The events included in the process of repair of corneal damage occur simultaneously and involve proliferation, migration, differentiation, cell apoptosis and intercellular communication. Several soluble factors, mesenchymal matrix proteins, proteoglycans, proteolytic enzymes and some cell types are covered in this review, which explains the processes of repair of corneal wounds, either superficial or penetrating. The amniotic membrane, used in ophthalmic surgery, was studied because of the contribution of its functions to the repair process. However, these functions may be lost when the amniotic membrane is subjected to conservation. Therefore, it is important to understand the repair process of lesions involving or not the entire thickness of the cornea, and choose the best use of the amniotic membrane, when it is indicated for the treatment of these lesions.
corneal ulcer; soluble factors; biological membrane; graft