Food insecurity in pregnant women is associated with social determinants and nutritional outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Associação entre insegurança alimentar, determinantes sociais e desfechos nutricionais em mulheres grávidas: revisão e metanálise

Fran Demétrio Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles Djanilson Barbosa dos Santos Marcos Pereira About the authors


The association between FI, social determinants, and nutritional outcomes for pregnant women are analyzed. A systematic review was conducted through a search of articles in five electronic databases. Social determinants (race, education, participation in social programs) and nutritional status (pre-gestational BMI, gestational weight gain, anemia) were analyzed in relation to the FI situation. For each article, the frequency of food insecurity was collected in order to calculate the summary measure, prevalence ratio (PR). 26 articles were selected. An elevated occurrence of FI was associated with black pregnant women (PR: 1.83, 95% CI 1.08-3.10), participation in social protection programs (PR = 1.43, 1.02-2.01), and with low education levels on the part of pregnant women (PR = 2.73, 1.68-4.43). FI increased the chances of being overweight (PR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.29-1.91) and obese (PR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.15-1.87) in pregnant women, as well as excessive weight gain (PR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10-1.82) and inadequate weight gain (PR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.09-1.97) during pregnancy. Anemia was not associated with FI. Social inequities are associated with food and nutritional insecurity in pregnant women.

Key words
Food and nutritional security; Pregnant women; Social determinants of health

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