Effect of replacing beef fat with safflower oil on physicochemical, nutritional and oxidative stability characteristics of wieners

Emel KAYNAKCI Birol KILIÇ About the authors

Abstract

Five treatments of wieners were prepared with replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of added beef back fat with safflower oil (SO). Changes in pH, thiobarbuturic acid reactive substances (TBARS) and color (L*, a*, b*) values of wieners were determined during manufacturing day and refrigerated storage (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 d). Fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, cooking loss, proximate composition and textural properties of wieners were also determined on manufacturing day. Results revealed that SO incorporation in wiener formulation resulted in a higher unsaturated fatty acid contents (P < 0.05). Wieners manufactured with a 50% or higher fat replacement with SO resulted in lower cholesterol content compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). Increasing the amount of SO used for beef back fat replacement in wieners created higher TBARS formation during the storage period (P < 0.05). Incorporation of SO increased CIE L* and b* values, whereas it caused a decrease in CIE a* values of wieners (P < 0.05). On the other hand, replacing beef back fat with SO did not affect sensory attributes of wieners. Study results indicated that replacement rate of beef back fat with SO up to 50% can be good strategy for the meat industry to produce desirable and healthy weiners.

Keywords:
plant oil; meat products; cholesterol; fatty acids

1 Introduction

Wieners are emulsified meat products with 20-30% animal fat content and have high consumption in many countries (Ospina-E et al., 2015Ospina-E, J. C., Rojano, B., Ochoa, O., Pérez-Álvarez, J. A., & Fernández-López, J. (2015). Development of frankfurter-type sausages with healthy lipid formulation and their nutritional, sensory and stability properties. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117(1), 122-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157...
). Wieners are usually manufactured with animal based fats such as beef and pork back fats (Henck et al., 2019Henck, J. M., Bis-Souza, C. V., Pollonio, M. A., Lorenzo, J. M., & Barretto, A. C. (2019). Alpha-cyclodextrin as a new functional ingredient in low-fat chicken frankfurter. British Poultry Science, 60(6), 716-723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2019.1664726. PMid:31532242.
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; Novakovic et al., 2019Novakovic, S., Djekic, I., Klaus, A., Vunduk, J., Djordjevic, V., Tomović, V., Šojic, B., Kocic-Tanackov, S., Lorenzo, J. M., Barba, F. J., & Tomasevic, I. (2019). The Effect of Cantharellus Cibarius Addition on Quality Characteristics of Frankfurter during Refrigerated Storage. Foods, 8(12), 635. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8120635. PMid:31816984.
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). Animal fat plays a key role in many quality traits of meat products, including nutritional value and sensory properties, as well as the technological aspects (Gómez & Lorenzo, 2013Gómez, M., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2013). Effect of fat level on physicochemical, volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of dry-ripened “chorizo” from Celta pig breed. Meat Science, 95(3), 658-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.06.005. PMid:23811106.
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). Furthermore, it also has an important role in stabilizing emulsion, reducing cooking loss and improving juiciness and textural properties (Lorenzo et al., 2014Lorenzo, J. M., Pateiro, M., Fontán, M. C. G., & Carballo, J. (2014). Effect of fat content on physical, microbial, lipid and protein changes during chill storage of foal liver pâté. Food Chemistry, 155, 57-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.038. PMid:24594154.
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). Hovewer, fat present in meat and meat products are mostly composed of saturated fatty acids (SFA) which have been associated with elevated blood cholesterol level and an increased risk of cancers, hypertension and obesity (Câmara & Pollonio 2015Câmara, A., & Pollonio, M. (2015). Reducing animal fat in bologna sausage using pre‐emulsified linseed oil: technological and sensory properties. Journal of Food Quality, 3(3), 201-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfq.12136.
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). The high level of blood LDL-cholesterol has been reported to be one of the major causes for cardiovascular diseases (Reddy et al., 2015Reddy, K. J., Jayathilakan, K., & Pandey, M. C. (2015). Olive oil as functional component in meat and meat products: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(11), 6870-6878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1852-x.
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). In response, consumers are demanding from their food to be not only safe and nutritious, but also healthy and natural (Tahmasebi et al., 2016Tahmasebi, M., Labbafi, M., Emam-Djomeh, Z., & Yarmand, M. S. (2016). Manufacturing the novel sausages with reduced quantity of meat and fat: the product development, formulation optimization, emulsion stability and textural characterization. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 68, 76-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.12.011.
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). These demands force manufacturers and researchers to develop healthier meat products (Lorenzo et al., 2016Lorenzo, J. M., Munekata, P. E. S., Pateiro, M., Campagnol, P. C. B., & Domínguez, R. (2016). Healthy Spanish salchichón enriched with encapsulated n− 3 long chain fatty acids in konjac glucomannan matrix. Food Research International, 89(Pt 1), 289-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2016.08.012. PMid:28460917.
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, 2019Heck, R. T., Saldaña, E., Lorenzo, J. M., Correa, L. P., Fagundes, M. B., Cichoski, A. J., de Menezes, C. R., Wagner, R., & Campagnol, P. C. B. (2019). Hydrogelled emulsion from chia and linseed oils: a promising strategy to produce low-fat burgers with a healthier lipid profile. Meat Science, 156, 174-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2019.05.034. PMid:31200329.
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).

Most authorities such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend intake of oils because of their polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which cannot be synthesized by human body (Reddy et al., 2015Reddy, K. J., Jayathilakan, K., & Pandey, M. C. (2015). Olive oil as functional component in meat and meat products: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(11), 6870-6878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1852-x.
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). Therefore, several vegetable oils have been utilized as an animal fat replacer in the production of various meat products for enrichment of the products with unsaturated fatty acids, improvement of unsaturated and saturated fatty acid ratio (Barros et al., 2020Barros, J. C., Munekata, P. E. S., Carvalho, F. A. L., Pateiro, M., Barba, F. J., Domínguez, R., Trindadei, M. A., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2020). Use of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) oil emulsion as animal fat replacement in beef burgers. Foods, 9(1), 44. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9010044. PMid:31947797.
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; Vargas-Ramella et al., 2020Vargas-Ramella, M., Pateiro, M., Barba, F. J., Franco, D., Campagnol, P. C. B., Munekata, P. E., Tomasevic, I., Domínguez, R., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2020). Microencapsulation of healthier oils to enhance the physicochemical and nutritional properties of deer pâté. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 125, 109223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109223.
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; de Carvalho et al., 2019Carvalho, F. A. L., Lorenzo, J. M., Pateiro, M., Bermúdez, R., Purriños, L., & Trindade, M. A. (2019). Effect of guarana (Paullinia cupana) seed and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaf extracts on lamb burgers with fat replacement by chia oil emulsion during shelf life storage at 2 C. Food Research International, 125, 108554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108554. PMid:31554074.
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; Ospina-E et al., 2015Ospina-E, J. C., Rojano, B., Ochoa, O., Pérez-Álvarez, J. A., & Fernández-López, J. (2015). Development of frankfurter-type sausages with healthy lipid formulation and their nutritional, sensory and stability properties. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117(1), 122-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157...
) and reducing cholesterol content (Delgado‐Pando et al., 2010Delgado‐Pando, G., Cofrades, S., Ruiz‐Capillas, C., & Jiménez‐Colmenero, F. (2010). Healthier lipid combination as functional ingredient influencing sensory and technological properties of low‐fat frankfurters. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 112, 859-870.). Some vegetable oils such as n-3 PUFA enriched oil (López-López et al., 2009López-López, I., Cofrades, S., & Jiménez-Colmenero, F. (2009). Low-fat frankfurters enriched with n_3 PUFA and edible seaweed: Effects of olive oil and chilled storage on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics. Meat Science, 83(1), 148-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.04.014. PMid:20416775.
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), canola oil (Selani et al., 2016Selani, M. M., Shirado, G. A. N., Margiotta, G. B., Rasera, M. L., Marabesi, A. C., Piedade, S. M. S., Contreras-Castillo, C. J., & Canniatti-Brazaca, S. G. (2016). Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile. Meat Science, 115, 9-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.01.002. PMid:26775152.
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), palm oil (Tan et al., 2006Tan, S. S., Aminah, A., Zhang, X. G., & Abdul, S. B. (2006). Optimizing palm oil and palm stearin utilization for sensory and textural properties of chicken frankfurters. Meat Science, 72(3), 387-397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.07.012. PMid:22061722.
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), fish oil (Marchetti et al., 2014Marchetti, L., Andrés, S. C., & Califano, A. N. (2014). Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: Optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology. Meat Science, 96(3), 1297-1303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.11.004. PMid:24342180.
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), linseed oil (Carvalho et al., 2020Carvalho, F. A. L., Munekata, P. E., Pateiro, M., Campagnol, P. C., Domínguez, R., Trindade, M. A., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2020). Effect of replacing backfat with vegetable oils during the shelf-life of cooked lamb sausages. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 122, 109052. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109052.
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; Franco et al., 2020Franco, D., Martins, A. J., López‐Pedrouso, M., Cerqueira, M. A., Purriños, L., Pastrana, L. M., Vicente, A. A., Zapata, C., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2020). Evaluation of linseed oil oleogels to partially replace pork backfat in fermented sausages. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 100(1), 218-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10025. PMid:31512242.
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), grapeseed oil (Choi at al., 2010Choi, Y. S., Choi, J. H., Han, D. J., Kim, H. Y., Lee, M. A., Kim, H. W., Lee, J. W., Chung, H. J., & Kim, C. J. (2010). Optimization of replacing pork back fat with grape seed oil and rice bran fiber for reduced-fat meat emulsion systems. Meat Science, 84(1), 212-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.08.048. PMid:20374777.
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), sesame oil (Zhuang et al., 2016Zhuang, X., Han, M., Kang, Z., Wang, K., Bai, Y., Xu, X., & Zhou, G. (2016). Effects of the sugarcane dietary fiber and pre-emulsified sesame oil on low-fat meat batter physicochemical property, texture and microstructure. Meat Science, 113, 107-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.11.007. PMid:26641280.
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), camellia oil (Wang et al., 2018Wang, X., Xie, Y., Li, X., Liu, Y., & Yan, W. (2018). Effects of partial replacement of pork back fat by a camellia oil gel on certain quality characteristics of a cooked style Harbin sausage. Meat Science, 146, 154-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2018.08.011. PMid:30149279.
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), olive oil, sunflower oil and avocado oil (Rodríguez-Carpena et al., 2012Rodríguez-Carpena, J. G., Morcuende, D., & Estévez, M. (2012). Avocado, sunflower and olive oils as replacers of pork back-fat in burger patties: Effect on lipid composition, oxidative stability and quality traits. Meat Science, 90(1), 106-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.06.007. PMid:21703779.
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) have been studied previously to replace animal fat in various meat products.

Safflower oil is obtained from Carthamus tinctorius L.. plant seeds that have a fat content of 35-37% (La Bella et al., 2019La Bella, S., Tuttolomondo, T., Lazzeri, L., Matteo, R., Leto, C., & Licata, M. (2019). An agronomic evaluation of new safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm for seed and oil yields under Mediterranean climate conditions. Agronomy (Basel), 9(8), 468. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9080468.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/agronomy908046...
). As far as the health benefits of safflower oil are concerned, safflower oil contains about 73.7% oleic acid (La Bella et al., 2019La Bella, S., Tuttolomondo, T., Lazzeri, L., Matteo, R., Leto, C., & Licata, M. (2019). An agronomic evaluation of new safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm for seed and oil yields under Mediterranean climate conditions. Agronomy (Basel), 9(8), 468. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9080468.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/agronomy908046...
) and American Hearth Association (2016)American Hearth Association – AHA. (2016). A statement for healthcare Professionals from the nutrition Committee of Americans Hearth Association. Monosaturated fats. Chicago: AHA. reported that safflower oil is high in MUFA. The main components of safflower oil (SO) are linoleic acids (cis-9, cis-12 18:2) and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). These unsaturated fatty acids such as cis-9, trans-11 CLA are potential antioxidant, antiatherogenic, hypolipidemic and anti-hypertensive (Ebadia et al., 2014Ebadia, F., Mohsenia, M., & Alizadeh, A. M. (2014). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Safflower florets (Carthamus tinctorius L.) as food coloring agents. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(8), 539-544.). Therefore, incorporation of safflower oil in wiener formulation may improve the potential of the meat products to enhance consumer health benefits.

The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of safflower oil incorporation as a beef fat replacer on physicochemical, sensorial and shelf life characteristics of wieners.

2 Materials and methods

2.1 Materials

A 24 h post mortem fresh lean chicken breast meat (Musculus pectoralis) and beef fat were supplied from Gülköy Meat Integrated Plant (Isparta, Turkey). Before the production, the meat was ground with the grinder with 3 mm plate (Model PKM 22/32, Arı Makine, Istanbul, Turkey). pH of the meat used in our study ranged from 6.02 to 6.36. Safflower oil was obtained from Sungur Co. (Sivas, Turkey). Whey powder, sodium erithorbate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrite, liquid smoke and wiener spices mix were provided by Gülköy Meat Integrated Plant (Isparta, Turkey).

2.2 Wiener manufacturing

Wiener treatments are presented in Table 1. Wiener batter was prepared with ice, sodium nitrite, whey powder, beef fat, spices mix, and liquid smoke in a cutter (Cutter A-20, Ramon, Spain). Safflower oil was also incorporated into meat batter during this process according to formulation of each treatment. Wiener batter was stuffed into cellulose casing with 15 mm diameter by using a stuffer (Model SC-13, Ramon, Spain). Wiener batters were then subjected to cooking in smokehouse (Model FPK 100, Arı Makina, Turkey). The cooked wieners were then vacuum packaged in a polyethylene polyamide plastic bags and stored at 4oC. TBARS, color and pH analysis were performed on manufacturing day and storage period (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 d). Physicochemical analysis, cooking loss, cholesterol, fatty acid profile, texture and sensory analysis were also carried out once on processing day.

Table 1
Formulations of wiener treatments.

2.3 Cooking loss and proximate composition

Cooking loss of wieners were determined according to the method described by Kılıç et al. (2018)Kılıç, B., Şimşek, A., Claus, J. R., Karaca, E., & Bilecen, D. (2018). Improving lipid oxidation inhibition in cooked beef hamburger patties during refrigerated storage with encapsulated polyphosphate incorporation. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 92, 290-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02.037.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02....
. The moisture (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1997Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. (1997). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (16th ed., Sec. 39). Arlington: AOAC.), ash (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2000 Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. (2000). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington: AOAC.), protein (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1997Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. (1997). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (16th ed., Sec. 39). Arlington: AOAC.) and fat (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1997Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. (1997). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (16th ed., Sec. 39). Arlington: AOAC.) levels of wiener samples were determined according to the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1997Association of Official Analytical Chemists – AOAC. (1997). Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (16th ed., Sec. 39). Arlington: AOAC.) method.

2.4 Cholesterol determination

Lipids of wiener samples were extracted, and the cholesterol content was determined according to the method described by Intarasirisawat et al. (2011)Intarasirisawat, R., Benjakul, S., & Visessanguan, W. (2011). Chemical compositions of the roes from skipjack, tongol and bonito. Food Chemistry, 124(4), 1328-1334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.07.076.
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. Lipids were methylated with tetramethylammonium hydroxide and subjected to gas chromatograhpy analysis. The analysis of cholesterol was conducted using an HP-Innowax capillary column (10 m × 0.10 mm I.D., Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) connected to a Agilent 7820A gas chromatography (Agilent Technologies, USA) with a flame ionization detector. High purity helium was used as the carrier gas set at 1.0 mL/ min, and the sample (1 μL) was injected into the GC. The temperature of the injector port was set at 275 °C. Split injection mode (10:1 for each injection) was used. Oven temperature was set at 250°C and held for 15 min, and the detector temperature was set at 300 °C. The cholesterol standard (C8667-56, Sigma-Aldrich) was used for the GC analysis. The content of cholesterol for each sample was calculated from peak area and expressed as mg/100 g.

2.5 Measurement of fatty acid profile

Lipids were extracted from wieners according to Folch et al. (1957)Folch, J., Lees, M., & Sloane-Stanley, G. H. (1957). A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226(1), 497-509. PMid:13428781.. Following the extraction of lipids, analysis of fatty acid profile was performed with gas chromotography (7820A, Agilent Technologies, USA) equipped with an electron impact (EI) ionisation detector. A column, Cp WAX 52 CB 50 m*0,32 mm, 1,2 μm was used. The operating conditions were as follows: column temperature, 240 °C; injector temperature, 250°C; detector temperature, 250°C. The carrier gas used was helium, at a flow pressure of 10 psi. The column was operated at 60°C for 4 min, then the temperature was increased gradualy to 240 °C at a rate of 4 °C/min. Fatty acids were identified by comparison of their retention time with appropriate standards (Supelco 18919-1AMP, Sigma-Aldrich). The results were expressed in weight percent of the total amount of fatty acids (Khoddami et al., 2009Khoddami, A., Ariffin, A. A., Bakar, J., & Ghazali, H. M. (2009). Fatty Acid Profie of Oil Extracted from Fish Waste (Head, Intestine and Liver) (Sardine lemuru). World Applied Sciences Journal, 7(1), 127-131.).

2.6 Texture profile analysis

Texture profile analysis was performed using a TA.XT2 Texture Analyzer (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY/Stable Micro Systems, Godalming, UK) as described by Kılıç et al. (2018)Kılıç, B., Şimşek, A., Claus, J. R., Karaca, E., & Bilecen, D. (2018). Improving lipid oxidation inhibition in cooked beef hamburger patties during refrigerated storage with encapsulated polyphosphate incorporation. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 92, 290-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02.037.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02....
. Before the analysis, wiener samples were stored at room temperature for 30 min to provide homogeneity and cut into 2-cm thick sections. The analysis was performed using a 5 mm cylindrical stainless steel plunger attached to a 50 N cell connected to the crosshead (crosshead speed of 50 mm/min) and compressed by 70%. Analysis of force-times curves led to the identification of measured textural parameters. Measurements were taken in ten replicates from different locations of samples and hardness values were calculated by the software program. Hardness was the maximum peak force during compression.

2.7 pH analysis

The pH measurements were taken with spear tip electrode (Hanna Instruments HI 9024, Italy) on homogenates of 10 g of wiener sample and 90 ml of distilled water (Chouliara et al., 2007Chouliara, E., Karatapanis, A., Savvaidis, I. N., & Kontominas, M. G. (2007). Combined effect of oregano essential oil and modified atmosphere packaging on shelf-life extension of fresh chicken breast meat, stored at 4 oC. Food Microbiology, 24(6), 607-617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2006.12.005. PMid:17418312.
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).

2.8 Color analysis

CIE Color values (L, a*, b*) of wiener batter and wiener samples were measured by a Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200, Minolta Camera Co., Japan (Luo, 2006Luo, M. R. (2006). Applying Colour Science in Colour Desing. Optics & Laser Technology, 38(4-6), 392-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2005.06.025.
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). The colorimeter was calibrated using a standard white ceramic plate. The color measurements were replicated ten times using different parts of wiener samples.

2.9 Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) analysis

TBARS were determined using the muscle extraction procedure of Lemon (1975)Lemon, D. W. (1975). An improved TBA test for rancidity (No. 51, New Series Circular). Halifax, Nova Scotia: Halifax Laboratory. with some modifications (Kilic & Richards 2003Kilic, B., & Richards, M. P. (2003). Lipid oxidation in poultry doner kebab: pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative factors. Journal of Food Science, 68(2), 886-889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb05732.x.
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). This method requires addition of EDTA and propyl gallate to the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) extraction solution to prevent the development of TBARS during the analytic procedure. The TBARS values were expressed as µmol TBARS per kg of sample. A standard curve was prepared using 1,1,3,3-tetraethoxypropane.

2.10 Sensory analysis

The degree of difference and descriptive sensory analysis were performed at the Department of Food Sciences at the Suleyman Demirel University. Sensory analysis was performed by a total of 25 panelists (13 males and 12 females), who were between 17 and 25 years old, non-smoker, and experienced in the sensory evaluation of foods. The procedures described in the IFT Guideline (Institute of Food Technologists, 1981Institute of Food Technologists – IFT. (1981). Sensory evaluation guide for the testing of food and beverage products. Sensory evaluation division. Food Technology, 35(11), 50-59.) were applied in sensory analysis. Sensorial attributes of wieners samples were evaluated for color, odor, flavor, taste, juiciness, texture and the overall acceptability. Samples were sliced to 1 cm thickness and chosen randomly from each treatment. Wieners were served hot (approximately 50 °C) after heated 40 s at microwave oven.

2.11 Statistical analysis

The entire experiment was replicated three times on separate production days. Data collected for chemical composition, physicochemical properties and sensory attributes were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 (Version 17.0. Chicago, IL, USA). The generated data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Differences among mean values were established using the Tukey multiple range test and were considered significant when P< 0.05. pH, TBARS, color (L*, a*, b*) data were also analyzed by Repeated Measures (GLM). Significance level of P ≤ 0.05 was used for all evaluations.

3 Results and discussion

3.1 Cooking loss, proximate composition and textural properties

Cooking loss values of wieners are shown in Table 2. Cooking loss values of all wiener treatments varied between 6.06-7.69%. There was no difference among treatments in terms of cooking loss (P > 0.05). Jiménez-Colmenero et al. (2010)Jiménez-Colmenero, F., Herrero, A., Pintado, T., Solas, M. T., & Ruiz-Capillas, C. (2010). Influence of emulsified olive oil stabilizing system used for pork backfat replacement in frankfurter. Food Research International, 43(8), 2068-2076. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.06.010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010...
reported that replacement of pork backfat by oil-in-water emulsion had no effect on cooking loss of frankfurters. Ospina-E et al. (2015)Ospina-E, J. C., Rojano, B., Ochoa, O., Pérez-Álvarez, J. A., & Fernández-López, J. (2015). Development of frankfurter-type sausages with healthy lipid formulation and their nutritional, sensory and stability properties. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117(1), 122-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157...
also stated that there was no difference between the cooking losses of the frankfurters produced by replacing the animal fat with the chemicaly modified vegetable oils.

Table 2
Physico-chemical composition* of wiener treatments.

Moisture, ash, protein, fat and hardness values are presented in Table 2. There were no significant differences in ash, protein and hardness values among wiener treatments. Protein levels of the wiener samples produced in this study ranged from 12.53% to 13.52%. Similar protein values were reported for chicken frankfurters (Ospina-E et al., 2015Ospina-E, J. C., Rojano, B., Ochoa, O., Pérez-Álvarez, J. A., & Fernández-López, J. (2015). Development of frankfurter-type sausages with healthy lipid formulation and their nutritional, sensory and stability properties. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117(1), 122-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157...
). Results revealed that moisture content significantly decreased when the increasing the safflower oil incorporation rate in the wiener formulation (P < 0.05). Yılmaz et al., (2002)Yılmaz, I., Şimşek, O., & Işıklı, M. (2002). Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil. Meat Science, 62(2), 253-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00255-8. PMid:22061419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)...
reported similar results for frankfurters made with the sunflower oil. According to Turkish Sausage Standards (Turkish Standards Institute, 2016Turkish Standards Institute – TSE. (2016). TS 980 sausage (pp. 11). Ankara: Turkish Standards Institute.), the moisture value of sausages should not exceed 65%. In this regard, the moisture values of all wiener treatments were in accordance with TS 980 Turkish Sausage Standards. Previous studies indicated that adding vegetable oils causes softening problem in meat products (Yıldız-Turp & Serdaroğlu, 2008Yıldız-Turp, G., & Serdaroğlu, M. (2008). Effect of replacing beef fat with hazelnut oil on quality characteristics of sucuk – a Turkish fermented sausage. Meat Science, 78(4), 447-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.07.013. PMid:22062464.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007...
). The present study results revealed that addition of safflower oil did not cause any change in hardness values of wieners.

Replacement of animal fats with vegetable oils was expected to increase the amount of total fat in the final product (Rodríguez-Carpena et al., 2012Rodríguez-Carpena, J. G., Morcuende, D., & Estévez, M. (2012). Avocado, sunflower and olive oils as replacers of pork back-fat in burger patties: Effect on lipid composition, oxidative stability and quality traits. Meat Science, 90(1), 106-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.06.007. PMid:21703779.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011...
). Our study results also indicated that increasing the ratio of safflower oil in wiener formulation to replace beef fat resulted in an increased amount of total fat level in the final product (P<0.05).

3.2 Cholesterol content and fatty acid profile

The fatty acid composition of wieners are shown in Table 3. There were significant differences among treatments for cholesterol content (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference between the control and 25SO treatment regarding cholesterol level. 2.00, 18.64, 22.92, 23.70% reduction in cholesterol content were obtained in 25SO, 50SO, 75SO and 100SO, respectively, compared to control (P < 0.05). Muguerza et al., (2002)Muguerza, E., Fista, G., Ansorena, D., Astiasaran, I., & Bloukas, J. G. (2002). Effect of fat level and partial replacement of pork backfat with olive oil on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages. Meat Science, 61(4), 397-404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00210-8. PMid:22061068.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)...
found that the cholesterol value of sausage produced by replacing 25% added animal fat with soybean oil was 5.98% lower than control. Another study showed that replacement of animal fat with vegetable oil caused cholesterol reduction in emulsion-type pork sausages (Lee et al., 2015Lee, H. J., Jung, E. H., Lee, S. H., Kim, J. H., Lee, J. J., & Choi, Y. I. (2015). Effect of replacing pork fat with vegetable oils on quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 35(1), 130-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2015.35.1.130. PMid:26761810.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2015.35....
).

Table 3
Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of wieners

The fatty acid composition has a great impact on the nutritional value, oxidative stability and sensory properties of muscle foods (Rodríguez-Carpena et al., 2012Rodríguez-Carpena, J. G., Morcuende, D., & Estévez, M. (2012). Avocado, sunflower and olive oils as replacers of pork back-fat in burger patties: Effect on lipid composition, oxidative stability and quality traits. Meat Science, 90(1), 106-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.06.007. PMid:21703779.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011...
). In the present study, the most abundant fatty acids in control wiener samples were SFA, followed by MUFA and PUFA (Table 3). As compared with control, safflower replaced wieners had higher PUFA and MUFA levels. Addition of safflower oil also reduced myrictic, palmitic and stearic acids (P < 0.05). It is well demonstrated that while stearic acis is neutral, palmitic and myristic acids produce the greatest atherogenic effect (Delgado‐Pando et al., 2010Delgado‐Pando, G., Cofrades, S., Ruiz‐Capillas, C., & Jiménez‐Colmenero, F. (2010). Healthier lipid combination as functional ingredient influencing sensory and technological properties of low‐fat frankfurters. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 112, 859-870.). In our study palmitic and myristic acid decrased from 24.9 and 3.19% to 16.84 and 0.75%, respectively when the beef fat was replaced by safflower oil. Results indicated that PUFA levels gradually increased with increasing the amount of added safflower oil (P < 0.05). PUFA contents in 25SO, 50SO, 75SO and 100SO treatments increased 30.8, 35.2, 41.8 and 44.72% respectively compare to control.

Asuming-Bediako et al. (2014)Asuming-Bediako, N., Jaspal, M. H., Hallett, K., Bayntun, J., Baker, A., & Sheard, P. R. (2014). Effects of replacing pork backfat with emulsified vegetable oil on fatty acid composition and quality of UK-style sausages. Meat Science, 96(1), 187-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.06.031. PMid:23906753.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013...
reported that replacing the pork backfat emulsion with rapeseed emulsion created an increase in MUFA and PUFA compositions from 45% to 59% and from 15% to 25% in sausage, respectively. From the nutritional point of view, PUFA/SFA ratio is one of the most important parameters and this ratio should be above 0.4 (Kasprzyk et al., 2015Kasprzyk, A., Tyra, M., & Babicz, M. (2015). Fatty acid profile of pork from a local and a commercial breed. Archiv fur Tierzucht, 58(2), 379-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/aab-58-379-2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/aab-58-379-201...
). The importance of the PUFA/SFA ratio in diets with reduced cholesterol level has been demonstrated by Marangoni et al., (2020)Marangoni, A. G., Van Duynhoven, J. P., Acevedo, N. C., Nicholson, R. A., & Patel, A. R. (2020). Advances in our understanding of the structure and functionality of edible fats and fat mimetics. Soft Matter, 16(2), 289-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C9SM01704F. PMid:31840722.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C9SM01704F...
. Research has been continuously undertaken to increase this ratio in the meat products (Paglarini et al., 2018Paglarini, C. S., Furtado, G. F., Biachi, J. P., Vidal, V. A. S., Martini, S., Forte, M. B. S., Cunha, R. L., & Pollonio, M. A. R. (2018). Functional emulsion gels with potential application in meat products. Journal of Food Engineering, 222, 29-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.10.026.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.201...
, 2019Paglarini, C. S., Furtado, G. F., Honório, A. R., Mokarzel, L., Vidal, V. A. S., Ribeiro, A. P. B., Cunha, R. L., & Pollonio, M. A. R. (2019). Functional emulsion gels as pork back fat replacers in Bologna sausage. Food Structure, 20, 100105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foostr.2019.100105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foostr.2019....
, 2020Paglarini, C. S., Vidal, V. A. S., Santos, M., Coimbra, L. O., Esmerino, E. A., Cruz, A. G., & Pollonio, M. A. R. (2020). Using dynamic sensory techniques to determine drivers of liking in sodium and fat-reduced Bologna sausage containing functional emulsion gels. Food Research International, 132, 109066. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109066. PMid:32331676.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020...
). In this regard, the results showed that wieners manufactured in this study may be a good source for consumers with hyperlipidaemia, high cholesterol and heart diseases since PUFA/SFA ratios of wieners produced with SO were higher than 0.4 (Table 3).

3.3 pH, color and TBARS

Effect of safflower incorporation on pH, TBARS, color (L*, a* and b*) values of wieners stored at 4 °C during 30 days of storage are presented in Table 4. There was difference in the pH values of wieners during the storage days (P < 0.05). Ospina-E et al. (2015)Ospina-E, J. C., Rojano, B., Ochoa, O., Pérez-Álvarez, J. A., & Fernández-López, J. (2015). Development of frankfurter-type sausages with healthy lipid formulation and their nutritional, sensory and stability properties. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117(1), 122-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157...
reported that there were no significant differences in pH values of frankfurter during storage time. In contrast, Pereira et al. (2020)Pereira, J., Brohi, S. A., Malairaj, S., Zhang, W., & Zhou, G. H. (2020). Quality of fat-reduced frankfurter formulated with unripe banana by-products and pre-emulsified sunflower oil. International Journal of Food Properties, 23(1), 420-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2020.1733014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2020....
reported that adding vegetable oil decreased the pH values in frankfurters. Sisik et al. (2012)Sisik, S., Kaban, G., Karaoglu, M. M., & Kaya, M. (2012). Effects of corn oil and broccoli on instrumental texture and color properties of bologna-type sausage. International Journal of Food Properties, 15(5), 1161-1169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2010.517339.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2010....
have also observed a reduction in pH values during the cold storage in bologna type sausages.

Table 4
pH, TBARS and color (CIE L*, a*, b*) results of wieners during storage at 4 °C.

TBARS values of wieners manufactured in this study ranged from 1.32-5.45 µmol TBARS per kg on manufacturing day. In general, lipid oxidation in all wiener samples increased during the storage (P < 0.05). Pereira et al., (2020)Pereira, J., Brohi, S. A., Malairaj, S., Zhang, W., & Zhou, G. H. (2020). Quality of fat-reduced frankfurter formulated with unripe banana by-products and pre-emulsified sunflower oil. International Journal of Food Properties, 23(1), 420-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2020.1733014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2020....
determined that there was a general increase in TBARS values during storage time in fat-reduced frankfurters. Based on the results of repeated measurements in the present study, it was found that TBARS values of 100SO and 75SO treatmens were higher than those of 25SO, 50SO and control (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences among TBARS values of control, 25SO and 50SO treatmens (P < 0.05). It was previously suggested that the extracts of safflower are potent radical scavengers and primary chain-breaking antioxidants (Ebadia et al., 2014Ebadia, F., Mohsenia, M., & Alizadeh, A. M. (2014). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Safflower florets (Carthamus tinctorius L.) as food coloring agents. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(8), 539-544.).

Substitution of safflower oil had significant effects on the color parameters of wieners (P < 0.01). The presence of safflower oil caused an increase in L* and b* values, in contrast, the presence of safflower oil reduced a* values of the wiener samples compared to control. High b* values obtained in this study was thougt to be associated with color of added safflower oil. It was also previously reported that addition of vegetable oils (without interesterification) caused a decrease in L* and a* values and an increase in b* values of meat products (Ospina-E et al., 2015Ospina-E, J. C., Rojano, B., Ochoa, O., Pérez-Álvarez, J. A., & Fernández-López, J. (2015). Development of frankfurter-type sausages with healthy lipid formulation and their nutritional, sensory and stability properties. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117(1), 122-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400157...
). Özvural & Vural (2008)Özvural, E. B., & Vural, H. (2008). Utilization of interesterified oil blends in the production of frankfurters. Meat Science, 78(3), 211-216. also found that the addition of interesterified vegetable oil and oil blends increased the L∗ and b∗ values of frankfurters. On the other hand, Vural (2003)Vural, H. (2003). Effect of replacing beef fat and tail fat with interesterified plant oil on quality characteristics of Turkish semi-dry fermented sausages. European Food Research and Technology, 217(2), 100-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-003-0727-y.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-003-072...
stated that animal fat replacement with ineresterified oils has no effect on L*color values. Sisik et al., (2012)Sisik, S., Kaban, G., Karaoglu, M. M., & Kaya, M. (2012). Effects of corn oil and broccoli on instrumental texture and color properties of bologna-type sausage. International Journal of Food Properties, 15(5), 1161-1169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2010.517339.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2010....
reported that presence of corn oil caused an increase in L* values of Bologna type sausages. In another study, there was no change in L* or b* of the sausages manufactured with corn oil; meanwhile, a* values were reported to be increased during 30 d storage and remained stable until day 45, indicating that the products became redder during storage (Menegas et al., 2013Menegas, L. Z., Pimentel, T. C., Garcia, S., & Prudencio, S. H. (2013). Dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with inulin and corn oil: Physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during storage. Meat Science, 93(3), 501-506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.11.003. PMid:23273457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012...
).

3.4 Sensory analysis

Variance analyses for wieners are shown in Table 5. Results indicated that addition of safflower oil did not affect color, odor, flavor, taste, juiciness, texture and the overall acceptability of wieners compared to control. Zlatko et al. (2009)Zlatko, P., Aleksandra, S.N., Katerina, B., Lea, G., Tomaz, P., Božidar, S.L., & Herbert, O. (2009). Effect of vegetable fats and oils on sensory characteristics of processed chichen frankfurter- style sausages. Tehnologija Mes, 50(5-6), 351-357. reported that chicken frankfurters made with plant oils are acceptable in terms of sensorial features. Yıldız-Turp & Serdaroğlu (2008)Yıldız-Turp, G., & Serdaroğlu, M. (2008). Effect of replacing beef fat with hazelnut oil on quality characteristics of sucuk – a Turkish fermented sausage. Meat Science, 78(4), 447-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.07.013. PMid:22062464.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007...
indicated that sausages produced with 15% emulsified nut oil received the highest taste and the overall acceptability scores compared to sausages produced with animal fat. On the other hand, Pappa et al. (2000)Pappa, I. C., Bloukas, J. G., & Arvanitoyannis, I. S. (2000). Optimization of salt, olive oil and pectin level for low-fat frankfurters produced by replacing pork backfat with olive oil. Meat Science, 56(1), 81-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00024-3. PMid:22061775.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)...
have reported that using vegetable oil in meat products is not a suitable strategy because of undesirable color formation.

Table 5
Sensory evaluation results of wieners.

4 Conclusion

The results of the present study suggested that use of safflower oil instead of animal fat may be good strategy to improve fatty acid profile and reduce cholesterol content of wieners without any negative effect on chemical composition and sensory properties. It is also suggested that the replacement rate up to 50% can be good strategy for the meat industry to avoid possible shelf life problems in weiner processing.

Acknowledgements

Appreciation is expressed to Süleyman Demirel University, Department of Scientific Research Project (BAP) for providing financial support for this work (Project no: 1862-D-09).

  • Practical Application: Using safflower oil instead of beef fat in wieners.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    28 Sept 2020
  • Date of issue
    June 2021

History

  • Received
    10 Mar 2020
  • Accepted
    26 Apr 2020
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