Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus species in sugarcane fields in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

Espécies de Meloidogyne e de Pratylenchus em áreas cultivadas com cana-de-açúcar no estado de Alagoas

Marissônia de Araujo Noronha Maria de Fátima Silva Muniz Marcelo de Menezes Cruz Mayara Castro Assunção José Mauro da Cunha e Castro Ellen Rebecca Lopes de Oliveira Camila Gonçalves dos Santos Miranda Andressa Cristina Zamboni Machado About the authors

ABSTRACT:

The objective of this study was to accomplish a survey on populations of Meloidogyne andPratylenchus species in sugarcane farming areas in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Twenty samples of soil and roots were processed to extract and quantify nematodes; however, the identification ofMeloidogyne species was performed using only 12 samples.Pratylenchus spp. were reported at moderate population levels of 68-1556 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 2-298 specimens 100cm-3 of soil in twenty analyzed samples. ForMeloidogyne spp., these values were of 12-487 specimens 50g-1 of roots and 0-140 specimens 100cm-3 of soil. Based on electrophoresis of esterase isozymes,M. incognita was reported to be the most frequent species, followed by M. javanica and M. arenaria. Pratylenchus species identified through morphometrical and morphological characteristics were P. zeae andP. brachyurus , with predominance for the first species. No significant correlation (P≤0.05) were reported between nematode populations and sugarcane cropping systems.

Key words:
field survey; plant-parasitic nematodes; Saccharum spp

RESUMO:

O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento de espécies deMeloidogyne e dePratylenchus existentes em áreas de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar, no estado de Alagoas. Vinte amostras de solo e raízes foram processadas para a extração e quantificação, sendo a identificação das espécies deMeloidogyne realizada em 12 amostras. Detectou-se a presença dePratylenchus spp. em níveis populacionais médios de 68-1556 espécimes 50g-1 de raízes e 2-298 100cm-3 de solo, em todas as amostras. ParaMeloidogyne spp., esses valores foram de 12-487 50g-1 de raízes e 0-140 100cm-3 de solo. Com base na eletroforese da isoenzima esterase,M. incognita foi a espécie mais frequente, seguida por M. javanica eM. arenaria . As espécies dePratylenchus identificadas pelas características morfológicas e morfométricas, foram P. zeae eP. brachyurus , com predomínio da primeira espécie. Não houve correlações significativas (P≤0,05) entre as populações de nematoides e as características dos sistemas de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar.

Palavras-chave:
levantamento; fitonematoides; Saccharum spp

Among the plant-parasitic nematodes in sugarcane fields throughout the world, the most economically significant should be considered the genus Meloidogyne Goeldi, particularly M .javanica (Treub) Chitwood and M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, as well as Pratylenchus zeae Graham (BARBOSA et al., 2013BARBOSA, B.F.F. et al. Aggressiveness of Pratylenchus brachyurus to the sugarcane, compared with key nematode P. zeae. Nematropica, v.43, n.1, p.119-130, 2013. Available from: http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82441/79475>. Accessed: Sept. 22, 2015.
http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/art...
; STEVEN et al., 2014STEVEN, A. et al. Biodiversity of plant-parasitic nematodes of sugarcane in Bacita, Nigeria. Journal of Entomology and Nematology, v.6, n.6, p.71-79, 2014. Available from: http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JEN/article-abstract /F748AA046507>. Accessed: Sept. 02, 2016. doi: 10.5897/JEN2014.0096.
http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/...
). Yield losses range from 20 to 30% in the first cut in susceptible sugarcane cultivars, due to the presence of M. javanica and P. zeae . Additionally, M. incognita can cause higher losses, of around 40% (DINARDO-MIRANDA, 2005DINARDO-MIRANDA, L.L. Manejo de fitonematoides em cana-de-açúcar. JornalCana, v.5, p.64-67, 2005. Available from: http://www.agencia. cnptia.embrapa.br/ Repositorio /5Ctecnologiaagricola_000fxg3tc4b02wyiv80soht9h8ex6by1.pdf>. Accessed: Nov. 23, 2014.
http://www.agencia. cnptia.embrapa.br/ R...
).

In Alagoas State, the genera Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne have been previously detected; however, the nematodes' species were not identified (CRUZ et al., 1986CRUZ, M.M. et al. Levantamento populacional de nematóides em cana-de-açúcar em áreas de baixa produtividade nos Estados de Alagoas e Sergipe. Nematologia Brasileira , v.10, p.27-28, 1986. (Resumo).). Thus, the objective of this study was to update this information identifying and quantifying Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus species in the major sugarcane producing areas from Alagoas State.

During 2012, soil and root samples were collected from 20 sugarcane farms located in 16 municipalities, which represented the major sugarcane growing areas in the state of Alagoas (SINDAÇÚCAR, 2012SINDAÇÚCAR. SINDICATO DA INDÚSTRIA DO AÇÚCAR E DO ÁLCOOL NO ESTADO DE ALAGOAS. Maceió, 2012. Accessed: Sept. 04, 2016. Online. Available from: http://www.sindacucar-al.com.br/area-canavieira/>. Accessed: Aug. 28, 2015.
http://www.sindacucar-al.com.br/area-can...
). Four samples were collected from each field, with approximately 1.0kg of soil and 100g of sugarcane roots. Soil samples were homogenized, and 100cm3 of each sample were processed as described by JENKINS (1964JENKINS, W.R. A rapid centrifugal-flotation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter, v.48, n.4, p.692, 1964.); whereas, 50g of root was used for nematode extraction according to COOLEN & D´HERDE (1972COOLEN, W.A.; D'HERDE, C.J. A method for the quantitative extraction of nematodes from plant tissue. Ghent: State Agricultural Research Centre, 1972. 77p.). Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P≤0.05) were performed between nematode populations and sugarcane crop stage, application of nematicide and vinasse, irrigation, and the harvest method.

Pratylenchus spp. were identified to the species level by morphological characters and morphometric measurements according to CASTILLO & VOVLAS (2007CASTILLO, P.; VOVLAS, N. Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): diagnosis, biology, pathogenicity and management. Nematology monographs and perspectives. Leiden- Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2007. v.6. 529p.). For isozyme characterization, young egg-laying females of Meloidogyne spp. were removed from tomato galls [(Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) Santa Cruz cv. Kada Gigante] and macerated in extraction buffer (KUNIEDA DE ALONSO & ALFENAS, 1998KUNIEDA DE ALONSO, S.; ALFENAS, A.C. Isoenzimas na taxonomia e na genética de fitonematoides. In: ALFENAS, A.C. Eletroforese de isoenzimas e proteínas afins; fundamentos e aplicações em plantas e microrganismos. Viçosa: UFV, 1998. p.525-543.). Females of M. javanica were used as reference phenotype. Electrophoresis was performed in a vertical slab in polyacrylamide gels (ESBENSHADE & TRIANTAPHYLLOU, 1985ESBENSHADE, P.R.; TRIANTAPHYLLOU, A.C. Use of enzyme phenotypes for identification of Meloidogyne species. Journal of Nematology, v.17, n.1, p.6-20, 1985.; ALFENAS et al., 1991ALFENAS, A.C. et al. Eletroforese de proteínas e isoenzimas de fungos e essências florestais. Viçosa, MG: SIF, 1991. 242p.).

The genera Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne were observed in roots and/or soil from all sampled areas (Table 1) and it is in accordance to other studies in Brazil (CHAVES et al., 2009CHAVES, A. et al. Incidência de Meloidogyne spp. e Pratylenchus sp. em cana-de-açúcar no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Nematologia Brasileira, v.33, p.278-280, 2009.; BELLÉ et al., 2014BELLÉ, C. et al. Fitonematoides associados à cultura da cana-de-açúcar no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Nematropica , v.44, p.207-217, 2014. Available from: http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/84286/81411>. Accessed: Mar. 28, 2015.
http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/art...
). Pratylenchus spp. had the highest mean population densities in roots from a sugarcane farm located in the county of Teotônio Vilela (1,556 specimens 50g-1 roots) while in the soil the highest value was observed in the county of Maceió (298 specimens 100cm-3 of soil). According to STIRLING & BLAIR (2000STIRLING, G.R.; BLAIR, B. Nematodes. In: ROTT, P. et al. (Eds.). A guide to sugarcane diseases. Montpellier - France: CIRAD Publications Service, 2000. p.299-305.), P . zeae population densities higher than 250 specimens per 200g of soil, detected six months after planting, can expressively reduce sugarcane yield.

Table 1
Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne species on sugarcane growing areas in Alagoas State, Brazil.

When considering the sugarcane cultivar, the highest Pratylenchus spp. populations occurred in 'RB 92579' (Table 1). For Meloidogyne spp., the highest population densities (487 juveniles 50g-1 roots) were observed in 'SP 813250', followed by 'SP 753046' (389 juveniles 50g-1 roots) and 'RB 92579' (262 juveniles 50g-1 roots) (Table 1). The susceptibility of the RB 92579 cultivar to M. incognita has been previously reported under greenhouse condition (SILVA et al., 2012SILVA, A.P. Reação de variedades de cana-de-açúcar açúcar ao parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita e M. enterolobii. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias, v.7, p. 814-819, 2012. Available from: http://www.redalyc.org/resumen.oa?id=1190254550>. Accessed: Aug. 28, 2015. doi:10.5039/agraria.v7isa2276.
http://www.redalyc.org/resumen.oa?id=119...
), representing 50% of all cultivars evaluated in this study.

Electrophoresis separation of esterases revealed four distinctive phenotypes: phenotype I1 with one band (Rm 1.00), phenotype I2 with two bands (Rm 1.00 and 1.09) specific toM. incognita , phenotype J3 with three bands (Rm 1.00, 1.07, and 1.17) characteristic of M. javanica , and phenotype A2 with two bands (Rm 1.17 and 1.28) specific to M. arenaria . Of these three species, M. incognita was the most recurrent, either alone or in association with M. arenaria or M. javanica (Table 1). These observations are not in accordance with previous reports (SEVERINO et al., 2008SEVERINO, J.J. Identificação de populações de Meloidogyne spp. parasitas da cana-de-açúcar na região Noroeste do Paraná pelo fenótipo da isoenzima esterase. Nematologia Brasileira , v.32, n.3, p.206-211, 2008.) where M. javanica was reported as being the predominant species in several sugarcane fields in Brazil.

Regarding the genus Pratylenchus the predominant species was P. zeae , either alone or in mixed population; whereas, P. brachyurus occurred in only two areas (Table 1). In survey conducted by BELLÉ et al. (2014BELLÉ, C. et al. Fitonematoides associados à cultura da cana-de-açúcar no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Nematropica , v.44, p.207-217, 2014. Available from: http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/84286/81411>. Accessed: Mar. 28, 2015.
http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/art...
), within this genus, P. zeae was the most common species associated with sugarcane crop.

Pratylenchus zeae, P. brachyurus, M. javanica , M. incognita and M. arenaria prevailed in sugarcane fields in Alagoas State. Out of the five species, P. zeae and M. incognita were the most frequently observed. No significant correlations (P≤0.05) were reported between nematode populations and sugarcane cropping systems.

REFERENCES:

  • ALFENAS, A.C. et al. Eletroforese de proteínas e isoenzimas de fungos e essências florestais. Viçosa, MG: SIF, 1991. 242p.
  • BARBOSA, B.F.F. et al. Aggressiveness of Pratylenchus brachyurus to the sugarcane, compared with key nematode P. zeae. Nematropica, v.43, n.1, p.119-130, 2013. Available from: http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82441/79475>. Accessed: Sept. 22, 2015.
    » http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82441/79475
  • BELLÉ, C. et al. Fitonematoides associados à cultura da cana-de-açúcar no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Nematropica , v.44, p.207-217, 2014. Available from: http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/84286/81411>. Accessed: Mar. 28, 2015.
    » http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/84286/81411
  • CASTILLO, P.; VOVLAS, N. Pratylenchus (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae): diagnosis, biology, pathogenicity and management. Nematology monographs and perspectives. Leiden- Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2007. v.6. 529p.
  • CHAVES, A. et al. Incidência de Meloidogyne spp. e Pratylenchus sp. em cana-de-açúcar no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Nematologia Brasileira, v.33, p.278-280, 2009.
  • COOLEN, W.A.; D'HERDE, C.J. A method for the quantitative extraction of nematodes from plant tissue. Ghent: State Agricultural Research Centre, 1972. 77p.
  • CRUZ, M.M. et al. Levantamento populacional de nematóides em cana-de-açúcar em áreas de baixa produtividade nos Estados de Alagoas e Sergipe. Nematologia Brasileira , v.10, p.27-28, 1986. (Resumo).
  • DINARDO-MIRANDA, L.L. Manejo de fitonematoides em cana-de-açúcar. JornalCana, v.5, p.64-67, 2005. Available from: http://www.agencia. cnptia.embrapa.br/ Repositorio /5Ctecnologiaagricola_000fxg3tc4b02wyiv80soht9h8ex6by1.pdf>. Accessed: Nov. 23, 2014.
    » http://www.agencia. cnptia.embrapa.br/ Repositorio /5Ctecnologiaagricola_000fxg3tc4b02wyiv80soht9h8ex6by1.pdf
  • ESBENSHADE, P.R.; TRIANTAPHYLLOU, A.C. Use of enzyme phenotypes for identification of Meloidogyne species. Journal of Nematology, v.17, n.1, p.6-20, 1985.
  • KUNIEDA DE ALONSO, S.; ALFENAS, A.C. Isoenzimas na taxonomia e na genética de fitonematoides. In: ALFENAS, A.C. Eletroforese de isoenzimas e proteínas afins; fundamentos e aplicações em plantas e microrganismos. Viçosa: UFV, 1998. p.525-543.
  • JENKINS, W.R. A rapid centrifugal-flotation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter, v.48, n.4, p.692, 1964.
  • SEVERINO, J.J. Identificação de populações de Meloidogyne spp. parasitas da cana-de-açúcar na região Noroeste do Paraná pelo fenótipo da isoenzima esterase. Nematologia Brasileira , v.32, n.3, p.206-211, 2008.
  • SINDAÇÚCAR. SINDICATO DA INDÚSTRIA DO AÇÚCAR E DO ÁLCOOL NO ESTADO DE ALAGOAS. Maceió, 2012. Accessed: Sept. 04, 2016. Online. Available from: http://www.sindacucar-al.com.br/area-canavieira/>. Accessed: Aug. 28, 2015.
    » http://www.sindacucar-al.com.br/area-canavieira/
  • SILVA, A.P. Reação de variedades de cana-de-açúcar açúcar ao parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita e M. enterolobii. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias, v.7, p. 814-819, 2012. Available from: http://www.redalyc.org/resumen.oa?id=1190254550>. Accessed: Aug. 28, 2015. doi:10.5039/agraria.v7isa2276.
    » https://doi.org/10.5039/agraria.v7isa2276» http://www.redalyc.org/resumen.oa?id=1190254550
  • STEVEN, A. et al. Biodiversity of plant-parasitic nematodes of sugarcane in Bacita, Nigeria. Journal of Entomology and Nematology, v.6, n.6, p.71-79, 2014. Available from: http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JEN/article-abstract /F748AA046507>. Accessed: Sept. 02, 2016. doi: 10.5897/JEN2014.0096.
    » https://doi.org/10.5897/JEN2014.0096.» http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/JEN/article-abstract /F748AA046507
  • STIRLING, G.R.; BLAIR, B. Nematodes. In: ROTT, P. et al. (Eds.). A guide to sugarcane diseases. Montpellier - France: CIRAD Publications Service, 2000. p.299-305.

  • 1
    CR-2015-1402.R1

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    08 Dec 2016
  • Date of issue
    2017

History

  • Received
    08 Oct 2015
  • Accepted
    15 Sept 2016
  • Reviewed
    14 Nov 2016
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