Dissatisfaction with body image among adolescent students: association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status

Insatisfação com a imagem corporal entre adolescentes estudantes: associação com fatores sociodemográficos e estado nutricional

Andreia Pelegrini Raildo da Silva Coqueiro Carmem Cristina Beck Karoliny Debiasi Ghedin Adair da Silva Lopes Edio Luiz Petroski About the authors

Abstracts

This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660) were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, with increased waist circumference and with excess weight. On the other hand, the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with the female gender and waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years. Dissatisfaction with body image is highly prevalent among adolescents, though it is manifested differently in boys and girls. Increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of dissatisfaction due to excess weight, and male gender and advanced age were predictors of dissatisfaction due to thinness.

Adolescent; Self-image; Body image; Nutritional status; Perception; Risk factors


O objetivo deste artigo é verificar a prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal e sua associação com fatores sociodemográficos e estado nutricional em adolescentes. Foram coletadas informações sociodemográficas, antropométricas e percepção da imagem corporal (n = 660). A prevalência de insatisfação corporal foi 71,4. As moças desejavam reduzir o tamanho da silhueta corporal, enquanto os rapazes desejavam aumentar. O desejo de reduzir a silhueta foi positivamente associado ao sexo feminino, à circunferência da cintura aumentada e ao excesso de peso. Por outro lado, o desejo de aumentar foi negativamente associado ao sexo feminino e circunferência da cintura aumentada, e positivamente associada às idades de 16, 17 e 18 + 19 anos. A insatisfação corporal é prevalente entre os adolescentes e é diferente entre sexos. Gordura abdominal aumentada, excesso de peso e sexo feminino foram preditores de insatisfação pelo excesso de peso; sexo masculino e idade mais avançada foram preditores de insatisfação pela magreza.

Adolescente; Autoimagem; Imagem corporal; Estado nutricional; Percepção; Fatores de Risco


Introduction

Body image is characterized by one's mental perception of measures, contours and shapes of the body and parts of it and feelings associated with these characteristics11. Gardner RM. Methodological issues in assessment of the perceptual component of body image disturbance. Br J Psychol 1996; 87(pt 2):327-337.. In addition, body image consists of a subjective component which refers to the individual's satisfaction with the size or specific parts of the body22. Kakeshita IS, Almeida SS. Relação entre índice de massa corporal e a percepção da auto-imagem em universitários. Rev Saude Publica 2006; 40(3):497-504..

Adolescence is a period characterized by important biological, physical, psychological and social changes33. Campagna VN, Souza ASL. Corpo e imagem corporal no início da adolescência feminina. Bol Psic 2006; 56(124):9-35., and body image disturbance, especially due to dissatisfaction with one's own body, is frequently observed during this phase of life44. Ogden J, Thomas D. The role of familial values in understanding the impact of social class on weight concern. Int J Eat Disord 1999; 25(3):273-279.. Body image dissatisfaction is influenced by numerous factors (family, friends, media, society), but the main pressure seems to come from the media and society by imposing a "thin-ideal" for female beauty and an athletic image for males55. Van Den Berg PV, Paxton SJ, Keery H, Wall M, Guo J, Neumark-Sztainer D. Body dissatisfaction and body comparison with media images in males and females. Body Image 2007; 4(3):257-268.. This pressure is exerted on the whole population but adolescents are more vulnerable to it.

Studies regarding the perception of body image in adolescents have elicited marked interest over the last few years both at the national66. Pelegrini A, Silva DAS, Silva AF, Petroski EL. Insatisfação corporal associada a indicadores antropométricos em adolescentes de uma cidade com índice de desenvolvimento humano médio a baixo. Rev Bras Ciênc Esporte 2011; 33(3):687-698.,77. Petroski EL, Pelegrini A, Glaner MF. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes. Cien Saude Colet 2012; 17(4):1071-1077. and international level88. Knauss C, Paxton SJ, Alsaker FD. Relationships amongst body dissatisfaction, internalization of the media body ideal and perceived pressure from media in adolescent girls and boys. Body Image 2007; 4(4):353-360.. This interest is mainly due to the close relationship of body image dissatisfaction with psychological disorders and health-related risk behaviors99. McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA. Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan: a review of past literature. J Psychosom Res 2004; 56(6):675-685.. In a recent study body image dissatisfaction was found to be the most important risk factor for manifestations of symptoms of anorexia nervosa in adolescents from a capital in the southern region of Brazil1010. Alves E, Vasconcelos FAG, Calvo MCM, Neves J. Prevalência de sintomas de anorexia nervosa e insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes do sexo feminino do Município de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica 2008; 24(3):503-512.. Evidence indicates that body image dissatisfaction is highly prevalent among adolescents66. Pelegrini A, Silva DAS, Silva AF, Petroski EL. Insatisfação corporal associada a indicadores antropométricos em adolescentes de uma cidade com índice de desenvolvimento humano médio a baixo. Rev Bras Ciênc Esporte 2011; 33(3):687-698.,77. Petroski EL, Pelegrini A, Glaner MF. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes. Cien Saude Colet 2012; 17(4):1071-1077..

Numerous researches have been conducted on body image in adolescents66. Pelegrini A, Silva DAS, Silva AF, Petroski EL. Insatisfação corporal associada a indicadores antropométricos em adolescentes de uma cidade com índice de desenvolvimento humano médio a baixo. Rev Bras Ciênc Esporte 2011; 33(3):687-698.

7. Petroski EL, Pelegrini A, Glaner MF. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes. Cien Saude Colet 2012; 17(4):1071-1077.

8. Knauss C, Paxton SJ, Alsaker FD. Relationships amongst body dissatisfaction, internalization of the media body ideal and perceived pressure from media in adolescent girls and boys. Body Image 2007; 4(4):353-360.

9. McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA. Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan: a review of past literature. J Psychosom Res 2004; 56(6):675-685.
-1010. Alves E, Vasconcelos FAG, Calvo MCM, Neves J. Prevalência de sintomas de anorexia nervosa e insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes do sexo feminino do Município de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica 2008; 24(3):503-512., however, there are no studies that verify the association of two different levels of body image dissatisfaction (desire to reduce and to increase body size) with sociodemographic factors (age, gender and economic status) and anthropometric indicators (body mass index and waist circumference). In this sense, this study may contribute to the advancement of knowledge in healthcare, especially for the health care of adolescents. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and its association with sociodemographic factors and nutritional status in adolescents aged 14 to 19 years.

Methods

Data from the project "Risk factors for atherosclerosis in adolescents", coordinated by members of the Sports Center of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, in partnership with the Town Hall of Três de Maio, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were used. A school-based cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in the urban zone of the town of Três de Maio, with data being collected between June and July 2006. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee on Human Research of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (protocol 41/2006), and the adolescents or responsible persons (in the case of minors) signed a free informed consent form.

Três de Maio is located in the northwestern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and belongs to the microregion of Santa Rosa. The estimated population is 24,136 inhabitants and the territorial area comprises 424.2 km2. The human development index is 0.831111. Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento (PNUD). Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil. [base de dados na Internet]. 2000 [acessado em 2008 mai 6]. Disponível em: http://www.pnud.org.br
Disponível em: http://www.pnud.org.br...
, corresponding to high development according to the United Nations Development Programme1212. Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento (PNUD). Combater as alterações climáticas: solidariedade humana num mundo dividido. Relatório de Desenvolvimento Humano 2007/2008. [Internet]. [acessado em 2008 maio 5]. Disponível em: http://www.pnud.org.br/arquivos/rdh/rdh20072008/hdr_20072008_pt_complete.pdf
Disponível em: http://www.pnud.org.br/ar...
.

The sample size was calculated considering a population of 1642 adolescents of both genders ranging in age from 14 to 19 years, who were regularly enrolled in public and private middle schools (last year, eighth grade), high schools and technical courses. A probabilistic sample stratified according to gender and proxy of economic status was established using the following parameters: 95% confidence interval (95% CI), tolerable sample error of 3.5%, prevalence of sedentarism of 40%, and design effect of 1.21313. Giuliano ICB. Lípides séricos em crianças e adolescentes da rede escolar de Florianópolis [dissertação]. Florianópolis: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; 2003.. The minimum sample size calculated was 624 adolescents.

Sampling was performed in two steps: i) stratification according to gender and a proxy of socioeconomic status; ii) drawing lots. In the latter case, participants were systematically selected from two lists of each school (one for each gender) according to the age group of the study. To guarantee the randomness of the sample the students were divided according to alphabetical order. The selection interval was established by dividing the total number of students on the list by the number of adolescents that should represent the school in the sample. This selection criterion permitted recomposition of the sample since in the case of absence from class on two consecutive days, lack of participation in the two sampling phases, refusal, transfer or school evasion another student was selected from the list according to the pre-established systematic sampling strategy. The final sample consisted of 660 adolescents (317 boys and 343 girls), 5.5% more than the calculated expected minimum sample size, in view of possible predicted blanks in the responses that would impair analysis of the variables studied.

Demographic data including age, gender and economic status were collected. The socioeconomic status of the family was classified using the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion (divided into five levels from A to E, in decreasing order)1414. Associação Brasileira de Estudos Populacionais (ABEP). Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. [Internet]. [acessado 2008 dez 2]. Disponível em: http://www.abep.org/codigosguias/ABEP_CCEB.pdf
Disponível em: http://www.abep.org/codig...
. The adolescents responded to this question at home together with the parents or responsible persons.

Data regarding body image perception were obtained using the figure rating scale proposed by Stunkard et al.1515. Stunkard AJ, Sorenson T, Schlusinger F. Use of the Danish adoption register for the study of obesity and thinness. In: Kety SS, Rowland LP, Sidman RL, Matthysse SW, editors. The genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorders. New York: Raven; 1983. p. 115-120. and validated for the Brazilian population1616. Scagliusi FB, Alvarenga M, Polacow VO, Cordás TA, de Oliveira Queiroz GK, Coelho D, Philippi ST, Lancha Júnior AH. Concurrent and discriminant validity of the Stunkard's figure rating scale adapted into Portuguese. Appetite 2006; 47(1):77-82. . The set of silhouettes was shown to the subjects and the following questions were then asked: Which silhouette (current) best represents your current physical appearance? Which silhouette (ideal) would you like to have? Body image dissatisfaction was analyzed based on the discordance between the current and ideal silhouette and the subjects were classified as satisfied and dissatisfied. Next, subjects with body dissatisfaction were dichotomized into those who wished to increase their body size (dissatisfaction due to thinness) and those who wished to reduce their body size (dissatisfaction due to excess weight).

After the questionnaire was filled out, body weight and height were measured1717. Alvarez BR, Pavan AL. Alturas e Comprimentos. In: Petroski EL, editor. Antropometria: técnicas e padronizações. 2a ed. Porto Alegre: Ed. Fontoura; 2003. p. 31-45.. Nutritional status was evaluated based on body mass index (BMI = weight/height22. Kakeshita IS, Almeida SS. Relação entre índice de massa corporal e a percepção da auto-imagem em universitários. Rev Saude Publica 2006; 40(3):497-504.). The cut-off values for gender and age suggested by the International Obesity Task Force were used for the classification of BMI1818. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000; 320(7244):1240-1243.. Waist circumference was measured using an anthropometric fiber glass tape (Mabbis(r)) midway between the lowest rib and iliac crest1919. Katzmarzyk PT, Srinivasan SR, Chen W, Malina RM, Bouchard C, Berenson GS. Body mass index, waist circumference, and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a biracial sample of children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2004; 114(2):198-205., and was classified as normal or increased according to the cut-off values recommended by Katzmarzyk2020. Katzmarzyk PT. Waist circumference percentiles for Canadian youth 11-18 y of age. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004; 58(7):1011-1015..

Statistical analysis included the calculation of means, standard deviations and distribution of frequencies. The Student t-test for independent samples was used to evaluate differences in current and ideal silhouettes between genders. Nominal and ordinal variables were dichotomized or grouped into strata: gender (male, female), age group (14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years), socioeconomic status (A + B, C, D + E), waist circumference (normal and increased), and nutritional status [eutrophic and excess weight (overweight + obesity)]. A frequency table (absolute and relative) was constructed to describe the distribution of categorical variables in the sample as a whole and according to gender. Frequencies were compared using the chi-square test.

The overall prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and the prevalence according to gender were calculated. Differences in prevalence were determined using a test for the comparison of two proportions. Since the dependent variable (perception of body image) consisted of three categories (satisfied, desire to reduce and desire to increase), multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between body image dissatisfaction and the independent variables (gender, age group, socioeconomic status, nutritional status and waist circumference). The category "satisfied" was used as a reference. In all tests, the level of significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05 or 95% IC). Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS(r) version 13.0 and MedCalc version 9.3.3.0 programs.

Results

The mean score for ideal figure rating was higher among adolescent boys (3.73 ± 0.93) than girls (2.68 ± 0.68, p < 0.001). In contrast, no significant difference between genders was observed in the perception of current body silhouette (boys: 3.66 ± 1.38; girls: 3.54 ± 1.31, p = 0.278).

Table 1 shows the distribution of the variables analyzed according to gender. Significant differences between genders were only observed for the proportions of the different categories of age and waist circumference.

Table 1
Distribution of the variables analyzed according to gender (Três de Maio, RS, Brazil, 2006).

The distribution of the adolescents according to body image dissatisfaction and gender is shown in Figure 1. The percentage of dissatisfied subjects was higher among adolescent girls (p < 0.05) (Figure 1A). When the group of dissatisfied subjects was divided according to the desire to change body size (Figure 1B), the desire to reduce body size predominated among girls, whereas the wish to increase it was higher among boys, with significant differences between genders.

Figure 1
Distribution of adolescents according to body image perception and gender (Três de Maio, RS, Brazil, 2006). * p < 0.05 for comparison between genders.

Table 2 shows the results of multiple regression analysis for the association between body image dissatisfaction (desire to increase and desire to reduce body size) and the independent variables (gender, age, socioeconomic status, waist circumference and nutritional status). The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, increased waist circumference and excess weight. The desire to increase body size was negatively associated with female gender and increased waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years.

Table 2
Multiple regression analysis of the association between body image dissatisfaction (desire to reduce or to increase body size) and the independent variables (reference category: satisfied with body image) (Três de Maio, RS, Brazil, 2006).

Discussion

The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was high among adolescents from Três de Maio, Rio Grande do Sul (71.4%), demonstrating that the frequency of body dissatisfaction is high even among adolescents from small towns. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents observed in the present study was higher than that reported by Pelegrini et al.66. Pelegrini A, Silva DAS, Silva AF, Petroski EL. Insatisfação corporal associada a indicadores antropométricos em adolescentes de uma cidade com índice de desenvolvimento humano médio a baixo. Rev Bras Ciênc Esporte 2011; 33(3):687-698. (56.7%) and Petroski et al.77. Petroski EL, Pelegrini A, Glaner MF. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes. Cien Saude Colet 2012; 17(4):1071-1077. (60.4%). These rates suggest that body dissatisfaction should be regarded an important public-health problem and should be included in the list of adolescent health issues, since this behavior can cause eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia), low self-esteem, and health-related risk attitudes and behaviors such as acceptance of poorly planned diets, exercise dependence and consumption of weight-loss drugs2121. Ricciardelli LA, McCabe M. Children's body image concerns and eating disturbance: a review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev 2001; 21(3):325-344.,2222. Hrabosky JI, Grilo CM. Body image and eating disordered behavior in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women. Eat Behav 2007; 8(1):106-114.. In addition, these conditions may have important negative repercussions on adult life and result in unmeasurable expenses for health services.

The present findings demonstrated a higher prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent girls, in agreement with Petroski et al.77. Petroski EL, Pelegrini A, Glaner MF. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes. Cien Saude Colet 2012; 17(4):1071-1077.. According to Williams et al.2323. Williams LK, Ricciardelli LA, McCabe MP, Waqa GG, Bavadra K. Body image attitudes and concerns among indigenous Fijian and European Australian adolescent girls. Body Image 2006; 3(3):275-287., females are generally more concerned about their body image, presenting greater dissatisfaction and weight gain concerns and preferring thin beauty ideals. Similarly, Gualdi-Russo et al.2424. Gualdi-Russo E, Albertini A, Argnani L, Celenza F, Nicolucci M, Toselli S. Weight status and body image perception in Italian children. J Hum Nutr Diet 2008; 21(1):39-45. and Knauss et al.88. Knauss C, Paxton SJ, Alsaker FD. Relationships amongst body dissatisfaction, internalization of the media body ideal and perceived pressure from media in adolescent girls and boys. Body Image 2007; 4(4):353-360. found a greater body image dissatisfaction in young and adolescent girls.

Adolescent girls generally desired to reduce their body silhouette, whereas the desire to increase it predominated among boys. Similar results have been reported in the national77. Petroski EL, Pelegrini A, Glaner MF. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes. Cien Saude Colet 2012; 17(4):1071-1077. and international2121. Ricciardelli LA, McCabe M. Children's body image concerns and eating disturbance: a review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev 2001; 21(3):325-344.,2525. Smolak L, Stein JA. The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social comparison in middle school boys. Body Image 2006; 3(2):121-129. literature, suggesting that in females body image dissatisfaction is more related to the desire to be thin, whereas in males body dissatisfaction is associated with the desire to gain muscle mass. One possible explanation for the differences in the presentation of body image dissatisfaction between genders might be a greater sociocultural emphasis on physical attractiveness of adolescents in western societies, since internalization of a thin ideal (among girls) or athletic body (among boys) has been identified as a key component in the development of body dissatisfaction2525. Smolak L, Stein JA. The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social comparison in middle school boys. Body Image 2006; 3(2):121-129.. However, this internalization, which is mainly influenced by the media, is not always reachable2626. Wiseman DV, Gray JJ, Mosimann JE, Ahrens AH. Cultural expectations of thinness in women: An update. Int J Eat Disord 1992; 11(1):86-89., a fact resulting in dissatisfaction and low self-esteem.

In the present study, increased waist circumference and inadequate nutritional status (overweight or obesity) were the strongest predictors of body dissatisfaction due to excess weight (desire to reduce body size). Thus, an elevated BMI and body fat distribution seem to be the main determinants of body dissatisfaction in adolescents. Other studies have shown a greater desire to reduce body size among adolescent girls with excess weight77. Petroski EL, Pelegrini A, Glaner MF. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes. Cien Saude Colet 2012; 17(4):1071-1077.. In general, the literature has shown that nutritional status, evaluated based on BMI, is not a consistent predictor of body dissatisfaction2727. Coqueiro RS, Petroski EL, Pelegrini A, Barbosa AR. Insatisfação com a imagem corporal: avaliação comparativa da associação com estado nutricional em universitários. Rev Psiquiatr Rio Gd Sul 2008; 30(1):31-38.. Regarding body fat distribution (waist circumference), we found no studies investigating its association with body dissatisfaction.

On the other hand, body dissatisfaction due to the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with increased waist circumference but not with excess weight. In addition, greater dissatisfaction due to thinness was observed among older adolescents, a finding suggesting that excessive concern with self-image tends to aggravate with age. However, the supposed risk of body dissatisfaction in older adolescents without excess abdominal fat is believed to be related to the fact that thin adolescents, especially boys, desire a more athletic and muscular body, but not a fatter one2121. Ricciardelli LA, McCabe M. Children's body image concerns and eating disturbance: a review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev 2001; 21(3):325-344.. This fact might be related to both the need for self-affirmation among peers and the imposition of this beauty pattern by the media and society55. Van Den Berg PV, Paxton SJ, Keery H, Wall M, Guo J, Neumark-Sztainer D. Body dissatisfaction and body comparison with media images in males and females. Body Image 2007; 4(3):257-268..

The fact that body image dissatisfaction was not associated with socioeconomic status indicates that the risks of this outcome were the same for adolescents of high, middle and low social classes irrespective of gender, age, body fat distribution and nutritional status, demonstrating that body image dissatisfaction is a problem affecting adolescents of all social classes. Some authors support the view that the media, especially television, has been the major disseminator of these ideals2828. Becker AE, Burwell RA, Gilman SE, Herzog DB, Hamburg P. Eating behaviors and attitudes following prolonged exposure to television among ethnic Fijian adolescent girls. Brit J Psychiatry 2002; 180:509-514..

The limitations of the present study are related to its cross-sectional cohort design, which does not permit the identification of a causal relationship between the variables analyzed and the use of an instrument (figure rating scale) for the determination of body image perception. Although this scale is easily and rapidly applied and has been widely used over the last years66. Pelegrini A, Silva DAS, Silva AF, Petroski EL. Insatisfação corporal associada a indicadores antropométricos em adolescentes de uma cidade com índice de desenvolvimento humano médio a baixo. Rev Bras Ciênc Esporte 2011; 33(3):687-698.,2929. Branco LM, Hilário MOE, Cintra IP. Percepção e satisfação corporal em adolescentes e a relação com seu estado nutricional. Rev Psiq Clín 2006; 33(6):292-296., the silhouette drawings are directly related to two-dimensional linear shapes which may lead to failures in total body presentation, fat mass distribution and other aspects of body composition that are important for the formation of a body image3030. O'Brien K, Venn BJ, Perry T, Green TJ, Aitken W, Bradshaw A, Thomson R. Reasons for wanting to lose weight: different strokes for different folks. Eat Beh 2007; 8(1):132-135.. The advantages of the present study include the fact that the sample is representative of students from public and private schools in Três de Maio, Rio Grande do Sul. In addition, this is the first Brazilian study associating two different levels of body dissatisfaction (desire to increase and desire to reduce body size) with sociodemographic factors, nutritional status and body fat distribution.

Conclusions

The present results led us to conclude that: i) the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is high among adolescents from the town of Três de Maio, especially among girls; ii) body dissatisfaction manifests differently in boys and girls; iii) increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of body dissatisfaction due to excess weight (desire to reduce body size) and male gender and advanced age were predictors of body dissatisfaction due to thinness (desire to increase body size). In view of these conclusions, it is of fundamental importance that the school alerts adolescents to the risks of aggressive attitudes and behaviors aimed at weight loss or gain in muscle mass. Multidisciplinary interventions at school promoting healthy eating habits, physical activity and changes in body image concepts should be encouraged.

Collaborations

A Pelegrini, RS Coqueiro, CC Beck, KD Ghedin, AS Lopes and EL Petroski participated equally in all stages of preparation of the article.

References

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    Gardner RM. Methodological issues in assessment of the perceptual component of body image disturbance. Br J Psychol 1996; 87(pt 2):327-337.
  • 2
    Kakeshita IS, Almeida SS. Relação entre índice de massa corporal e a percepção da auto-imagem em universitários. Rev Saude Publica 2006; 40(3):497-504.
  • 3
    Campagna VN, Souza ASL. Corpo e imagem corporal no início da adolescência feminina. Bol Psic 2006; 56(124):9-35.
  • 4
    Ogden J, Thomas D. The role of familial values in understanding the impact of social class on weight concern. Int J Eat Disord 1999; 25(3):273-279.
  • 5
    Van Den Berg PV, Paxton SJ, Keery H, Wall M, Guo J, Neumark-Sztainer D. Body dissatisfaction and body comparison with media images in males and females. Body Image 2007; 4(3):257-268.
  • 6
    Pelegrini A, Silva DAS, Silva AF, Petroski EL. Insatisfação corporal associada a indicadores antropométricos em adolescentes de uma cidade com índice de desenvolvimento humano médio a baixo. Rev Bras Ciênc Esporte 2011; 33(3):687-698.
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    Petroski EL, Pelegrini A, Glaner MF. Motivos e prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes. Cien Saude Colet 2012; 17(4):1071-1077.
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    Knauss C, Paxton SJ, Alsaker FD. Relationships amongst body dissatisfaction, internalization of the media body ideal and perceived pressure from media in adolescent girls and boys. Body Image 2007; 4(4):353-360.
  • 9
    McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA. Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan: a review of past literature. J Psychosom Res 2004; 56(6):675-685.
  • 10
    Alves E, Vasconcelos FAG, Calvo MCM, Neves J. Prevalência de sintomas de anorexia nervosa e insatisfação com a imagem corporal em adolescentes do sexo feminino do Município de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Cad Saude Publica 2008; 24(3):503-512.
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    Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento (PNUD). Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil. [base de dados na Internet]. 2000 [acessado em 2008 mai 6]. Disponível em: http://www.pnud.org.br
    » Disponível em: http://www.pnud.org.br
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    Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento (PNUD). Combater as alterações climáticas: solidariedade humana num mundo dividido. Relatório de Desenvolvimento Humano 2007/2008. [Internet]. [acessado em 2008 maio 5]. Disponível em: http://www.pnud.org.br/arquivos/rdh/rdh20072008/hdr_20072008_pt_complete.pdf
    » Disponível em: http://www.pnud.org.br/arquivos/rdh/rdh20072008/hdr_20072008_pt_complete.pdf
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    Associação Brasileira de Estudos Populacionais (ABEP). Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. [Internet]. [acessado 2008 dez 2]. Disponível em: http://www.abep.org/codigosguias/ABEP_CCEB.pdf
    » Disponível em: http://www.abep.org/codigosguias/ABEP_CCEB.pdf
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    Scagliusi FB, Alvarenga M, Polacow VO, Cordás TA, de Oliveira Queiroz GK, Coelho D, Philippi ST, Lancha Júnior AH. Concurrent and discriminant validity of the Stunkard's figure rating scale adapted into Portuguese. Appetite 2006; 47(1):77-82.
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    Alvarez BR, Pavan AL. Alturas e Comprimentos. In: Petroski EL, editor. Antropometria: técnicas e padronizações. 2a ed. Porto Alegre: Ed. Fontoura; 2003. p. 31-45.
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Apr 2014

History

  • Received
    12 June 2012
  • Accepted
    05 Nov 2012
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