This paper aims to demonstrate how the concept of competence, which emerges in different social sciences fields, got into the area of Education. In fact, while the notion of competence is related to the so-called invisible pedagogies, the one of performance - defined in opposition to it - is connected to visible pedagogies. It is also examined how both concepts assume various modalities in face of the central differences that underlie their fundamental bases. It is yet established a link between how these notions were employed in wider educational relations (which encompass school and non-school processes) and the process of identities' construction, indicating this last one is not only dynamic but also per passed by resistances and oppositions. Last, there is an attempt to identify, in the actual moment of capitalism, which is the process of identity construction that is privileged by school education, pointing out how it conflicts with other analogous processes that take place elsewhere. These problems, however, permit a critical reappraisal of school institutions, as well as of the principles and aspects focused on their discourses.
PEDAGOGY; SKILLS; EDUCATION; NON-FORMAL EDUCATION