Maternal morbidity, fetal mortality, and neonatal mortality are important indicators of maternal and child health. The study aimed to describe maternal and perinatal outcomes (low birth weight, prematurity, fetal and neonatal deaths, postpartum hospitalizations, and readmission of newborns) in a cohort of pregnant women whose deliveries were covered by the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the second semester of 2012. We obtained a retrospective cohort of 55,404 pregnant women with deterministic and probabilistic linkage of data from the Hospital Information System of the SUS (SIH/SUS), Information System on Live Births (SINASC), Mortality Information System (SIM), and National Registry of Health Establishments (CNES) databases. Hospitalizations due to obstetric complications occurred in 4.3% of the women. The most frequent diagnoses were infection, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, and diabetes. Hospitalizations prior to childbirth were more common in pregnant women 35 years or older and those with a history of multiple pregnancies and low schooling. Postpartum hospitalizations were three times greater and maternal mortality was nine times greater in pregnant women with a history of previous hospitalization due to obstetric complications. Adverse perinatal outcomes (fetal and neonatal mortality and low birth weight) were twice as frequent in infants of women with previous hospitalization when compared to those without. A similar pattern was seen in hospitalization of newborns soon after birth and in hospital readmission. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes were more frequent in pregnant women with a history of previous hospitalization.
Hospitalization; Pregnancy Complications; Perinatal Mortality; Maternal Mortality