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# Resumo

Este artigo se propõe a examinar o sentido que o trabalho comunitário adquire no contexto de mudanças do modelo de políticas sociais, no modo de governar, ocorridas no Brasil sobretudo a partir de 2000. Atribuindo às comunidades, i.e., às mulheres, o papel ativo de co-responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento e bem-estar social local, examina-se o programa Mulheres da Paz, no Rio de Janeiro, implantado nas favelas da cidade como alternativa às formas de enfrentamento da violência urbana historicamente praticadas no país. Analisa-se a incidência da ação do Estado na desprofissionalização do trabalho de cuidado das mulheres junto aos jovens “em situação de risco”. Conclui-se que os novos modos de governar não são processos lineares, mas complexos e ambivalentes, envolvendo constantes disputas entre gestores, operadoras e o público alvo sobre os objetivos, conteúdos e significados dessa política social.

Care; Gênero; Políticas Sociais

# Abstract

The present article seeks to examine the meaning that community work acquires in the context of changes in social policy and in modes of governance that have taken place in Brazil since 2000. Attributing to communities (i.e. to women) an active role in responsibility for local development and social welfare, we examine the Women for Peace (Mulheres da Paz) program in Rio de Janeiro. This program was implemented in the city’s favelas as a means of confronting the forms of urban violence that have been historically practiced in Brazil. We analyze State action in deprofessionalizing care work among young “at risk” women. We conclude that the new modes of governance are not linear processes, but complex and ambivalent, involving constant disputes between program managers, operators and the subject population regarding the objectives, contents and meanings of this social policy.

Care; Gender; Social Policies

In recent decades, an extensive literature has appeared regarding neo-liberalism and social policies. that has dedicated itself to studying the adoption of market mechanisms and entrepreneurial models in order to restructure the State and generate new models of governance and subjectification. On a macro-economic level, as Evans and Sewell Jr. (2013)Evans, P.; Sewell Jr., W. The Neoliberal Era: Ideology, Policy, And Social Effects. In: Hall, P.; Lamont, M. Social Resilience in the Neo-Liberal Era. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013. show, these transformations have been quite encompassing and have taken place on a global scale, although according to various rhythms and intensities. Advanced capitalist countries already began reforming their regulatory states in the 1970s, privatizing state companies and loosening controls over capital while deregulating markets and selectively reducing welfare guarantees. The great majority of developing countries altered important elements of their national development strategies over the following decades, opening up to global flows of goods and capital. Going beyond the economic dimension, many authors believe that these changes signal the beginning of a new “art of governing” and thus seek to re-interpret them as a sort of “rationality”, linked to a specific form of governance and subjectivity production (Fergson, 2009).

Brazil does not follow the precepts of the neo-liberal paradigm to the letter. The country’s political-economic model sports distinctive features which point to the emergence of a new experiment in “social development”, particularly since the 2000s. Among these features has been the expansion of the security system and income transfer programs to the poor (Kerstenetzky, 2010Kerstenetzky, C. Social development in Latin America? Discussion Paper nº 26, Niterói, Brasil, Center for Studies on Inequality and Development. July, 2010 [www.proac.fff.br/sites/default/filles/TD026.pdf – acessado em: 18 dez 2015].
www.proac.fff.br/sites/default/filles/TD...
). It has been argued that the Brazilian governments have institutionalized a hybrid political regime: a kind of “liberal neo-developmentism”, which has combined liberal policies of privatization, liberalization and deregulation with the strengthening of full employment and the expansion of social policies (Ban, 2012Ban, C. Brazil’s liberal neo-developmentalism: New paradigm or edited orthodoxy?, Review Of International Political Economy, 20(2), pp. 298-331.).

Looking at social policies, the changes have also been significant. Called by many different names – the post-Washington Consensus (Fine et al., 2001Fine, B. et al.Development Policy in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond the Post-Washington Consensus. London, Routledge, 2001.), citizen-consumerism (Schild, 2007Schild, V. Empowering “consumer-citizens” or governing poor female subjects? The institutionalization of “self-development” in the Chilean social policy field. Journal of Consumer Culture 7, 2007, pp.179-203 [http://joc.sagepub.com/content/7/2/179].
http://joc.sagepub.com/content/7/2/179...
) or social investment (Jenson, 2009Jenson, J. Lost in Translation: The Social Investment Perspective and Gender Equality. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 16/4, 2009, pp.446-83.) – Brazil’s new paradigm has been characterized mainly by a redistribution of responsibilities for the welfare of citizens between the State, markets, communities and the individual citizens themselves.

The present article proposes to examine the changes in the architecture of social polices, as well as in modes of governance, which have recently taken place in Brazil. Even though the current level of debate doesn’t permit us to draw conclusions regarding the over all reduction or expansion of the State’s investments in social programs, we can certainly contribute to the discussion regarding the quality of the social welfare that has been provided. We thus argue that the changes in modes of governance that have taken place are not linear processes, but are in fact complex and ambivalent, involving constant disputes between program managers, operators and the subject population regarding the objectives, contents and meanings of this social policy.

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# Datas de Publicação

• Publicação nesta coleção
Abr 2016

# Histórico

• Recebido
17 Nov 2015
• Recebido
2 Dez 2015
Núcleo de Estudos de Gênero - Pagu Universidade Estadual de Campinas, PAGU Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz", Rua Cora Coralina, 100, 13083-896, Campinas - São Paulo - Brasil, Tel.: (55 19) 3521 7873, (55 19) 3521 1704 - Campinas - SP - Brazil