The 1988 Constitution increased the Public Prosecutor’s Office attributions and facilitated social participation through management councils in the construction of public policies and in the implementation of social control. In this context, it is necessary to reflect critically on the Public Prosecutor’s Office work and its interaction with Health Councils to strengthen social control in the National Unified Health System. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify the national panorama of the relationship between the Public Prosecutor’s Office and Health Councils with a view to providing answers on this institution’s contributions toward effective social control in the National Unified Health System (SUS). The following databases were consulted: PubMed, BVS, CAPES Journals and BDTD. We included 17 studies, papers and dissertations, which were selected in the period 2006-2015. Results summarize that the Public Prosecutor’s Office should focus its activities on health, especially on the operative and extrajudicial matrix, in order to boost popular participation and overcome Health Councils’ shortcomings. An essential dialogue between the Public Prosecutor’s Office and Health Councils is in place and mutually benefits the strengthening and effectiveness of social control in the SUS.
Public prosecutor’s office; Social control; Health councils