years. No association was found between voluntary dehydration and nutritional status or socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of voluntary dehydration was high in elementary school students and was more frequent in males. No association was found between voluntary dehydration and nutritional or socioeconomic status.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Psychiatric depression disorder is common in patients with systolic congestive heart failure (HF), and both conditions share underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The incidence rate of depression disorder has clearly increased with the increase in HF manifestations in recent decades. Depression disorder is considered an independent predisposing factor for hospitalization, disturbed functional performance, and high rates of morbidity and mortality in HF patients. This randomized controlled study was designed to examine the impacts of low- to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training on depression status in patients with systolic congestive HF. METHODS: A total of 46 systolic congestive HF patients with depression (40-60 years of age) were randomized to receive twelve weeks of mild- to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise plus standard medical treatment (exercise group) or standard medical treatment without any exercise intervention (control group). Depression status was examined using the validated Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9) pre- and post-intervention at the end of the study program. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the exercise and control groups in demographic data or clinical characteristics (p>0.05). Both study groups showed a significant reduction in depression status at the end of the 12-week intervention (p<0.05). The comparison between the mean values of the depression scores showed significant differences between the two groups after 6 and 12 weeks of the intervention, indicating a greater reduction in depression scores in the exercise group than in the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of a low- to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program was safe and effective for reducing depression severity in patients with systolic congestive HF. Low- to moderate-intensity aerobic training should be recommended for cardiac patients, particularly those with HF-related depression.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Kinesio tape (KT) is a visible adhesive restorative tape that has typically been utilized for injury prevention, recovery, and even performance improvement, but limited studies have assessed the effect of KT on muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical impact of KT on muscle performance in healthy young soccer players. METHODS: Between 25 March and 21 April 2017, sixteen healthy soccer players with a mean age of 20±2.17 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. All participants were selected from the college football team of Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University. The muscle performance of the players was evaluated with an isokinetic dynamometer for the following three conditions: without tape, immediately after applying KT, and 8 hrs post-KT application while the tape remained on the same site. RESULTS: The differences in peak torque and total work among the three conditions were nonsignificant (p>0.05). Additionally, applying KT to the thigh muscles did not decrease or increase the performance of non injured healthy soccer players (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: KT does not lead to beneficial outcomes of muscle performance in healthy young soccer players.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) history is present in 4-17% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This subgroup of patients is at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis in patients with CAD and previous IS or TIA. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that included 140 stable CAD patients divided into two groups: the CASE group (those with a previous IS/TIA, n=70) and the CONTROL group (those without a previous IS/TIA, n=70). Platelet aggregability (VerifyNow Aspirin® and VerifyNow P2Y12®), coagulation (fibrinogen and thromboelastography by Reorox®) and endogenous fibrinolysis (D dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CASE group presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels (135.84±16.09 vs 123.68±16.11, p<0.01), significantly more previous CABG (25.71% vs 10%, p=0.015) and significantly higher calcium channel blocker usage (42.86% vs 24.29%, p=0.02) than those in the control group. In the adjusted models, low triglyceride values, low hemoglobin values and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with previous IS/TIA (CASE group). Most importantly, platelet aggregability, coagulation and fibrinolysis tests were not independently associated with previous cerebrovascular ischemic events (CASE group). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis showed similar results among CAD patients with and without previous IS/TIA. Therefore, it remains necessary to identify other targets to explain the higher bleeding risk presented by these patients.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate several methods to estimate glucose consumption in the male Wister rat brain as measured by PET. METHODS: Fourteen male Wistar normoglycemic rats were studied. The input function consisted of seventeen blood samples drawn manually from the femoral artery. Glucose uptake values were calculated using the input function resulting from the arterial blood samples and the tissue time-activity curve derived from the PET images. The estimated glucose consumption rate (Ki) based on the 2-tissue compartment model (2TCM) served as the standard for comparisons with the values calculated by the Patlak analysis and with the fractional uptake rate (FUR), standardized uptake value (SUV) and glucose corrected SUV (SUVglu). RESULTS: No significant difference between the standard Ki and the Patlak Ki was observed. The standard Ki was also found to have strong correlations and concordance with the Ki value estimated by the Patlak analysis. The FUR method presented an excellent correlation with the Ki value obtained by the 2TCM/Patlak analyses, in contrast to the SUV or SUVglu. CONCLUSIONS: From a methodological point of view, the present findings confirm the theoretical limitations of the cerebral SUV and SUVglu as a substitute for Ki in the estimation of glucose consumption in the brain. Our data suggest that the FUR is the surrogate to Ki.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether tissue Doppler imaging parameters, especially the peak systolic velocity of the left ventricular lead-implanted segment (Ss), affect cardiac resynchronization therapy response. METHODS: In this case-control study, 110 enrolled patients were divided into cases (responder group, n=65) and controls (nonresponder group, n=45) based on whether their left ventricular end-systolic volume was reduced by ≥15% at 6 months after surgery. Preoperative clinical and echocardiographic data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the factors affecting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy, and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to evaluate their diagnostic values. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with left bundle branch block in the case group was higher than that in the control group. The control group showed a higher left atrial volume index, E/A ratio and E/Em ratio but lower Ss than that of the case group. A multivariate regression analysis showed that left bundle branch block, Ss, and an E/Em ratio>14 were independent risk factors affecting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Ss=4.1 cm/s was the best diagnostic threshold according to the receiver operating characteristic curve. CONCLUSIONS: Ss is an important factor affecting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Patients with heart failure associated with Ss<4.1 cm/s have a higher risk of nonresponse.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge and acceptability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among health professionals from western Amazonia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Sistema Assistencial è Saúde da Mulher e da Criança (Health Care System for Women and Children; SASMC) in Acre, Brazil, in 2017. The participants comprised 196 health professionals. The data collection instrument contained 31 questions about HPV, its clinical repercussions for women, and the HPV vaccine. Quantitative variables were presented as medians and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. For the analyses, chi-square tests and Mann-Whitney tests were used. The collected data were analyzed using Stata®11.0. RESULTS: Of the 196 health professionals, 39.8% (n=76) were physicians and 61.2% (n=120) were other health professionals. The interviewees were mostly female (n=143, 73%, 95% CI 66.1 to 78.9%) who worked in the medical field (n=81, 41.3%, 95% CI 34.4 to 48.6%), and the median age was 38 years (95% CI 36.0 to 39.7). Physicians had increased knowledge regarding only the statement "cervical cancer is one of the main causes of cancer in women", with a proportion ratio of 0.88 (0.80; 0.97) and p<0.001. Regarding clinical knowledge of the HPV vaccine, a low proportion of correct answers was obtained for all the questions, and no significant differences were found between the groups. CONCLUSION: Acceptability and knowledge of HPV and its vaccine were similar among health professionals, with knowledge gaps in questions about the relation between smoking and cervical cancer and specific clinical knowledge.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of the reduced ankle-brachial index (ABI) in patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) attended at a HF clinic in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, and to compar the patients to those with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: A descriptive observational study, included patients referred to the heart failure clinic in HU-Ulbra with HFpEF or HFrEF and diastolic dysfunction, and measurements of ABIs using vascular Doppler equipment were performed in both groups. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 106 patients with HF, 53.9% of the patients had HFpEF, and 19.4% had a diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (ABI less than 0.9). PAD was identified in 24.1% of the patients with HFpEF, while15.8% of patients in the HFrEF group were diagnosed with PAD. CONCLUSION: Our results did not identify a significantly different prevalence of altered and compatible PAD values in patients with HFpEF. However, we showed a prevalence of 19.4%, a high value if we consider similar populations.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: With the increasing prevalence of steatosis, the number of steatotic liver grafts from deceased donors is also increasing. Thus, determining the prevalence and the population risk factors of steatosis may assist in risk stratification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of steatosis and steatohepatitis among livers from adults who died due to non-burn trauma. METHODS: Specimens were collected from 224 adults undergoing autopsy at a regional autopsy referral center from September 2011 to April 2013. Histopathological examination was performed on six samples obtained from different lobes of each liver. The outcomes of interest were the presence of steatosis, steatohepatitis, NASH inflammation and NASH fibrosis. The main predictors were body mass index, abdominal circumference, liver weight and volume, presence of cholelithiasis, and siderosis. Our modeling strategy made use of a series of generalized linear models with a binomial family. RESULTS: Our sample had a mean age of 40 years; steatosis was diagnosed in 48.2% of cases, and steatohepatitis was diagnosed in 2.7%. The presence of a high proportion of fatty changes was more prevalent among males and older individuals, with the most affected age group being 41-60 years. When evaluating the crude odds ratio for steatosis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk of steatosis were greater abdominal circumference, BMI, and liver weight and the presence of siderosis. CONCLUSION: Our study reinforces the role of older age, obesity and hepatomegaly as predictors of fatty liver disease. These variables should be considered in the assessment of fatty changes in the livers of potential liver donors.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Appetite loss, a common symptom in cancer patients, contributes to worsened nutritional status. A validated specific tool to assess appetite is clinically useful for diagnosing and identifying symptoms and signs that could be reversed with nutritional and pharmacological therapies. The aim of this study is to produce a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Hill and Blundell visual analog scale (VAS) for appetite and investigate its validity among hospitalized cancer patients. METHODS: The original English VAS version was translated into Brazilian Portuguese in full accordance with the guidelines in the literature and adapted to the Brazilian context by conducting interviews and meetings with an expert committee until the final version was reached. Afterwards, the version was validated in hospitalized cancer patients in a cross-sectional study at São Paulo Cancer Institute (ICESP), where the relationships between breakfast intake (rest-ingestion index) and VAS were compared. The Spearman test was used to verify the correlation between the rest-ingestion index and the VAS ratings. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients with a mean age of 56.1 (±12.3) years answered the Portuguese VAS version, and their breakfast intake was evaluated. The mean rest-ingestion index was 18.8%. The correlations between the rest-ingestion index (food acceptance) and three questions of the Portuguese visual analog scale version were inverse and significant: first question (ρ -0.3028 p=0.0046), second question (ρ -0.2317 p=0.0319) and third question (ρ -0.3049 p=0.0043). CONCLUSION: The “Appetite Assessment Scale of Brazilian Oncology Patients” is a valid instrument to assess appetite in hospitalized cancer patients in Brazil.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of mechanical ventilation among final-year medical students in Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between October 2015 and October 2017 involving 554 medical students was carried out to develop a questionnaire for assessing knowledge on mechanical ventilation. Reproducibility was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient, internal consistency was evaluated with Cronbach’s alpha, and construct validation was evaluated with a tetrachoric exploratory factor analysis. To compare the means of the competences among the same type of assessment tool, the nonparametric Friedman test was used, and the identification of the differences was obtained with Dunn-Bonferroni tests. RESULTS: The final version of the questionnaire contained 19 questions. The instrument presented a clarity index of 8.94±0.83. The value of the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.929, and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.831. The factor analysis revealed five factors associated with knowledge areas regarding mechanical ventilation. The final score among participants was 24.05%. CONCLUSION: The instrument has a satisfactory clarity index and adequate psychometric properties and can be used to assess the knowledge of mechanical ventilation among final-year medical students in Brazil.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To describe the nutritional profile of newborns with microcephaly and factors associated with worse outcomes during the first 14 days of life. METHODS: This investigation is a longitudinal, descriptive study carried out in 21 full-term neonates exposed vertically to the Zika virus and hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit from February to September 2016. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition were excluded. Data analysis was performed using a generalized estimating equation model and Student’s t-test to evaluate the association between worsening weight-for-age z-scores and independent clinical, sociodemographic and nutritional variables during hospitalization, with p<0.05 indicating significance. RESULTS: During hospitalization, there was a decrease in the mean values of the weight-for-age z-scores. The factors associated with worse nutritional outcomes were symptomatic exposure to the Zika virus, low maternal schooling, absence of maternal income and consumption of infant formula (p<0.05). Calcification and severe microcephaly were also associated with poor nutritional outcomes. Energy and macronutrient consumption remained below the recommendations and had an upward trend during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The presence of cerebral calcification, the severity of microcephaly and symptomatic maternal exposure to Zika virus affected the nutritional status of newborns. In terms of nutritional factors, human milk intake had a positive impact, reducing weight loss in the first days of life. Other known factors, such as income and maternal schooling, were still associated with a poor nutritional status.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The inflammatory response is a key mechanism of neuronal damage and loss during acute ischemic stroke. Hypothermia has shown promise as a treatment for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the molecular signaling pathways in ischemic stroke after hypothermia treatment. METHODS: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) was overexpressed or silenced in cultured cells. Nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was assessed by measurement of the luciferase reporter gene. An ischemic stroke model was established in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using the suture-occluded method. Animals were assigned to three groups: sham operation control, ischemic stroke, and ischemic stroke + hypothermia treatment groups. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) levels in the culture supernatant and blood samples were assessed by ELISA. Protein expression was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: In HEK293 cells and primary cortical neuronal cultures exposed to hypothermia, CDK5 overexpression was associated with increased IL-1β, caspase 1, and NF-κB levels. In both a murine model of stroke and in patients, increased IL-1β levels were observed after stroke, and hypothermia treatment was associated with lower IL-1β levels. Furthermore, hypothermia-treated patients showed significant improvement in neurophysiological functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, hypothermia offers clinical benefit, most likely through its effects on the inflammatory response.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to introduce the feasibility of fingertip reconstruction by using a free medial flap of the second toe without vein anastomosis. METHODS: In total, 8 patients with fingertip injuries were treated successfully with this method. Patients who underwent reconstruction from September 2016 to October 2017 in our hospital with an artery-only free medial flap transfer of the second toe for fingertip injuries were included, and patients who underwent additional procedures that may impact the postoperative results and were followed up for less than 6 months were excluded. Clinical trial registration: ChiCTR19000021883. RESULTS: According to the Allen classification, five patients had Type 3 injuries, and three patients had Type 4 injuries. One arterial nerve and one digital nerve were repaired at the same time. No additional dissection was performed in either the donor or recipient site of the dorsal or volar vein. Postoperative venous congestion was monitored based on the color, temperature and the degree of tissue oxygen saturation. The flap size ranged from 1.20*1.0 cm2 to 1.80*1.0 cm2. The reconstruction time was 71.86 (SD 14.75) minutes. The two-point discrimination and the monofilament results were satisfying; cold intolerance did not appear in five patients, and the other three patients had cold intolerance with grades of 4, 12 and 26, which were considered satisfactory. Moreover, leech therapy, continuous bleeding and needle sutures were not utilized in any cases. CONCLUSIONS: Reconstruction with a small artery-only free medial flap transfer of the second toe led to satisfactory sensory and motor function in the selected patients with fingertip injuries.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To perform a descriptive analysis of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) cases attended in a tertiary hospital. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of medical records and laboratory tests of patients admitted to a Brazilian tertiary hospital between 2006 and 2011, with a confirmed diagnosis of PPROM and gestational age (GA) at delivery <37 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 299 pregnant women were included in the study. Nine patients evolved to abortion, and 290 pregnant women remained for the final analysis. There was initial diagnostic doubt in 17.6% of the cases. The oligohydramnios rate [amniotic fluid index (AFI) <5] was 27.9% on admission. Chorioamnionitis was initially diagnosed in 10.8% of the patients and was retrospectively confirmed in 22.9% of the samples. The latency period had a mean of 9.1 days. The main reasons for interruption were premature labor (55.2%), GA ≥36 weeks (27.2%), and fetal distress (6.9%). The delivery method was cesarean section in 55% of cases. The mean birth weight was 2,124 grams, and 67% of the neonates had a low birth weight (<2500 g). The GA at delivery averaged 33.5 weeks. The stillbirth rate was 5.3%, and the early neonatal mortality rate was 5.6%. There were complications at delivery in 18% of mothers. CONCLUSION: In one of the few Brazilian reports on the epidemiological profile of PPROM, with GA until 37 weeks and intercurrences generally excluded from assessments (such as twinning and fetal malformations), there is a favorable evolution, with an acceptable rate of complications.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) allows the early detection of pathological changes in the lung structure, and reproducible scoring systems can be used to quantify chest computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the study was to describe early HRCT findings according to a validated scoring system in infants with CF diagnosed by newborn screening (NBS). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included infants with CF diagnosed by NBS who were born between January 2013 and January 2017 and who underwent HRCT scanning within the first year after diagnosis when they were clinically stable. The CT scans were evaluated using the modified Bhalla score. RESULTS: Thirty-two subjects underwent HRCT scanning. The mean total-modified Bhalla score was 3.6±2.1, and 93.8% of the scans were abnormal. Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway colonization was associated with increased modified Bhalla score values. Bronchial wall thickening was the most common feature (90.6%), followed by bronchial collapse/consolidation (59.4%), mosaic attenuation/perfusion (50%), bronchiectasis (37.5%) and mucus plugging (15.6%). Bronchial wall thickening was diffuse in most of the patients. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of infants diagnosed with CF after detection by NBS already showed evidence of lung disease. P. aeruginosa colonization was associated with increased Bhalla scores, highlighting the importance of this CF pathogen in early structural lung disease. The presence of bronchial wall thickening at such a young age may reflect the presence of airway inflammatory processes. The detection and quantification of structural abnormalities with the modified Bhalla score may aid in the identification of lung disease before it is clinically apparent.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The gut microbiota is associated with obesity and weight loss after bariatric surgery and has been related to its changing pattern. Exactly how the bacterial population affects weight loss and the results of surgery remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the intestinal microbiota of superobese patients before and after gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). METHOD: DNA fragments for the microbiota obtained from stool samples collected from nine superobese patients before and after bariatric surgery were sequenced using Ion Torrent. RESULTS: We observed that with a mean follow-up of 15 months, patients achieved 55.9% excess weight loss (EWL). A significant population reduction in the Proteobacteria phylum (11 to 2%, p=0.0025) was observed after surgery, while no difference was seen in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Further analyses performed with two specific individuals with divergent clinical outcomes showed a change in the pattern between them, with a significant increase in Firmicutes and a decrease in Bacteroidetes in the patient with less weight loss (%EWL 50.79 vs. 61.85). CONCLUSIONS: RYGB affects the microbiota of superobese patients, with a significant reduction in Proteobacteria in patients with different weight loss, showing that different bacteria may contribute to the process.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between gait speed and measurements of physical function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: One hundred sixty-nine patients (age 66.6±9.4 years) with symptomatic PAD were recruited. Usual and fast gait speeds were assessed with a 4-meter walk test. Objective (balance, sit-to-stand, handrip strength, and six-minute walk test) and subjective (WIQ - Walking Impairment Questionnaire and WELCH - Walking Estimated-Limitation Calculated by History) measurements of physical function were obtained. Crude and adjusted linear regression analyses were used to confirm significant associations. RESULTS: Usual and fast gait speeds were significantly correlated with all objective and subjective physical function variables examined (r<0.55, p<0.05). In the multivariate model, usual gait speed was associated with six-minute walking distance (β=0.001, p<0.001), sit-to-stand test score (β=-0.005, p=0.012), and WIQ stairs score (β=0.002, p=0.006) adjusted by age, ankle brachial index, body mass index, and gender. Fast gait speed was associated with six-minute walking distance (β=0.002, p<0.001), WIQ stairs score (β=0.003, p=0.010), and WELCH total score (β=0.004, p=0.026) adjusted by age, ankle brachial index, body mass index, and gender. CONCLUSION: Usual and fast gait speeds assessed with the 4-meter test were moderately associated with objective and subjective measurements of physical function in symptomatic PAD patients.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to analyze, in a population treated for hepatitis C infection at a tertiary care treatment unit, the prevalence of comorbidities and extrahepatic manifestations, the range and degree of the clinical complexity and the associations between advanced liver disease and clinical variables. METHODS: Medical records from chronically infected hepatitis C patients seen at a dedicated treatment facility for complex cases in the Infectious Diseases Division of Hospital das Clínicas in Brazil were analyzed. Clinical complexity was defined as the presence of one or more of the following conditions: advanced liver disease (Metavir score F3 or F4 and/or clinical manifestations or ultrasound/endoscopy findings consistent with cirrhosis) or hepatocellular carcinoma and/or 3 or more extrahepatic manifestations and/or comorbidities concomitantly. RESULTS: Among the 1574 patients analyzed, only 41% met the definition of being clinically complex. Cirrhosis or hepatocarcinoma was identified in 22.2% and 1.8% of patients, respectively. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex (p=0.007), age>40 years (p<0.001) and the presence of metabolic syndrome (p=0.008) were independently associated with advanced liver disease. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients did not meet the criteria for admittance to this specialized tertiary service, reinforcing the need to reevaluate public health policies. Enhanced utilization of existing basic and intermediate complexity units for the management of less complex hepatitis C cases could improve care and lower costs.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To compare the amount of ultrasound energy and irrigation volume in conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery versus femtosecond laser-assisted phacoemulsification at different nuclear-cortical cataract grades. METHOD: This was a prospective, consecutive, investigator-masked nonrandomized parallel cohort study. Patients were divided into 4 groups (Phaco1, Phaco2, Femto1 and Femto2) according to the surgical technique (conventional phacoemulsification [Group Phaco] or femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery [Group Femto]) and the Lens Opacity Classification System III (LOCS) grade (LOCS<11 [group 1] or LOCS≥11 [group 2]). The measured outcomes were effective phacoemulsification time (EPT), indicating the ultrasound energy, and balanced salt solution (BSS) use, indicating the irrigation volume, to indirectly estimate the damage to the corneal endothelium caused by the cataract surgery. RESULTS: A total of 160 eyes from 109 patients were included: 87 eyes in Group Phaco, 73 eyes in Group Femto, 76 eyes in group 1 and 84 eyes in group 2. The EPT mean in Femto1 was 53% less (2.73±1.88, 0.1 to 8.65) than that in Phaco1 (5.80±2.86) (p=0.00) and in Femto2 (8.38±9.32) was 33% less than that in Phaco2 (12.55±8.38) (p=0.00). No significant differences in mean LOCS grades between the Phaco1 (8.21±1.44) and Femto1 (7.90±1.90) groups (p=0.73) or between the Phaco2 (13.15±2.55) and Femto2 (12.72±2.18) groups (p=0.95) were found. There were no significant differences in the mean BSS use between the Phaco1 (55.73±12.45) and Femto1 (59.37±10.93) groups (p=0.48) or between the Phaco2 (64.34±21.00) and Femto2 (65.71±17.60) groups (p=0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional phacoemulsification at different nuclear-cortical cataract grades, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery provides an EPT reduction but does not influence the BSS use.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) is characterized by excessive fat deposition in the pancreas in the absence of alcohol consumption. In this study, we aimed to detect a possible relationship between adipose tissue accumulation, prediabetes and diabetes. METHODS: This cross-sectional and retrospective study included 110 patients. Three groups were classified as controls, patients with prediabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) attenuation measurement results of the pancreas were evaluated independently by two experienced radiologists. CT measurements and biochemical parameters were compared between study groups. The relationship between continuous variables was assessed by using one-way ANOVA. To determine the changes in the dependent variable for the effects on study groups, the independent variable was adjusted using ANCOVA. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The presence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was correlated with a decrease in the mean Hounsfield Unit (HU) value of the pancreas (p=0.002). Age was determined to be an independent risk factor and was correlated with NAFPD (p=0.0001). When compared to the controls (p=0.041), 71% of patients with prediabetes and 67% of patients with type 2 diabetes were observed to have an increased incidence of NAFPD. Decreased serum amylase was found to be correlated with the mean HU value of the pancreas (p=0.043). CONCLUSION: NAFPD was independently correlated with both prediabetes and type 2 diabetes adjusted for age (p=0.0001) in this study. Additionally, age was determined to be an independent risk factor and was correlated with NAFPD.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Loss of muscle mass and/or physical performance, a condition commonly known as sarcopenia, is prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between functional performance and sarcopenia in COPD patients classified by disease severity according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional observational and the sample size consisted of 35 COPD patients (69.24±1.54 years, 20 men). Physical performance was assessed with the timed up-and-go (TUG) test. Sarcopenia was assessed according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. RESULTS: The frequency of sarcopenia was 20% and was more prevalent among individuals classified with greater disease severity, GOLD III, n=4 patients (23%) and GOLD IV, n=3 patients (27%), p=0.83. The mean time to complete the TUG test was 11.66±4.78 s. Binary logistic regression revealed an association between the TUG test and sarcopenia adjusted by disease severity (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.03-8.23, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that worse performance in the TUG test leads to a substantial increase in the chance of COPD patients presenting sarcopenia.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To assess the expression of decidual natural killer (dNK) cells and their cytokines in twin pregnancies with preeclampsia. METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study. The inclusion criteria were diamniotic (monochorionic or dichorionic) twin pregnancies in the third trimester with negative serological results for infectious diseases; absence of major fetal abnormalities or twin-twin transfusion syndrome; and no history of administration of corticosteroids in this pregnancy. The control group (CG) included uncomplicated twin pregnancies, and the preeclampsia group (PEG) included twin gestations with clinical and laboratory confirmation of the disease according to well-established criteria. Samples of the decidua were obtained and analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of dNK cells and interleukins (ILs) 10, 12 and 15. In addition, maternal serum samples were collected to determine the levels of these interleukins. RESULTS: Thirty twin pregnancies were selected: 20 in the control group (CG) and 10 in the preeclampsia group (PEG). The PEG showed strong placental immunostaining for IL-15 (p=0.001) and high maternal serum levels of IL-10 (22.7 vs. 11.9 pg/mL, p=0.024) and IL-15 (15.9 vs. 7.4 pg/mL, p=0.024). CONCLUSION: A higher maternal serum concentration of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors was observed in the twin pregnancies in the PEG. However, no difference in placental expression of IL-10 was found between the groups. These findings may suggest that maternal attempts to balance these interleukins were not sufficient to cause a placental response, and this failure may contribute to the development of preeclampsia.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: There are no doubts about the clinical benefits of treatment with GnRH analogs for patients diagnosed with central precocious puberty (CPP). However, laboratory monitoring of CPP is still a matter of considerable controversy in the literature. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the cut-off values of stimulated LH that determine gonadotrophic suppression. METHODS: Twenty-four girls, on treatment with leuprorelin acetate (LA) at 3.75 mg IM every 28 days, were studied. The clinical parameters used to indicate clinical effectiveness were regression or maintenance of sexual characteristics according to the Tanner stage, growth velocity reduction, reduction or maintenance of the difference between bone age and chronological age and maintenance or improvement of the final height prediction. For the laboratory effectiveness test, basal estradiol, LH, and FSH levels were collected before and 1 and 2 h after the administration of 3.75 mg LA. RESULTS: Eleven girls showed improvement in all clinical parameters, and their effectiveness tests were compared to those of the other patients to calculate the cut-off values, which were ≤3.64 IU/L (p=0.004*) for LH after 1 h and ≤6.10 IU/L (p<0.001*) for LH after 2 h. CONCLUSION: The LH response after the LA stimulation test, associated with clinical data and within a context of CPP, constitutes a reliable and feasible resource and can assist in monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical significance and correlation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: The observation group contained 184 patients, while the control group contained 150 patients. The expression of miR-21 in the serum of each group was detected by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 184 patients and their family members were followed-up for 30 days, among which 35 patients died and 149 patients survived, resulting in a survival rate of 80.97%. According to univariate analysis, there were significant differences in age, cardiac troponin (cTn), heart rate, Killip grade, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) operation rate, miR-21 and NLR. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) values of miR-21 and NLR for the diagnosis of AMI were 0.909 and 0.868, respectively, and the area under the combined detection curve was 0.960. In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the survival of patients with high miR-21 expression and NLR was significantly higher than that of patients with low miR-21 expression and NLR (p=0.027; p=0.001). The correlation showed that miR-21 expression in serum was positively correlated with the NLR in the observation group (r=0.528, p<0.05). cTn, heart rate, Killip classification, PCI operation rate, miR-21, NLR are independent risk factors for AMI. CONCLUSION: miR-21 and NLR play a role in the diagnosis of AMI and can be used as predictors for the survival of AMI.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8 weeks of strength training (ST) combined with whole-body electrical stimulation (EMS) on morphofunctional adaptations in active individuals. METHODS: Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly distributed into the following groups: an untrained control (UN) group (n=16), an ST group (n=21) or an ST combined with EMS (ST+EMS) group (n=21). Both intervention groups (the ST and ST+EMS groups) performed 3 exercises (biceps curl, back squats and high-pulley tricep extensions) twice a week for 8 weeks. The subjects performed 3 sets of 8 to 12 maximum repetitions (MRs) with a 90-second rest duration between sets. The ST+EMS group performed the resistance training exercises wearing a whole-body suit that provided electrical stimulation at frequencies between 80-85 Hz, with a continuously bipolar impulse duration and pulse breadth of 350 µs. The intensity for each muscle group was controlled by Borg’s category ratio (CR)-10 scale; the intensity started at 5-6 and eventually reached 7-8. One-repetition maximum strength (1RM) and muscle thickness (MT) were measured before and after the training intervention. MT was evaluated in the biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), and vastus lateralis (VL). RESULTS: No differences (p>0.05) were found between the ST and ST+EMS groups. Improvements (p<0.05) in the absolute values of the morphofunctional parameters after the training protocol were observed. Significant differences were found between both the intervention groups and the UN group (p<0.05). The ST+EMS group presented high percentage changes (p<0.05) in muscular strength for the 1RMsquat (43.2%, ES=1.64) and the MT of the BB (21.6%, ES=1.21) compared to the ST (20.5%, ES=1.43, 11.9%, ES=0.77) group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the combination of ST+EMS may promote alterations in muscle strength and MT in healthy active subjects.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This prospective, randomized, open-label study aimed to compare the effects of antihypertensive treatment based on amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide on the circulating microparticles and central blood pressure values of hypertensive patients. METHODS: The effects of treatments on circulating microparticles were assessed during monotherapy and after the consecutive addition of valsartan and rosuvastatin followed by the withdrawal of rosuvastatin. Each treatment period lasted for 30 days. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity were measured at the end of each period. Endothelial, monocyte, and platelet circulating microparticles were determined by flow cytometry. Central blood pressure values and pulse wave velocity were recorded at the end of each treatment period. RESULTS: No differences in brachial blood pressure were observed between the treatment groups throughout the study. Although similar central blood pressure values were observed during monotherapy, lower systolic and diastolic central blood pressure values and early and late blood pressure peaks were observed in the amlodipine arm after the addition of valsartan alone or combined with rosuvastatin. Hydrochlorothiazide-based therapy was associated with a lower number of endothelial microparticles throughout the study, whereas a higher number of platelet microparticles was observed after rosuvastatin withdrawal in the amlodipine arm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar brachial blood pressure values between groups throughout the study, exposure to amlodipine was associated with lower central blood pressure values after combination with valsartan, indicating a beneficial interaction. Differences between circulating microparticles were modest and were mainly influenced by rosuvastatin withdrawal in the amlodipine arm.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Feedback is a powerful learning tool, but a lack of appropriate feedback is a very common complaint from learners to teachers. To improve opportunities for feedback on objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), a modified examiner role, termed the “shadow” examiner, was tested. This study aims to present and analyze comparisons between the “shadow” examiner and the original OSCE examiner format. METHODS: In 2011, experiments were carried out with modifications to the examiner’s role to define the “shadow” examiner format. From February 2012 to May 2014, research was conducted with 415 6th-year medical students. Of these students, 316 were randomly assigned to assessments by both “shadow” and “fixed” examiners. Pearson correlation analysis with linear regression, Student’s t-tests and Bland-Altman plots were the statistical methods used to compare the assessment modes. To strengthen the analysis, checklist items were classified by domain. RESULTS: High correlations between the “shadow” and “fixed” examiners’ global scores were observed. The results of the analysis of specific domains demonstrated higher correlations for cognitive scores and lower correlations for affective scores. No statistically significant differences between the mean examiner global scores were found. The Bland-Altman analysis showed that the “shadow” examiners’ affective scores were significantly higher than those of the “fixed” examiners, but the magnitude of this difference was small. CONCLUSION: The modified examiner role did not lead to any important bias in the students’ scores compared with the original OSCE examiner format. This new strategy may provide important insights for formative assessments of clinical performance.
Abstract in English:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that usually has a progressive course and is commonly associated with a poor prognosis. The main symptoms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, including progressive dyspnea and dry cough, are often nonspecific. Chest high-resolution computed tomography is the primary modality used in the initial assessment of patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and may have considerable influence on subsequent management decisions. The main role of computed tomography is to distinguish chronic fibrosing lung diseases with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern from those presenting with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, suggesting an alternative diagnosis when possible. A usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on chest tomography is characterized by the presence subpleural and basal predominance, reticular abnormality honeycombing with or without traction bronchiectasis, and the absence of features suggestive of an alternative diagnosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis can be diagnosed according to clinical and radiological criteria in approximately 66.6% of cases. Confirmation of an idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis diagnosis is challenging, requiring the exclusion of pulmonary fibroses with known causes, such as asbestosis, connective tissue diseases, drug exposure, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and other forms of idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis. The histopathological hallmark of usual interstitial pneumonia is a heterogeneous appearance, characterized by areas of fibrosis with scarring and honeycombing alternating with areas of less affected or normal parenchyma. The aim of this article was to review the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and of diseases that might mimic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis presentation.
Abstract in English:Cerebrovascular diseases pose a serious threat to human survival and quality of life and represent a major cause of human death and disability. Recently, the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases has increased yearly. Rapid and accurate diagnosis and evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases are of great importance to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. With the rapid development of medical ultrasound, the clinical relationship between ultrasound imaging technology and the diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases has become increasingly close. Ultrasound techniques such as transcranial acoustic angiography, doppler energy imaging, three-dimensional craniocerebral imaging and ultrasound thrombolysis are novel and valuable techniques in the study of cerebrovascular diseases. In this review, we introduce some of the new ultrasound techniques from both published studies and ongoing trials that have been confirmed to be convenient and effective methods. However, additional evidence from future studies will be required before some of these techniques can be widely applied or recommended as alternatives.
Abstract in English:The prediction or early diagnosis of maternal complications is challenging mostly because the main conditions, such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and gestational diabetes mellitus, are complex syndromes with multiple underlying mechanisms related to their occurrence. Limited advances in maternal and perinatal health in recent decades with respect to preventing these disorders have led to new approaches, and “omics” sciences have emerged as a potential field to be explored. Metabolomics is the study of a set of metabolites in a given sample and can represent the metabolic functioning of a cell, tissue or organism. Metabolomics has some advantages over genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, as metabolites are the final result of the interactions of genes, RNAs and proteins. Considering the recent “boom” in metabolomic studies and their importance in the research agenda, we here review the topic, explaining the rationale and theory of the metabolomic approach in different areas of maternal and perinatal health research for clinical practitioners. We also demonstrate the main exploratory studies of these maternal complications, commenting on their promising findings. The potential translational application of metabolomic studies, especially for the identification of predictive biomarkers, is supported by the current findings, although they require external validation in larger datasets and with alternative methodologies.
Abstract in English:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was considered a contraindication for solid organ transplantation (SOT) in the past. However, HIV management has improved since highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became available in 1996, and the long-term survival of patients living with HIV has led many transplant programs to reevaluate their policies regarding the exclusion of patients with HIV infection. Based on the available data in the medical literature and the cumulative experience of transplantation in HIV-positive patients at our hospital, the aim of the present article is to outline the criteria for transplantation in HIV-positive patients as recommended by the Immunocompromised Host Committee of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo.
Abstract in English:Basilar invagination (BI) and Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) are very important anomalies that introduce instability and compression in the occipitocervical transition region and have complex clinical characteristics. These anomalies vary according to the affected structures. The present study revises current knowledge regarding the anatomy, anatomo-physiology, clinical manifestations, and radiological findings of these entities and the associated surgical treatment approaches. A bibliographic survey was performed through a search in the Medline, PubMed, SciELO, Science and LILACS databases. When associated, these craniovertebral malformations result in neurological deficits due to neural parenchyma compression; however, the presence of microtraumas due to repetitive lesions caused by the bulb and cervical marrow instability has been highlighted as a determinant dysfunction. Surgical treatment is controversial and has many technical variations. Surgery is also challenging due to the complex anatomical characteristics and biomechanics of this region. Nevertheless, advances have been achieved in our understanding of related mechanisms, and compression and atlantoaxial instability are considered key elements when selecting the surgical approach.
Abstract in English:The very large economic and social burdens of fracture-related complications make rapid fracture healing a major public health goal. The role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in treating osteoporosis is generally accepted, but the effect of PTH on fracture healing is controversial. This meta-analysis was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of PTH in fracture healing. The EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to April 26, 2018. The primary randomized clinical trials comparing PTH treatment for fracture healing with placebo or no treatment were identified. We did not gain additional information by contacting the authors of the primary studies. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and evaluated study quality. This meta-analysis was executed to determine the odds ratio, mean difference, standardized mean difference, and 95% confidence intervals with random-effects models. In total, 8 randomized trials including 524 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in fracture healing time, pain relief and function improvement. There were no significant differences in the fracture healing rate or adverse events, including light-headedness, hypercalcemia, nausea, sweating and headache, except for slight bruising at the injection site. We determined that the effectiveness and safety of PTH in fracture healing is reasonably well established and credible.
Abstract in English:The relationship between surfactant-associated protein D polymorphisms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk remains controversial. This article is the first to systematically evaluate this relationship. A comprehensive worldwide search was conducted for relevant literature on surfactant-associated protein D gene mutations and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk prediction. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. After four genetic models (the allele, additive, recessive, and dominant models) were identified, odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included 659 individuals in the case group and 597 in the control group. In the Asian population, none of the four genetic models revealed any significant association between rs2243639 genotype and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In Caucasians, however, the recessive model exhibited significant risk associated with rs2243639. Furthermore, there was a significant association between rs721917 genotype and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population. In contrast, none of the four gene models revealed any significant risk associated with this gene in the Caucasian population. This meta-analysis suggests that rs2243639 is not related to the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population but is related to this risk in the Caucasian population. Regarding rs721917, the T allele may increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asian population.
Abstract in English:The efficacy and toxicity of radionuclide therapy are believed to be directly related to the radiation doses received by target tissues; however, nuclear medicine therapy continues to be based primarily on the administration of empirical activities to patients and less frequently on the use of internal dosimetry for individual therapeutic planning. This review aimed to critically describe the techniques and clinical evidence of dosimetry as a tool for therapeutic planning and the main limitations to its implementation in clinical practice. The present article is a nonsystematic review of voxel-based dosimetry. Clinical evidence pointing to a correlation between the radiation dose and therapeutic response in various diseases, such as thyroid carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and prostate cancer, is reviewed. Its limitations include technical aspects related to image acquisition and processing and the lack of randomized clinical trials demonstrating the impact of dosimetry on patient therapy. A more widespread use of dosimetry in therapeutic planning involves the development of user-friendly dosimetric protocols and confirmation that dose estimation implies good efficacy and low treatment-related toxicity.
Abstract in English:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening illness characterized by a complex pathophysiology, involving not only the respiratory system but also nonpulmonary distal organs. Although advances in the management of ARDS have led to a distinct improvement in ARDS-related mortality, ARDS is still a life-threatening respiratory condition with long-term consequences. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of this condition will allow us to create a personalized treatment strategy for improving clinical outcomes. In this article, we present a general overview p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and recent advances in understanding its functions. We consider the potential of the pharmacological targeting of p38MAPK pathways to treat ARDS.
Abstract in English:The present study aimed to review literature on studies of dengue cases conducted over 30 years in the state of Ceará. Between November 2015 and January 2016, articles published in Portuguese and English in 7 databases were searched using keywords and a Boolean operator. A total of 191 articles were identified in the databases; 133 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria, and 58 were included in the study. Of the 58 articles analyzed, 6 reported data from Brazil; including the Northeast region and the state of Ceará; 41 reported data for only the city of Fortaleza; 7 reported data for the state of Ceará; 4 reported data for cities in the interior of the state; and 3 included only children. The studies adopted different approaches and focused on different aspects of the disease. Study outcomes included the identification of serological, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; potential larvicides and biological predators of mosquitoes; potential antiviral agents; vector density characteristics; and educational dengue prevention and control strategies. Additionally, one vaccine trial was included. Although studies on dengue in the state of Ceará are scarce, they are encompassing, including several lines of research, and the number of studies and reports on dengue in the state of Ceará continues to increase.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The present literature review aims to highlight gaps in the treatment of preventative mother-to-child HIV transmission and the risk factors in Brazil. METHODS: Among the 425 articles identified in SciELO and PubMed searches, 59 articles published between 1994 and 2016 were selected for reading and data extraction, and 33 articles were included in the present review. RESULTS: The rates of vertical HIV transmission described in the studies varied widely, from 1.8% to 27.8%, with a significant reduction over the years. However, recent rates were also found to be variable in different regions of Brazil, and despite the significant reduction in mother-to-child transmission, many gaps remain in prevention services. A failure to attend prenatal care is the main factor associated with the increased risk of vertical transmission of HIV, hindering early maternal diagnosis and the completion of preventative measures during the prenatal period and, often, the peripartum and postnatal periods. A small number of studies discussed the sociodemographic factors, including a low level of education for pregnant women and the inadequacies of health services, such as difficulties scheduling appointments and undertrained staff, associated with vertical transmission. As such, the current challenge is to better define the sociodemographic and infrastructural factors that increase the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV to provide the necessary investments to promote an earlier inclusion of these populations in prevention services. CONCLUSIONS: This review may serve as a guide for future programs to focus efforts on the prevention of vertical HIV transmission.
Abstract in English:Pregnancy of unknown location is a situation in which a positive pregnancy test occurs, but a transvaginal ultrasound does not show intrauterine or ectopic gestation. One great concern of pregnancy of unknown location is that they are cases of ectopic pregnancy whose diagnosis might be postponed. Transvaginal ultrasound is able to identify an ectopic pregnancy with a sensitivity ranging from 87% to 94% and a specificity ranging from 94% to 99%. A patient with pregnancy of unknown location should be followed up until an outcome is obtained. The only valid biomarkers with clinical application and validation are serum levels of the beta fraction of hCG and progesterone. A single serum dosage of hCG is used only to determine whether the value obtained is above or below the discriminatory zone, that means the value of serum hCG above which an intrauterine gestational sac should be visible on ultrasound. Serum progesterone levels are a satisfactory marker of pregnancy viability, but they are unable to predict the location of a pregnancy of unknown location: levels below 5 ng/mL are associated with nonviable gestations, whereas levels above 20 ng/mL are correlated with viable intrauterine pregnancies. Most cases are low risk and can be monitored by expectant management with transvaginal ultrasound and serial serum hCG levels, in addition to the serum progesterone levels. To minimize diagnostic error and intervene during progressive intrauterine gestation, protocol indicates active treatment only in situations when progressive intrauterine pregnancy is excluded and a high possibility of ectopic pregnancy exists.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of low-back pain (LBP) and to identify the level of functional disability in elderly individuals in different populations. From January 1985 to October 2018, a search was performed using the following databases: Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Medline, and the Web of Science. The descriptors were low-back pain, back pain, lower-back pain, prevalence, and elderly in Portuguese and English. Two independent reviewers conducted a search for studies and evaluated their methodological quality. The search strategy returned 2186 titles, and 35 were included in this review. The studies evaluated 135,059 elderly individuals aged between 60 and 102 years, and the prevalence of LBP ranged from 21% to 75%. The levels of functional disability, as well as functional difficulties, activities of daily living, and physical capacity, were identified in 60% of the studies. This review indicated a high prevalence of LBP in elderly individuals and functional disability that affects factors important for independence. However, the studies used different methodologies, suggesting that more studies be conducted with scientific accuracy, methodological quality, and low risk of bias to contribute to the proposal of preventive actions for elderly populations.
Abstract in English:The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely used instrument for the screening of older adults with suspected cognitive impairment; the MMSE has been translated and validated in numerous languages and countries. The cultural and sociodemographic characteristics of the sample can influence performance on the test; therefore, applying the MMSE in different populations usually requires adjustments of those variables. From this perspective, the present study aims to review the normative data for the MMSE in the Brazilian older population, including those adaptations to the original test. Database searches were performed in Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scielo and Pepsic for articles assessing healthy elderly Brazilian samples using the MMSE. Heterogeneity across and within the studies was analyzed. Of a total of 1,085 retrieved articles, 14 were included. Significant differences across studies were identified for the characteristics of the samples, the presence of alterations to the MMSE subtests and the presentation of the results. The risk of biases was relevant for all the studies. Considering the large methodological heterogeneity among studies, the generalization of the available normative data for the MMSE may not be appropriate for the general elderly Brazilian population.
Abstract in English:This review describes the germ cell neoplasms that are malignant and most commonly associated with several types of gonadal dysgenesis. The most common neoplasm is gonadoblastoma, while others including dysgerminomas, yolk-sac tumors and teratomas are rare but can occur. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the incidences of these abnormalities and the circumstances surrounding these specific tumors. According to well-established methods, a PubMed systematic review was performed, to obtain relevant studies published in English and select those with the highest-quality data. Initially, the first search was performed using gonadal dysgenesis as the search term, resulting in 12,887 PubMed papers, published, from 1945 to 2017. A second search using ovarian germ cell tumors as the search term resulted in 10,473 papers, published from 1960 to 2017. Another search was performed in Medline, using germ cell neoplasia as the search term, and this search resulted in 7,560 papers that were published between 2003 to 2016, with 245 new papers assessing gonadoblastomas. The higher incidence of germ cell tumors in gonadal dysgenesis is associated with a chromosomal anomaly that leads to the absence of germ cells in these gonads and, consequently, a higher incidence of neoplasms when these tumors are located inside the abdomen. Several hypotheses suggest that increased incidence of germ cell tumors involves all or part of the Y chromosome or different genes.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to review emerging evidence of novel treatments for anxiety disorders. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for evidence-based therapeutic alternatives for anxiety disorders in adults, covering the past five years. Eligible articles were systematic reviews (with or without meta-analysis), which evaluated treatment effectiveness of either nonbiological or biological interventions for anxiety disorders. Retrieved articles were summarized as an overview. We assessed methods, quality of evidence, and risk of bias of the articles. Nineteen systematic reviews provided information on almost 88 thousand participants, distributed across 811 clinical trials. Regarding the interventions, 11 reviews investigated psychological or nonbiological treatments; 5, pharmacological or biological; and 3, more than one type of active intervention. Computer-delivered psychological interventions were helpful for treating anxiety of low-to-moderate intensity, but the therapist-oriented approaches had greater results. Recommendations for regular exercise, mindfulness, yoga, and safety behaviors were applicable to anxiety. Transcranial magnetic stimulation, medication augmentation, and new pharmacological agents (vortioxetine) presented inconclusive benefits in patients with anxiety disorders who presented partial responses or refractoriness to standard treatment. New treatment options for anxiety disorders should only be provided to the community after a thorough examination of their efficacy.
Abstract in English:There is an ongoing discussion regarding abdominal muscle (AbM) and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) synergism. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the cocontraction between AbMs and PFMs in women with or without pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). The following databases were searched up to December 21, 2018: MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PEDro and CENTRAL. We included any study that assessed the cocontraction between PFMs and AbMs in women with and without PFD. Two reviewers independently screened eligible articles and extracted data. The outcomes were extracted and analyzed as continuous variables with random effect models. Twenty studies were included. A meta-analysis did not show differences in women with and without PFD. However, a sensitivity analysis suggested cocontraction of the transversus abdominis (TrA) during PFM contraction in healthy women (standardized mean difference (SMD) –1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) −1.90 to −0.14], P=0.02; I2= not applicable; very low quality of evidence). Women with PFD during contraction of PFMs showed cocontraction of the obliquus internus (OI) (SMD 1.10 [95% CI 0.27 to 1.94], P=0.01; I2= not applicable; very low quality of evidence), and obliquus externus (OE) (SMD 2.08 [95% CI 1.10 to 3.06], P<0.0001; I2 = not applicable; very low quality of evidence). Increased cocontraction of the TrA may be associated with maximal contraction of PFMs in women without PFD. On the other hand, there is likely an increased cocontraction with the OI and OE in women with PFD.
Abstract in English:A sophisticated literature review (LR) can result in a robust dissertation/thesis by scrutinizing the main problem examined by the academic study; anticipating research hypotheses, methods and results; and maintaining the interest of the audience in how the dissertation/thesis will provide solutions for the current gaps in a particular field. Unfortunately, little guidance is available on elaborating LRs, and writing an LR chapter is not a linear process. An LR translates students’ abilities in information literacy, the language domain, and critical writing. Students in postgraduate programs should be systematically trained in these skills. Therefore, this paper discusses the purposes of LRs in dissertations and theses. Second, the paper considers five steps for developing a review: defining the main topic, searching the literature, analyzing the results, writing the review and reflecting on the writing. Ultimately, this study proposes a twelve-item LR checklist. By clearly stating the desired achievements, this checklist allows Masters and Ph.D. students to continuously assess their own progress in elaborating an LR. Institutions aiming to strengthen students’ necessary skills in critical academic writing should also use this tool.