Blood sucking Diptera (Culicidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae) in forest fragment under impact of dam in the borderland of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, Brazil

Dípteros hematófagos (Culicidae, Psychodidae, Simuliidae) em fragmento defloresta sob impacto de barragem na fronteira dos estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, Brasil

Gerson Azulim Muller Maira Aparecida Dalavequia Glauber Wagner Carlos Brisola Marcondes About the authors

Abstracts

The study of Diptera of medical importance in areas affected by dam constructions is very important due to the possibility of the occurrence of diseases transmitted by these species. Collections were performed during 2010 and 2011 in an area under impact of a dam on the Uruguai River in the borderland of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states. Insects were collected using suction tubes and Shannon trap, also immature live forms were obtained by manual collect. Eight-hundred sixty-one Diptera insects were captured, including Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Culicidae), three species of Anopheles spp. (Culicidae), two of Plebotominae and three distinct Simuliidae species. The Diptera fauna in the area is diversified and species with medical importance were identified before and after reservoir filling.

dams; Diptera; environmental impact; vectors


O estudo de dípteros de importância médica em áreas afetadas pelas construções de barragens é muito importante, devido à possibilidade de ocorrência de doenças transmitidas por essas espécies. As coletas foram realizadas entre 2010 e 2011 em uma área sob o impacto de uma barragem no Rio Uruguai, na fronteira entre os estados do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina. Os insetos foram coletados através de tubos de sucção e armadilha Shannon, também foram coletadas manualmente formas aquáticas de imaturos. Oitocentos e sessenta e um dípteros foram capturados, incluindo Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Culicidae), três espécies de Anopheles spp. (Culicidae), duas espécies de Plebotominae e três espécies de Simuliidae. A fauna de dípteros na área é diversificada e foram identificadas espécies com importância médica antes e após o enchimento do reservatório.

represas; Diptera; impacto ambiental; vetores


DipteraCulicidaePAULA & GOMES, 2007PAULA, M.B.; GOMES, A.C. Culicidae (Diptera) em área de influência de construção de represa no Estado de São Paulo. Revista de Saúde Pública, v.41, p.284-289, 2007. Available from: <http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rsp/v41n2/5508.pdf/>. Accessed: Jan, 15, 2013. doi: 10.1590/S0034-89102006005000018.
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rsp/v41n2/5508....
PhlebotominaeSimuliidaeROSENBERG et al., 1997ROSENBERG, D.M. et al. Large-scale impacts of hydroeletric development. Environmental Reviews, v.5, p.27-54, 1997. Available from: <http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/a97-001#.UdJDFvm1FqV/>. Accessed: Jan, 12, 2013. doi: 10.1139/a97-001.
http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/...
DipteraCulicidaePsychodidaePhlebotominaeSimullidae22)ththnd thththth th)CulicidaePsychodidae PhlebotominaeSimuliidaeMARCONDES, 2011MARCONDES, C.B. Entomologia médica e veterinária. São Paulo: Atheneu, 2011. 526p.DipteraMARCONDES (2011)MARCONDES, C.B. Entomologia médica e veterinária. São Paulo: Atheneu, 2011. 526p.CulicidaeOchlerotatus scapularisO. serratusAnopheles galvaoiTable 1Haemagogus leucocelaenusAedes albopictusH. leucocelaenusVASCONCELOS et al., 2003VASCONCELOS, P.F.C. et al. Genetic divergence and dispersal of yellow fever virus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, v.10, n.9, p.1578-1584, 2004. Available from: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3320275//>. Accessed: Jan. 17, 2013. doi: 10.3201%2Feid1009.040197.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
A. albopictusGRATZ, 2004GRATZ, N.G. Critical review of the vector status of Aedes albopictus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v.18, p.215-227, 2004. Available from: <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0269-283X.2004.00513.x/pdf/>. Accessed: Jan, 28, 2013. doi: 10.1111/j.0269-283X.2004.00513.x.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.11...
VASCONCELOS et al., 2004VASCONCELOS, P.F.C. et al. Genetic divergence and dispersal of yellow fever virus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, v.10, n.9, p.1578-1584, 2004. Available from: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3320275//>. Accessed: Jan. 17, 2013. doi: 10.3201%2Feid1009.040197.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...
A. albopictusVASCONCELOS, 2002VASCONCELOS, P.F.C. et al. Genetic divergence and dispersal of yellow fever virus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, v.10, n.9, p.1578-1584, 2004. Available from: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3320275//>. Accessed: Jan. 17, 2013. doi: 10.3201%2Feid1009.040197.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles...

Table 1
- Diptera collected before and after reservoir filling of Foz do Chapecó Hydroelectric Station, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Although no human malaria has been reported in the area of this study, the presence of secondary vectors as A. evansae, A. galvaoi and A. strode (CONSOLI & LOURENÇO-DE-OLIVEIRA, 1994CONSOLI, R.A.G.B.; LOURENÇO-DE-OLIVEIRA, R. Principais mosquitos de importância sanitária no Brasil. São Paulo: Fiocruz, 1994. 228p.) should be emphasized. These Anopheles species, previously reported from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, were considered responsible for autochthonous cases of malaria in some municipalities in Goiás state (MANOEL et al., 2010). Although Uranotaenia apicalis have been reported in the Brazilian state of São Paulo (DIBO et al., 2011), this is the first report of this specie in the South region of Brazil, regardless this specie is unrelated with vector-borne diseases.

Thirty-seven specimens of Phlebotominae (Nyssomyia neivai - 0.7% - and Pintomyia pessoai - 3.6%) were collected in the crepuscule or night period (Table 1). One specimen of N. neivai and ten of P. pessoai were collected before reservoir filling, however the highest amount of these Phlebotominae specimens were collected after reservoir filling, representing five of N. neivai and 21 of P. pessoai. Both species have been reported as Leishmania braziliensis vectors and are found in both forest and human-modified environments (ANDRADE FILHO et al., 2007ANDRADE FILHO, J.D. et al. Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) geographical distribution and epidemiological importance. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v.102, p.481-487, 2007. Available from: <http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v102n4/5725.pdf/>. Accessed: May, 8, 2013. doi: doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762007005000035.
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v102n4/572...
).

Three-hundred and forty-three immature specimens of Simullidae were collected from riverbeds in small creeks, 31 specimens (3.6%) of Simulium mariavulcanoae, 21 (2.4%) of S. nogueirai, 288 (33.5%) of S. pertinax and three (0.4%) of S. subnigrum were collected (Table 1). These species had already been reported in both Brazilian southern states. Interesting that only S. mariavulcanoae was collected before the reservoir filling and the other three species of Simulium were found only after reservoir filling. Although these species have not been incriminated in transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the high density of the population and their severe biting cause negative impact on human population (allergy) and on cattle (loss of weight and/or reduction of milk production) (MARCONDES, 2011MARCONDES, C.B. Entomologia médica e veterinária. São Paulo: Atheneu, 2011. 526p.).

Due to the small amount of sampling before and after reservoir filling, it was not possible to infer the modifications on Diptera fauna in the impacted area. However, this study shows an interesting Diptera fauna before and after reservoir filling, especially the potential vectors of human diseases, like A. albopictus, H. leucocelaenus, N. neivai and P. pessoai. It indicates the need of continuous surveillance of Diptera populations in order to avoid the emergence of important tropical diseases in the area impacted by the reservoir of this hydroelectric.

REFERENCES

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    July 2014

History

  • Received
    16 Dec 2013
  • Accepted
    13 Jan 2014
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciências Rurais , 97105-900 Santa Maria RS Brazil , Tel.: +55 55 3220-8698 , Fax: +55 55 3220-8695 - Santa Maria - RS - Brazil
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