Effect of salicylic acid and silver nitrate on rutin production by Hyptis marrubioides cultured in vitro

Efeito do ácido salicílico e nitrato de prata na produção de rutina por Hyptis marrubioides cultivada in vitro

Rita Cássia Nascimento Pedroso Núbia Angélica de Ávila Branquinho Alessandra Cristina Boffino de Almeida Monteiro Hara Fabiano Guimarães Silva Luis Claudio Kellner Filho Marcio Luís Andrade Silva Wilson Roberto Cunha Patricia Mendonça Pauletti Ana Helena Januário About the authors

ABSTRACT:

Hyptis marrubioides (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant that is native from Brazilian Cerrado. In vitro propagation techniques make use of elicitors to alter metabolic pathways, affecting how molecules are produced both qualitatively and quantitatively. This research aimed to evaluate how abiotic elicitors salicylic acid (SA) and silver nitrate (SN) at concentrations of 30µM or 60µM influence Hyptis marrubioides seedling growth by two different in vitro culture methods. The rutin content was quantified by HPLC-DAD. Compared to an untreated culture, the H. marrubioides methanolic extracts cultured in MS medium for 10 days followed by culture in MS medium containing SN (30µM) for 20 days had 1.28 times higher rutin content. In a second experiment, seedlings were cultured in MS medium for 20 days, and then the desired elicitor was added to the culture and allowed to remain in contact with the medium for three and six days. SA (30µM) gave the best results: rutin production was 16.56-foldhigher than the control after six days. SN (30µM) increased the rutin content by 1.17-fold. At the two concentrations evaluated during the elicitation experiments, neither SA nor SN altered the growth parameters shoot length, leaf number, and fresh and dry weight of H. marrubioides seedlings grown in vitro as compared to the control. Based on these results, the abiotic elicitors SA and SN successfully provide Hyptis marrubioides with increased rutin content in vitro.

Key words:
salicylic acid; HPLC-DAD; tissue culture; silver nitrate; elicitation; plant growth regulators

RESUMO: Hyptis marrubioides (Lamiaceae) é uma planta medicinal nativa do Cerrado brasileiro. Técnicas de propagação in vitro fazem uso de elicitores para alterar as vias metabólicas, afetando a produção de moléculas qualitativa e quantitativamente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar como os elicitores abióticos ácido salicílico (SA) e nitrato de prata (SN) nas concentrações de 30µM ou 60µM influenciam no crescimento de plântulas de Hyptis marrubioides por dois diferentes métodos de cultivo in vitro. O teor de rutina foi quantificado por CLAE-DAD. Em comparação com uma cultura não tratada, os extratos metanólicos de H. marrubioides cultivados em meio MS por 10 dias, seguidos de cultura em meio MS contendo SN (30µM) por 20 dias, apresentaram 1,28 vezes maior teor de rutina. Em um segundo experimento, as plântulas foram cultivadas em meio MS por 20 dias, e então o elicitor desejado foi adicionado à cultura e deixado em contato com o meio por três e seis dias. SA (30µM) forneceu os melhores resultados na produção de rutina, sendo 16,56 vezes maior do que o controle após seis dias. SN (30µM) aumentou o teor de rutina em 1,17 vezes. Nas duas concentrações avaliadas durante os experimentos de elicitação, nem SA nem SN alteraram os parâmetros de crescimento, como comprimento da parte aérea, número de folhas ou peso fresco e seco das plântulas de H. marrubioides cultivadas in vitro em relação ao controle. Com base nestes resultados, os elicitores abióticos SA e SN forneceram com sucesso Hyptis marrubioides in vitro com maior conteúdo de rutina.

Palavras-chave:
acido salicílico; CLAE-DAD; cultura de tecidos; elicitação; nitrato de prata; reguladores de crescimento vegetal


The genus Hyptis belongs to the family Lamiaceae and comprises about 775 species that grow throughout tropical America (MCNEIL et al., 2011MCNEIL, M. et al. Essential oils from the Hyptis genus-a review (1909-2009). Nat Prod Commun, 2011. v. 11. p. 1775-1796. Available from: <Available from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/45491121/Biological_activity_and_chemical_composi20160509-9720-15jyb0p.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1545957249&Signature=icoDUZYZmL4J3pCJaeNJHj53%2Bfc%3D&response-contentdisposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DBiological_activity_and_chemical_composi.pdf >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018.
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). Species of this genus stand out for their economic and ethno-pharmacological importance and have several medicinal applications (BARBOSA and RAMOS 1992BARBOSA, P.P.P.; RAMOS, C.P. Studies on the antiulcerogenic activity of the essential oil of Hyptis mutabilis Briq in rats. Phytother Res, 1992. v. 6, p. 114-115. Available from: <Available from: https://onlinelibrary-wiley.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/doi/pdf/10.1002/ptr.2650060214 >. Assessed: Dec. 26, 2018. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2650060214.
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).

Hyptis marrubioides, which is native to the Brazilian Cerrado, is known as field-mint and has been used to treat gastrointestinal infections, skin infections, pains, and cramps in folk medicine; its essential oil composition has been extensively studied. (MCNEIL et al., 2011MCNEIL, M. et al. Essential oils from the Hyptis genus-a review (1909-2009). Nat Prod Commun, 2011. v. 11. p. 1775-1796. Available from: <Available from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/45491121/Biological_activity_and_chemical_composi20160509-9720-15jyb0p.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1545957249&Signature=icoDUZYZmL4J3pCJaeNJHj53%2Bfc%3D&response-contentdisposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DBiological_activity_and_chemical_composi.pdf >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018.
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).

Several in vitro propagation strategies have been employed to increase the productivity of natural compounds that have great social and economic value (MARASCHIN et al., 2002MARASCHIN, M. et al. Somaclonal variation: a morphogenetic and biochemical analysis in Mandevilla velutina cultured cells. Braz J Med Biol Res, 2002. v. 35. p. 633-643. Available from:<Available from:http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100879X2002000600002&lng=en&tlng=en > . Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1590/S0100-879X2002000600002.
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). One of these strategies has been to use elicitors (chemical, physical, or biological agents) to alter metabolic routes, which affects the resulting molecules qualitatively and quantitatively (DJILIANOV et al., 2005DJILIANOV, D. et al. In vitro culture of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult, 2005. v. 80. p. 115-118. Available from: <Available from: https://link-springer-com.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/article/10.1007%2Fs11240-004-8835-3 >. Assessed: Dec. 26, 2018. doi:10.1007/s11240-004-8835-3.
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; GIRI and ZAHEER2016GIRI, C.C.; ZAHEER, M. Chemical elicitors versus secondary metabolite production in vitro using plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: recent trends and a sky eye view appraisal. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult, 2016. v. 126. p. 1-18. Available from: <Available from: https://link-springer-com.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/article/10.1007%2Fs11240-016-0985-6 >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11240-016-0985-6.
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; RAMIREZ-ESTRADA et al., 2016RAMIREZ-ESTRADA, K. et al. Elicitation, an Effective Strategy for the Biotechnological Production of Bioactive High-Added Value Compounds in Plant Cell Factories. Molecules, 2016. v. 3. p. 21-182. Available from: <Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/2/182 >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.3390/molecules21020182.
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).

This study has focused on enhancing rutin production in H. marrubioides cultured in vitro. To this end, two kinds of exogenous elicitors salicylic acid (SA) and silver nitrate (SN) were used at 30μM or 60μM in two different experiments.

H. marrubioides seeds were obtained at the experimental field of the Laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture of Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Goiano, Campus Rio Verde. A voucher specimen (HRV71) was deposited at the Herbarium of the Institute (Herbarium HRV).

The seeds were surface-sterilized with two systemic fungicides-0.2% Bendazol (carbendazim) and 0.2% Alterno (tebuconazole)-for 1 h, subsequently treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 30min, and rinsed thrice with sterile distilled water. Next, the seeds were cultured in MS medium (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962MURASHIGE, T.; SKOOG, F.A. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant, 1962. v. 15. p. 473-497. Available from: <Available from: https://onlinelibrary-wiley.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x.
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) supplemented with 30g L-¹ sucrose and 3.5g L-¹ agar; the pH was adjusted to 5.8 before autoclaving. The cultures were maintained in a growth room at an average temperature of 23 ± 1 °C for 30 days, under a 16-hour photoperiod. Two treatments were conducted, and two kinds of exogenous elicitors, salicylic acid (SA) or silver nitrate (SN), at 30μM or 60μM, were employed. For procedure I, the plants were subcultured in glass flasks containing 50mL of MS medium for 10 days and then placed in a new flask containing MS medium and the desired elicitor for 20 days. The control plants were placed in fresh MS medium without elicitor. For procedure II, the plants were subcultured in glass flasks containing 50mL of MS medium. On day 20, the desired elicitor was added to the cultures at the desired concentration and was allowed to remain in contact with the medium for three or six days. Four flasks with five explants were used for each treatment, which amounted to 20 flasks and 100 plants in procedure I including the control group. For procedure II, a total of 40 flasks and 200 plants were used including the control. In both experiments, the plants were maintained in a growth room at 23 ± 1°C, under a 16-hour photoperiod. After treatment with the desired elicitor, the plants were harvested. Next, the shoot length, expanded leaf number, and fresh mass were measured, and the biomass was dried at 35ºC until constant weight to evaluate the dry mass. The dry H. marrubioides plants were extracted with 4mL of HPLC grade methanol by ultrasonic-assisted extraction (30min), filtered through 0.2-μm PTFE filter, and used for HPLC analysis. These procedures were performed in triplicate. The HPLC-DAD analysis for rutin quantitation was carried out on a Shimadzu Prominence LC-20AD binary system equipped with a DGU-20A5 degasser, an SPD-20A series diode array detector, a CBM-20A communication bus module, an SIL-20A HT autosampler, and a CTO-20A column oven (Shimadzu).The stationary phase was a Gemini ODS column (250 × 4.6mm, 5μm; Phenomenex) equipped with a pre-column; the mobile phase was CH3OH/H2O/HOAc (5:94.9:0.1, v/v/v) delivered in a linear gradient until 100% CH3OH was reached within 30 min, followed by 10-min elution with 100% CH3OH. A total of 20min was allowed for the system to return to the initial conditions. The flow rate was 1.0mL min-1;the injection volume was set at 20µL; and UV detection was set at 254nm and 40°C. A standard curve was plotted for different concentrations (0.063mg mL-1 to 0.500mg mL-1) of authentic rutin in methanol (HPLC grade, J. T. Baker); each point was measured in triplicate. Rutin was quantified on the basis of the peak area as compared to the rutin calibration curve. The obtained regression equation was y=4.0 x 107x - 69442 with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9998. The external standard rutin was acquired from the standard bank of the Natural Products Group of Universidade de Franca. Statistical analysis was accomplished with the Sisvar 5.3 software (FERREIRA, 2011FERREIRA, D.F. SISVAR - Um sistema computacional de análise estatística. Ciênc. Agrotec, 2011. v. 35. p. 1039-1042. Available from: <Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-70542011000600001 >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1590/S1413-70542011000600001.
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). The experiment was conducted for each treatment in a completely randomized design with four replications. The averages were compared by the Scott-Knott test at 5% probability.

According to the HPLC-DAD analysis, procedure I, during which the seedlings were cultured in MS medium for 10 days followed by culture in MS medium containing the desired elicitor for 20 days, led to 1.28 times higher rutin content in the H. marrubioides methanolic extracts in the presence of SN (30µM) as compared to the untreated culture (Table 1). In contrast, for procedure II, during which the seedlings were cultured in MS for 20 days followed by addition of the desired elicitor for three or six days, SA (30 µM) enhanced rutin production by 16.56-fold as compared to the control, whereas SN (30µM) increased the rutin content by 1.17-fold (Table 1). Our results agreed with the data obtained by PÉREZ et al., (2014PÉREZ, M.G.F. et al. Effect of chemical elicitors on peppermint (Mentha piperita) plants and their impact on the metabolite profile and antioxidant capacity of resulting infusions. Food Chem, 2014. v. 1. p. 273-278. Available from: <Available from: https://www-sciencedirect.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/science/article/pii/S0308814614001332?via%3Dihub >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.101.
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) in their study of the effect of chemical elicitors on peppermint (Mentha piperita) plants. According to the latter authors, plants treated with SA at 0.5 and 1mM had increased rutin production as compared to non-treated plants (PÉREZ et al., 2014PÉREZ, M.G.F. et al. Effect of chemical elicitors on peppermint (Mentha piperita) plants and their impact on the metabolite profile and antioxidant capacity of resulting infusions. Food Chem, 2014. v. 1. p. 273-278. Available from: <Available from: https://www-sciencedirect.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/science/article/pii/S0308814614001332?via%3Dihub >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.101.
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). In the same way, bean sprouts (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) treated with SA presented increased rutin content (41-fold) as compared to controls (MENDOZA-SÁNCHEZ et al., 2016MENDOZA-SÁNCHEZ, M. et al. Effect of chemical stress on germination of cv Dalia bean (Phaseolus vularis L.) as an alternative to increase antioxidant and nutraceutical compounds in sprouts. Food Chem, 2016. v. 1. p. 128-137. Available from: <Available from: https://www-sciencedirect.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/science/article/pii/S0308814616307993?via%3Dihub >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.110.
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). HOU et al. (2015HOU, S. et al. Regeneration of buckwheat plantlets from hypocotyl and the influence of exogenous hormones on rutin content and rutin biosynthetic gene expression in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Cult, 2015. v. 120. p. 1159-1167. Available from: <Available from: https://link-springer-com.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/article/10.1007%2Fs11240-014-0671-5 >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11240-014-0671-5.
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) developed an in vitro regeneration system using the buckwheat species Fagopyrum esculentum and Fagopyrum tataricum. The authors detected the highest rutin content (5.01mg g FW-1) in regenerated plantlets in F. tataricum treated with SA for 24h. In contrast, rutin did not accumulate significantly in F. esculentum (HOU et al., 2015HOU, S. et al. Regeneration of buckwheat plantlets from hypocotyl and the influence of exogenous hormones on rutin content and rutin biosynthetic gene expression in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Cult, 2015. v. 120. p. 1159-1167. Available from: <Available from: https://link-springer-com.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/article/10.1007%2Fs11240-014-0671-5 >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11240-014-0671-5.
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).

Table 1
Effect of abiotic elicitor type and concentration on rutin production (mg g-1 of dry weight) in Hyptis marrubioides seedlings.

Elicitation with silver nitrate (SN) also provided a positive response in the case of Sussurea medusa suspension cultures with increasing the concentration of the flavones jaceosidin and hispidulin. The maximum jaceosidin and hispidulin yields were 49.90 and 4.95mg L−1 after treatment with SN at 0.01mmol L−1 on the inoculation day, respectively (ZHAO et al., 2005ZHAO, D.X. et al. Effects of elicitation on jaceosidin and hispidulin production in cell suspension cultures of Saussurea medusa. Process Biochem, 2005. v. 40. p. 739-745. Available from: <Available from: https://www-sciencedirect.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/science/article/pii/S0032959204000767?via%3Dihub >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.01.040.
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).

Parameters such as concentration, selectivity, length of exposure to the elicitor, culture age, and nutrient composition can affect the elicitation process (NAMDEO 2007NAMDEO, A.G. Plant cell elicitation for production of secondary metabolites: A review. Pharmacogn Rev, 2007. v.1. p. 69-79. Available from: <Available from: http://www.academia.edu/37367911/Plant_Cell_Elicitation_for_Production_of_Secondary_Metabolites_A_Review >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018.
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).

Rutin production stimulation might be associated with defense responses promoted by selected elicitors. Indeed, some authors consider that SA is a phytohormone that participates in plant defense reactions, to induce an acquired systemic response, whereas SN can inhibit ethylene biosynthesis. (CURTIS et al., 2004CURTIS, H. et al. Broad-spectrum activity of the volatile phytoanticipin allicin in extracts of garlic (Allium sativum L.) against plant pathogenic bacteria, fungi and Oomycetes. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol, 2004. v.65, p. 79-89. Available from: <Available from: https://www-sciencedirect.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/science/article/pii/S0885576504001377?via%3Dihub >. Assessed: Dec. 26, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.pmpp.2004.11.006.
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; AL-KHAYRI & AL-BAHRANY, 2001AL-KHAYRI, J.M.; AL-BAHRANY, A.M. Silver nitrate and 2-isopentyladenine promote somatic embryogenesis in date. Curr Sci, 2001. v. 81, p. 1166-1170. Available from: <Available from: https://wwwsciencedirect.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/science/article/pii/S0304423800002442?via%3Dihub >. Assessed: Dec. 26, 2018. doi:10.1016/S0304-4238(00)00244-2.
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; YELDA et al., 2005YELDA, O.T. et al. In vitro response of pistachio nodal explants to silver nitrate. Sci Hortic, 2005. v.106. p. 415-426. Available from: <Available from: https://www-sciencedirect.ez249.periodicos.capes.gov.br/science/article/pii/S0304423805001536?via%3Dihub >. Assessed: Dec. 27, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2005.04.001.
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).

Compared to the controls, the variables elicitor type, elicitor concentration, and length of exposure to the elicitor did not affect the H. marrubioides growth parameters shoot length, leaf number, or average fresh and dry weight during procedures I and II (Table 2 and Table 3).

Table 2
Effect of abiotic elicitor type and concentration on H. marrubioides seedling shoot length and leaf number.

Table 3
Effect of abiotic elicitor type and concentration on H. marrubioides seedling fresh and dry weight.

In contrast, (BRANDÃO, 2014BRANDÃO, I.R. et al. Salicylic acid on antioxidant activity and betacyan in production from leaves of Alternanthera tenella. Cienc Rural, 2014. v. 44, p.1893-1898. Available from: <Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S010384782014001001893&lng=en&tlng=en >. Assessed: Dec. 26, 2018. doi: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20130873.
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) described decreased growth of Alternanthere tenella colla plants treated with AS concentrations of up to 400μM. However, explant inoculation followed a different procedure from the protocol used in our study: (BRANDÃO, 2014BRANDÃO, I.R. et al. Salicylic acid on antioxidant activity and betacyan in production from leaves of Alternanthera tenella. Cienc Rural, 2014. v. 44, p.1893-1898. Available from: <Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S010384782014001001893&lng=en&tlng=en >. Assessed: Dec. 26, 2018. doi: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20130873.
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) inoculated the explant directly in the medium containing the elicitor, whereas we inoculated the explants in fresh medium and only transferred them to the medium containing the elicitor 10 days later. Therefore, in our case, any possible toxic elicitor effect on the plant may have been reduced or avoided because the seedling was already established when it came into contact with SA or SN (BRANDÃO et al., 2014BRANDÃO, I.R. et al. Salicylic acid on antioxidant activity and betacyan in production from leaves of Alternanthera tenella. Cienc Rural, 2014. v. 44, p.1893-1898. Available from: <Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S010384782014001001893&lng=en&tlng=en >. Assessed: Dec. 26, 2018. doi: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20130873.
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).

These results provide a theoretical basis for the use of the abiotic elicitors SA and SN to favor H. marrubiodes growth in vitro and to obtain increased rutin content in the plant, considering that previous studies on the use of chemical elicitors in in vitro cultures of H. marrubioides are non-existent.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP). The authors thank Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Goiás (FAPEG) for a fellowship to RCNP.

REFERENCES:

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    CR-2018-0278.R1

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2019

History

  • Received
    03 Apr 2018
  • Accepted
    17 Dec 2018
  • Reviewed
    18 Jan 2019
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciências Rurais , 97105-900 Santa Maria RS Brazil , Tel.: +55 55 3220-8698 , Fax: +55 55 3220-8695 - Santa Maria - RS - Brazil
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