Brazil has reported an increase in the incidence of both gestational and congenital syphilis, posing a serious public health problem in the country. The study aimed to analyze the relationship between the supply of syphilis diagnosis and treatment in primary care and the incidence rates of gestational and congenital syphilis. An ecological study analyzed these incidence rates and the coverage of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in primary care. The study sample consisted of municipalities (counties) with population over 20,000, with coverage by primary care over 50%, and where the majority of the teams were assessed in the second cycle of the National Program for Improvement of Access and Quality of Basic Care. Analysis of the effectiveness of detection and treatment measures was based on the development of the Index of Variation in Vertical Syphilis Transmission. The administration of penicillin and application of the rapid test in these municipalities showed median rates of 41.9% and 67.14%, respectively, with regional differences. Median incidence of gestational syphilis was 6.24 (IQR: 2.63-10.99) in municipalities with a higher supply of the rapid test and 3.82 (IQR: 0.00-8.21) in those with a lower supply, indicating an increase in detection capacity. Municipalities with a reduction in vertical transmission showed higher median rates of teams with supply of rapid testing and (83.33%; IQR: 50.00-100.00) and administration of penicillin (50.00%; IQR: 11.10-87.50), demonstrating a relationship between these measures and the reduction in congenital syphilis. The findings indicate the need to expand these services and to reinforce the importance of reducing vertical transmission.
Congenital Syphilis; Maternal and Child Health; Primary Health Care; Incidence; Health Evaluation