The association between clustering of risk factors and self-reported cardiovascular disease among women was investigated in a cross-sectional study using a multistage population-based sample. Participants were interviewed at home about diabetes mellitus, physical activity, and diet pattern. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 140/90mmHg or use of anti-hypertensive medication. Cardiovascular disease included self-reported myocardial infarction, heart failure, coronary artery bypass surgery, and stroke. A sample of 1,007 women from Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, mostly white (73%), 44.8 ± 0.8 years old, and with 9.3 ± 0.3 years of schooling was investigated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, low fruit and vegetable intake, and lack of vigorous or moderate physical activity were clustered into a combination of risk factors, which were independently associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease. The main cluster included hypertension and diabetes, accounting for an independent risk ratio of 8.5 (95%CI: 3.0-24.5). Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is strongly associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease among women.
Nutritional Epidemiology; Cardiovascular Diseases; Women's Health