Different calcium sources on the productive performance and bone quality of meat quail

Diferentes fontes de cálcio sob o desempenho produtivo e qualidade óssea de codornas de corte

Daniela da Silva Mendonça Sandra Roseli Valerio Lana Geraldo Roberto Quintão Lana Ana Patrícia Alves Leão Romilton Ferreira de Barros Júnior Luiz Arthur dos Anjos Lima Iva Carla de Barros Ayres Daniel Silva Santos Wilson Araújo da Silva About the authors

ABSTRACT:

This study was developed to examine the effect of using charru mussel-, maçunim- and oyster-shell meals as calcium sources on the productive performance, carcass yield and bone parameters of meat quail. A total of 250 one-day-old non-sexed European quail were used. The birds were distributed into five treatments (calcium sources: calcitic lime, calcium carbonate, charru mussel shell meal, maçunim shell meal or oyster shell meal) in a completely randomized design with five replicates and ten birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated from one to 35 days. At 35 days, two birds with the average weight of the plot were slaughtered per plot and used for analysis of carcass yield and bone parameters. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield or tibia dry matter content, ash content and strength. The charru mussel-, maçunim- and oyster-shell meals can be used as calcium sources in the diet of European quail without affecting their productive performance, carcass yield or bone mineralization.

Key words:
european quail; mollusk shells; organic calcium sources

RESUMO:

Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilização das farinhas de conchas de sururu, maçunim e ostra como fontes de cálcio sobre o desempenho produtivo, rendimento de carcaça e parâmetros ósseos de codornas de corte. Foram utilizadas 250 codornas europeias, não sexadas, com um dia de idade. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constituído por cinco fontes de cálcio (calcário calcítico, carbonato de cálcio, farinha de conchas de sururu, farinha de conchas de maçunim e farinha de conchas de ostras), com cinco repetições e dez aves por unidade experimental. Foram avaliados o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar no período de um a 35 dias. Aos 35 dias, duas aves de peso médio de cada parcela foram abatidas e utilizadas para as análises de rendimento de carcaça e parâmetros ósseos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05) para os dados de consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, matéria seca, cinzas e resistência óssea de tíbias. As farinhas de conchas de sururu, maçunim e ostra podem ser utilizadas na alimentação de codornas europeias, como fontes de cálcio, sem afetar o desempenho produtivo, rendimento de carcaça e a mineralização óssea das aves.

alavras-chave:
codornas europeias; conchas de moluscos; fontes orgânicas de cálcio

INTRODUCTION:

Quail farming is a promising activity due to the rapid growth, early development and high egg productivity of the species, as well as low investment and rapid financial return (PASTORE et al., 2012PASTORE, S. M. et al. Panorama da coturnicultura no Brasil. Revista Eletrônica Nutritime, v.9, n.06, p.2041 - 2049, 2012. Available from: <Available from: https://www.nutritime.com.br/arquivos_internos/artigos/180%20- Panorama%20da%20coturnicultura_.pdf >. Accessed: May, 02, 2020.
https://www.nutritime.com.br/arquivos_in...
; BARROS JÚNIOR et al., 2020BARROS JÚNIOR, R. F. et al. Nutritional composition, metabolizability coefficients and use of passion fruit pulp waste in the diet of meat quail. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, v.41, n.2, p.561-572, 2020. Available from: <Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n2p561 >. Accessed: May, 02, 2020. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n2p561.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2020...
). Like other animals, to express their maximum productive potential, quail must have their nutritional requirements met, especially with respect to minerals.

Calcium is a macromineral that participates in important functions of the body of birds, e.g., bone formation and maintenance, blood coagulation, muscle contraction, transmission of nerve stimuli, activation of enzymes in various metabolic pathways, among others (REZVANI et al., 2019REZVANI, M. R. et al. Ileal digestibility and bone retention of calcium in diets containing eggshell, oyster shell or inorganic calcium carbonate in broiler chickens. Poultry Science Journal. v.7, n.1, p.7-13, 2019. Available from: <Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.22069/psj.2019.14720.1319 >. Accessed: May, 03, 2020. doi: 10.22069/psj.2019.14720.1319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.22069/psj.2019.1472...
). For European quail, SILVA et al. (2012SILVA, J. H. V. et al. Nutritional requeriments of quails. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal . v.13, n.3, p.775-790, 2012. Available from: <Available from: https://www.scielo.br/j/rbspa/a/kJDrRVLb6cMr7p6hskmZKzj/?lang=pt >. Accessed: Jul. 06, 2021.
https://www.scielo.br/j/rbspa/a/kJDrRVLb...
) recommended 0.850% calcium in the starter phase (1-21 days) and 0.700% in the grower phase (22-42 days). Supplementation is necessary to meet the nutritional requirements of calcium, since non-ruminant diets, formulated with vegetable ingredients, contain insufficient calcium levels.

According to SANTANA et al. (2018SANTANA, A. L. A. et al. Digestibility of calcium and digestible calcium from inorganic sources evaluated in swine by two methods. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, v.19, n.1, p.93-104, 2018. Available from: <Available from: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-99402018000100009 >. Accessed: Jul. 06, 2021. doi: 10.1590/S1519-99402018000100009.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-9940201800...
), the most widely used sources of calcium in animal feed are of geological or industrial origin, such as calcitic limestone. However, its extraction causes environmental problems, as it is a non-renewable resource. Conversely, organic sources offer the great advantage of being renewable sources. Studies showed that organic sources of calcium, such as shells, algae and eggshells, have a better absorption rate and greater biological potency as compared with inorganic minerals (LEÃO et al., 2020LEÃO, A. P. A. et al. Digestibility and bioavailability of organic calcium sources for European quail. Semina: Ciências Agrárias , v.41, n.6, p.3275-3284, 2020. Available from: <Available from: http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php/semagrarias/article/view/39413/28283 >. Accessed: Apr. 23, 2021. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n6Supl2p3275.
http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php...
; RAJKUMAR et al., 2017RAJKUMAR, U. et al. Effect of supplemental trace minerals on hsp-70 mRNA expression in commercial broiler chicken. Animal Biotechnology, v.29, p.20-25, 2017. Available from: <Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2017.1287712 >. Accessed: May, 02, 2020. doi: 10.1080/10495398.2017.1287712.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2017.12...
).

LEÃO et al. (2020LEÃO, A. P. A. et al. Digestibility and bioavailability of organic calcium sources for European quail. Semina: Ciências Agrárias , v.41, n.6, p.3275-3284, 2020. Available from: <Available from: http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php/semagrarias/article/view/39413/28283 >. Accessed: Apr. 23, 2021. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n6Supl2p3275.
http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php...
) stated that the disposal of shells of bivalve mollusks on the edge of the lagoon in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, is done inadequately. These can be considered by-products from the processing of maçunim (Anomalocardia brasiliana), oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) and charru mussel (Mytella charruana), which are part of the local cuisine. Due to the availability of these shells in the region and their high calcium content, there has been a growing interest in using them in animal feed.

This study was developed to investigate the effect of using charru mussel-, maçunim- and oyster-shell meals as calcium sources on the productive performance, carcass yield and bone parameters of meat quail.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The experiment was carried out in the quail farming section at CECA/UFAL, located in Rio Largo - AL, Brazil. A total of 250 one-day-old, non-sexed European quail were used. The birds were housed according to their initial average weight (8.95±1.58 g) in galvanized-wire battery cages during the experimental period of one to 35 days of age. Each cage was equipped with a heating source, a tube drinker, a trough feeder and excreta collection trays. The quail were distributed into five treatments in a completely randomized design with five replicates of ten birds, totaling 25 experimental units.

The experimental diets were formulated following the recommendations of SILVA & COSTA (2009SILVA, R. M. et al. Exigências nutricionais de cálcio e fósforo de codornas de corte em crescimento. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v.38, n.8, p.1509-1517, 2009. Available from: <Available from: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982009000800015 >. Accessed: May, 01, 2020. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982009000800015.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-3598200900...
), with the evaluated sources replacing the inert from the basal diet (BD) (Table 1). Thus, the experimental diets were composed as follows: calcitic limestone (CLS) = BD + CLS; calcium carbonate (CCB) = BD + CCB; charru mussel shell meal (CSM) = BD + CSM; maçunim shell meal (MSM) = BD + MSM; and oyster shell meal (OSM) = BD + OSM (Table 2). The calcium sources originated from the coastal region of the state of Alagoas and were acquired ready for the birds to consume. Dicalcium phosphate (24.5% Ca and 18.5% P), commonly used as a source of calcium and phosphorus in diets, was replaced by monoammonium phosphate so that its calcitic content would not interfere with the results.

Table 1
Proximate composition of basal diets for meat quail, according to the requirements of the birds for each age.
Table 2
Amount of inert replaced with calcium sources in the basal diet.

Climatic variables were monitored daily, at 08h00 and 16h00. The following mean values were recorded: maximum temperature - 29.4 °C, minimum temperature - 27.01 °C, relative humidity - 80% and black globe humidity index - 77.68 (calculated according to the formula proposed by BUFFINGTON et al., 1981BUFFINGTON, D. E. et al. Black globe-humidity index (BGHI) as comfort equation for dairy cows. Transaction of the American Society of Agricultural Engineering, v.24, p.711-714, 1981. Available from: <Available from: https://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.34325 >. Accessed: May, 03, 2020. doi: 10.13031/2013.34325.
https://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.34325...
).

Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated from one to 35 days of age. To this end, the birds, feed and orts were weighed weekly to calculate the performance indices.

At the end of the experimental period, all birds were weighed and two medium-weight quail (one male and one female) from each experimental unit were selected and identified. After fasting for six hours, the birds were weighed, stunned by electronarcosis, bled, scalded and plucked.

Subsequently, the carcasses were eviscerated and carcass yield was determined relative to the live animal weight and cut yields relative to the carcass weight. The following parameters were evaluated: absolute (g) and relative (%) weights of the carcass, major cuts (breast, drumsticks and thighs) and edible offal (heart, liver and gizzard).

To determine the bone’s breaking strength, dry matter (DM) content and ash content at 35 days, the selected birds had their legs collected and the tibiae removed. The right tibia was used for the breaking strength test and the left for DM and ash content analyses.

For the analysis of breaking strength, the unprocessed bones (right tibiae) were placed in a controlled testing machine (Shimadzu model AG-X 100kN), which records the resistance of materials to bending. The bones were placed in a horizontal position on two supports, and a pressure force was applied to their center. Breaking strength was defined as the maximum amount of force (kgf) applied to the bones at the breakpoint.

The left tibiae of the birds were defatted using petroleum ether in a Soxhlet apparatus, at a temperature of 40 to 60 ºC for 8 h. Then, analyses of DM and ash contents were carried out according to the methodology of SILVA & QUEIROZ (2006SILVA, D. J., & QUEIROZ, A. C. Análise de Alimentos: métodos químicos e biológicos. Viçosa: UFV, 2006. 235p.), with results expressed relative to the dry- and defatted-bone weight.

Statistical analyses were performed using R CORE TEAM (2016R CORE TEAM. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. 2016.) software and the data were subjected to the normality test (Shapiro-Wilk) and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

In the phases from 1 to 21, 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days of age, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) for the variables of feed intake, weight gain or feed conversion (Table 3). According to the results, the use of the organic calcium sources tested had no adverse effect that could negatively interfere with the performance of the quail. Thus, the evaluated sources met the metabolic requirements of the birds at all stages.

Table 3
Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG) and feed conversion (FC) of meat quail fed diets with different calcium sources, per phase.

These results agree with those described by LEÃO et al. (2020LEÃO, A. P. A. et al. Digestibility and bioavailability of organic calcium sources for European quail. Semina: Ciências Agrárias , v.41, n.6, p.3275-3284, 2020. Available from: <Available from: http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php/semagrarias/article/view/39413/28283 >. Accessed: Apr. 23, 2021. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n6Supl2p3275.
http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php...
), who reported no differences in the performance of meat quail fed diets containing charru mussel shell, maçunim shell meal and oyster shell meal. REZVANI et al. (2019REZVANI, M. R. et al. Ileal digestibility and bone retention of calcium in diets containing eggshell, oyster shell or inorganic calcium carbonate in broiler chickens. Poultry Science Journal. v.7, n.1, p.7-13, 2019. Available from: <Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.22069/psj.2019.14720.1319 >. Accessed: May, 03, 2020. doi: 10.22069/psj.2019.14720.1319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.22069/psj.2019.1472...
) evaluated the use of eggshells and oyster shells in the diets of broilers and detected no differences in productive performance.

Calcium ingested via diet is absorbed and used according to the metabolic requirements of the animal. However, the bioavailable fraction of this mineral varies according to the source used as well as with intestinal pH, Ca:P ratio, vitamin D, among others, which can interfere with its absorption (SILVA et al., 2009SILVA, J. H. V.; COSTA, F.G.P. Tabelas para codornas japonesas e europeias. 2.ed. Jaboticabal, SP: FUNEP, 2009. 110p.).

MELO & MOURA (2009MELO, T. V.; MOURA, A. M. A. Utilização da farinha de algas calcáreas na alimentação animal. Archivos de Zootecnia, v.58, n.1, p.99-107, 2009. Available from: <Available from: https://doi.org/10.21071/az.v58i224.5076 >. Accessed: May, 01, 2020. doi: 10.21071/az.v58i224.5076.
https://doi.org/10.21071/az.v58i224.5076...
) reported that the solubility of calcium sources is directly related to the bioavailability and intestinal absorption of calcium, with organic sources having greater solubility as compared with inorganic sources (rocks). Thus, according to LEÃO et al. (2020LEÃO, A. P. A. et al. Digestibility and bioavailability of organic calcium sources for European quail. Semina: Ciências Agrárias , v.41, n.6, p.3275-3284, 2020. Available from: <Available from: http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php/semagrarias/article/view/39413/28283 >. Accessed: Apr. 23, 2021. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n6Supl2p3275.
http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php...
), charru mussel-, maçunim- and oyster-shell meals have high relative calcium bioavailability, which may prove the good utilization of these sources by quail.

The alternative calcium sources did not influence the absolute weight at slaughter and the absolute and relative weights of the birds’ carcass, cuts and edible offal (P > 0.05) (Table 4). These findings confirmed the birds’ performance results described above. The organic calcium sources used in this study provided results similar to those obtained with calcitic limestone and calcium carbonate in terms of performance and carcass yield.

Table 4
Absolute (g) and relative (%) weights of carcass, cuts and edible offal of mixed meat quail fed different calcium sources, at 35 days of age.

There was no difference (P > 0.05) in the DM, ash or breaking strength of the bone of male and female European quail at 35 days of age (Table 5). These results indicated that the charru mussel-, maçunim- and oyster-shell meals can be used effectively, at 100% inclusion, as calcium sources for European quail from 1 to 35 days of age without compromising their development.

Table 5
Dry matter (DM) and ash contents and breaking strength (BS) of the tibiae of European quail at 35 days of age.

LEÃO et al. (2020LEÃO, A. P. A. et al. Digestibility and bioavailability of organic calcium sources for European quail. Semina: Ciências Agrárias , v.41, n.6, p.3275-3284, 2020. Available from: <Available from: http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php/semagrarias/article/view/39413/28283 >. Accessed: Apr. 23, 2021. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n6Supl2p3275.
http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php...
) did not find differences in the bone ash content of meat quail fed diets with charru mussel-, maçunim- and oyster-shell meals as calcium sources. Skeletal strength and hardness depend on the normal concentration of calcium, and bone mineralization only occurs when there is a balance between the plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphorus (VELLASCO et al., 2015).

The skeleton acts as a reservoir for calcium, so when serum calcium concentrations decrease, the mineral is mobilized from the bones to increase blood calcium levels. When this happens, the bones are more fragile causing the symptoms of calcium deficiency in developing birds include growth retardation, reduced feed intake, bone fragility and deformation, in addition to reduced bone ash and calcium content (VELLASCO et al., 2015).

The tested sources provided effective bone calcification, as all treatments induced similar results regarding bone ash deposition and strength, as well as performance and carcass yield. Despite their low cost, traditionally used sources cause environmental degradation upon extraction. Therefore, the use of organic sources such as those evaluated in this study emerges as an environmentally sustainable alternative, since they can be used in animal feed instead of being improperly disposed of.

CONCLUSION:

Charru mussel-, maçunim- and oyster-shell meals can be used as calcium sources in the diet of European quail from 1 to 35 days of age without affecting their productive performance, carcass yield or bone mineralization.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.

REFERENCES

  • CR-2021-0446.R1

ETHICS AND BIOSAFETY COMMITTEE

  • ETHICS AND BIOSAFETY COMMITTEE

    All procedures in this study were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use at UFAL (approval no. 62/2017).

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    22 Nov 2021
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    08 June 2021
  • Accepted
    06 Aug 2021
  • Reviewed
    21 Sept 2021
Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciências Rurais , 97105-900 Santa Maria RS Brazil , Tel.: +55 55 3220-8698 , Fax: +55 55 3220-8695 - Santa Maria - RS - Brazil
E-mail: cienciarural@mail.ufsm.br