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Gluten-free pastas: ingredients and processing for technological and nutritional quality improvement

Abstract

The challenge in the production of gluten-free pasta is in obtaining the technological and nutritional quality already achieved for wheat-based pasta. This review covered the main ingredients and processes used to produce gluten-free pasta, and points to future perspectives for this product. It was found that the ingredients used for technological improvement aimed to reproduce a network with polymers, of the protein type (mainly eggs, pseudo-cereals and legumes), starches (flours and/or isolated starches) and hydrocolloids (gums) for structuring gluten-free pastas. The use of regional raw materials stands out as innovative ingredients that add value and health and at the same time, promote sustainability. For nutritional improvement, those with a high content of proteins and fibers stand out, but studies on enrichment with micronutrients are lacking. For processing, studies are using equipment, mixing times and drying processes similar to wheat-based pasta, with few innovations, except those obtained by thermoplastic extrusion. In conclusion, research with gluten-free pasta needs greater investments to move towards the development of differentiated formulations and processing, as with wheat-based pastas, which has evolved over centuries.

Keywords:
wheatless pasta; quality; nutrients; processing; healthiness; sustainability

1 Introduction

Gluten-free pasta (GFP) has been produced to meet the demand of individuals who cannot consume conventional pasta due to an intolerance or allergy to wheat and similar cereals, such as rye and barley, which should be permanently excluded from the diet (Lee & Newman, 2003Lee, A., & Newman, J. M. (2003). Celiac diet: its impact on quality of life. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(11), 1533-1535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2003.08.027. PMid:14576723.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2003.08...
; Tonutti & Bizzaro, 2014Tonutti, E., & Bizzaro, N. (2014). Diagnosis and classification of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Autoimmunity Reviews, 13(4-5), 472-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.043. PMid:24440147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2014....
). The number of consumers of GFP has increased due to the accessibility of information about nutrition and health, and the access to diagnostic methods for gluten-related disorders, including celiac syndrome (Nascimento et al., 2014Nascimento, A. B., Fiates, G. M. R., Anjos, A., & Teixeira, E. (2014). Gluten-free is not enough-perception and suggestions of celiac consumers. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 65(4), 394-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2013.879286. PMid:24832676.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2013....
). However, there is still necessary enhancing the social awareness and information regarding the celiac disorders, and contribute to increasing the variety of gluten-free products in local markets (Taşkin & Savlak, 2021Taşkin, B., & Savlak, N. (2021). Public awareness, knowledge and sensitivity towards celiac disease and gluten-free diet is insufficient: a survey from Turkey. Food Science and Technology, 41(1), 218-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.07420.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.07420...
).

Many consumers report that GFPs are more brittle in cooking, or have an unattractive texture, flavor and color, factors related to several technological defects caused mainly by the lack of a gluten network. The GFP consumers also include those who choose not to eat wheat-based products due to the relationship between gluten intake and healthy eating (Heller, 2009Heller, L. (2009). Commercial aspects of gluten-free products. In In E. Gallagher (Ed.), Gluten-free food science and technology (pp. 99-106). New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444316209.ch7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444316209....
). However, replacing the wheat flour with other cereals and/or tubers cannot provide health benefits to the GFP. For example, Missbach et al. (2015)Missbach, B., Schwingshackl, L., Billmann, A., Mystek, A., Hickelsberger, M., Bauer, G., & König, J. (2015). Gluten-free food database: the nutritional quality and cost of packaged gluten-free foods. PeerJ, 3, e1337. http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1337. PMid:26528408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1337...
found that the gluten-free products available on the Austrian market in 2015, including GFPs, showed less protein, minerals, and vitamins content when compared with its equivalent wheat-based version. The GFPs also present less dietary fiber, and a predominance of starchy carbohydrates in its composition.

Thus, the objective of this review is to present the state-of-the-art regarding the ingredients and processes to produce GFP with better technological and nutritional quality, covering the studies developed in the last five years, and to propose some recommendations for the ingredient selection.

2 Ingredients in gluten-free pasta

Different combinations of ingredients can be used to provide the effect of the gluten network in the structuring and shaping of GFP. Figure 1 shows a didactic division of these ingredients into structure-forming agents, technological improvers, and nutritional improvers, which will be the classification used in this review.

Figure 1
Classification of ingredients used for gluten-free pasta production.

2.1 Structuring ingredients (structurants)

This is a category of ingredients that are used to form a three-dimensional network capable of maintaining the shape of the GFP during the drying process, and after cooking, and it includes different types of starch and proteins. Table 1 shows the different ingredients and processes for GFPs production.

Table 1
Formulations, manufacturing processes of gluten-free pastas (GFP) and technological and nutritional evaluated effects.

Starch

Starch is a reserve polymer made up of glucose units, found in vegetable tissues in the form of water-insoluble granules, which has two types of polymers: amylose and amylopectin. In GFPs, flours from plant sources, such as cereals, pseudo cereals, roots, or tubers may be used as ingredients, as well as its isolated starches. The structure of GFPs is directly related to its gelatinized starch content (Abdel-Aal, 2009Abdel-Aal, E. S. M. (2009). Functionality of starches and hydrocolloids in gluten-free foods. In E. Gallagher (Ed.), Gluten-free food science and technology (pp. 200-224). New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444316209.ch11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444316209....
). During cooking, heat allows the amylose and amylopectin chains to interact with the water molecules through hydrogen bonds, causing swelling and the rupture of the granules and leading to the gelatinization process (Vaclavik & Christian, 2008Vaclavik, V., & Christian, E. W. (2008). Essentials of food science. Berlin: Springer. Starches in food, pp. 49-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-69940-0_4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-6994...
). After cooling, the retrogradation process occurs, which is a structural reorganization of the starch and water releasement (Ross & Wrolstad, 2012Ross, A. S., & Wrolstad, R. E. (2012). Starch in food. In A. S. Ross & R. E. Wrolstad (Eds.), Food carbohydrate chemistry (pp. 107-131). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.).

The main starch sources for GFP are rice (Giuberti et al., 2015Giuberti, G., Gallo, A., Cerioli, C., Fortunati, P., & Masoero, F. (2015). Cooking quality and starch digestibility of gluten free pasta using new bean flour. Food Chemistry, 175, 43-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.127. PMid:25577049.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
; Bouasla et al., 2016Bouasla, A., Wójtowicz, A., Zidoune, M. N., Olech, M., Nowak, R., Mitrus, M., & Oniszczuk, A. (2016). Gluten-free precooked rice-yellow pea pasta: effect of extrusion-cooking conditions on phenolic acids composition, selected properties and microstructure. Journal of Food Science, 81(5), C1070-C1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13287. PMid:27074432.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.1328...
; Ferreira et al., 2016Ferreira, S. M. R., Mello, A. P., Anjos, M. C. R., Krüger, C. C. H., Azoubel, P. M., & Alves, M. A. O. (2016). Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta. Food Chemistry, 191, 147-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.085. PMid:26258714.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
; Foschia et al., 2017Foschia, M., Beraldo, P., & Peressini, D. (2017). Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of gluten-free pasta enriched with resistant starch. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 97(2), 572-577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7766. PMid:27098055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7766...
; Albuja-Vaca et al., 2020Albuja-Vaca, D., Yepez, C., Vernaza, M. G., & Navarrete, D. (2020). Gluten-free pasta: development of a new formulation based on rice and lupine bean flour (Lupinus Mutabilis) using a mixture-process design. Food Science and Technology, 40(2), 408-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.02319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.02319...
; Scarton et al., 2021Scarton, M., Ribeiro, T., Godoy, H. T., Behrens, J. H., Campelo, P. H., & Clerici, M. T. P. S. (2021). Gluten free pasta with natural ingredient of color and carotene source. Research, Society and Development, 10(4), e21310413959. http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i4.13959.
http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i4.139...
) and corn (Ferreira et al., 2016Ferreira, S. M. R., Mello, A. P., Anjos, M. C. R., Krüger, C. C. H., Azoubel, P. M., & Alves, M. A. O. (2016). Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta. Food Chemistry, 191, 147-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.085. PMid:26258714.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
; Larrosa et al., 2015Larrosa, V., Lorenzo, G., Zaritzky, A. C., & Califano, A. (2015). Dynamic rheological analysis of gluten-free pasta as affected by composition and cooking time. Journal of Food Engineering, 160, 11-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.03.019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.201...
; Camelo-Méndez et al., 2018Camelo-Méndez, G. A., Tovar, J., & Bello-Pérez, L. A. (2018). Influence of blue maize flour on gluten-free pasta quality and antioxidant retention characteristics. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(7), 2739-2748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3196-9. PMid:30042590.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-319...
; Milde et al., 2020Milde, L. B., Chigal, P. S., Olivera, J. E., & González, K. G. (2020). Incorporation of xanthan gum to gluten-free pasta with cassava starch. Physical, textural and sensory attributes. LWT, 131, 109674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109674.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109...
; Baah et al., 2022Baah, R. O., Duodu, K. G., & Emmambux, M. N. (2022). Cooking quality, nutritional and antioxidant properties of gluten-free maize - orange-fleshed sweet potato pasta produced by extrusion. LWT, 162, 113415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2022.113415.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2022.113...
), as they are less expensive raw materials due to their market value and large-scale production.

Starches may exhibit different chemical organizations, amylose: amylopectin ratios, granule size, gelatinization temperatures and pasting characteristics. Therefore, the association between distinct sources of these polysaccharides may have a positive effect on the structuring of the GFP. Cereal starches, such as corn, for example, with 28 g and 72 g/100 g of amylose and amylopectin, respectively (Ross & Wrolstad, 2012Ross, A. S., & Wrolstad, R. E. (2012). Starch in food. In A. S. Ross & R. E. Wrolstad (Eds.), Food carbohydrate chemistry (pp. 107-131). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.), have a short texture, high viscosity, and a very rapid retrogradation after gelatinization, which causes excessive hardening and cracking in the GFP containing only these ingredients, making it difficult to consume after storage and reheating (Abdel-Aal, 2009Abdel-Aal, E. S. M. (2009). Functionality of starches and hydrocolloids in gluten-free foods. In E. Gallagher (Ed.), Gluten-free food science and technology (pp. 200-224). New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444316209.ch11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444316209....
).

To improve the quality of cereal based GFPs, root and tuber starches have been added, such as potato (Bastos et al., 2016Bastos, G. M., Soares, M. S. Jr., Caliari, M., Pereira, A. L. A., Morais, C. C., & Campos, M. R. H. (2016). Physical and sensory quality of gluten-free spaghetti processed from amaranth flour and potato pulp. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 65, 128-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.07.067.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.07....
), sweet potato (Marengo et al., 2018Marengo, M., Amoah, I., Carpen, A., Benedetti, S., Zanoletti, M., Buratti, S., Lutterodt, H. E., Johnson, P.-N. T., Manful, J., Marti, A., Bonomi, F., & Iametti, S. (2018). Enriching gluten-free rice pasta with soybean and sweet potato flours. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(7), 2641-2648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3185-z. PMid:30042580.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-318...
) and tiger nut (Llavata et al., 2019Llavata, B., Albors, A., & Martin-Esparza, M. E. (2019). High fibre gluten-free fresh pasta with tiger nut, chickpea and fenugreek: technofunctional, sensory and nutritional properties. Foods, 9(1), 11. PMid:31877757.), as these form a translucent gel and with a long texture, with slow retrogradation during cooling, maintaining a soft texture in the GFP for a long time. There is also the use of gluten-free mixes for GFPs with the combination of flours and/or starches of many vegetable sources, as used by Ferreira et al. (2016)Ferreira, S. M. R., Mello, A. P., Anjos, M. C. R., Krüger, C. C. H., Azoubel, P. M., & Alves, M. A. O. (2016). Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta. Food Chemistry, 191, 147-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.085. PMid:26258714.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
, for example, blended sorghum flour, rice flour, maize starch and potato starch. However, it was observed that despite the potential of roots and tubers as a low-cost ingredient accessible worldwide, there are few current studies using these ingredients for GFPs production.

The modified starches can also be used for structuring the GFPs (Marti & Pagani, 2013Marti, A., & Pagani, M. A. (2013). What can play the role of gluten in gluten free pasta? Trends in Food Science & Technology, 31(1), 63-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.03.001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.03...
). Starches obtained by physical process of modification, such as gelatinization, are the most used among the modified starches since they are considered Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), whereas chemically modified starches have limitations to be added in foods. The physical process of modification, such as gelatinization, are the most used among the modified starches, whereas chemically modified starches, for example, have limitations to be added in foods (Magnuson et al., 2013Magnuson, B., Munro, I., Abbot, P., Baldwin, N., Lopez-Garcia, R., Ly, K., McGirr, L., Roberts, A., & Socolovsky, S. (2013). Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 30(7), 1147-1220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2013.795293. PMid:23781843.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2013....
). The pre-gelatinization of the isolated starches or flours confers characteristics of greater water absorption, contributing to the rapid formation of GFP, which remain homogeneous and with better texture after cooking. Palavecino et al. (2017)Palavecino, P. M., Bustos, M. C., Alabí, M. B. H., Nicolazzi, M. S., Penci, M. C., & Ribotta, P. D. (2017). Effect of ingredients on the quality of gluten‐free sorghum pasta. Journal of Food Science, 82(9), 2085-2093. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13821. PMid:28796286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.1382...
made GFPs with a mixture of white sorghum flour, xanthan gum (1.25 to 2.50 g/100 g of flour basis - f.b.), egg white (5.5 to 11 g/100 g f.b.), whole egg (4.5 to 9.0 g/100 g f.b.), and pre-gelatinized corn starch (15 to 30 g/100 g f.b.), and found that the pre-gelatinized corn starch was positively related with an increase of firmness and water absorption index, and a reduction of the cooking loss during cooking.

Some authors adapted the preparation process of GFP aiming to obtain pre-gelatinized fractions. For example, Rachman et al. (2019)Rachman, A., Brennan, M. A., Morton, J., & Brennan, C. S. (2019). Effect of egg white protein and soy protein fortification on physicochemical characteristics of banana pasta. Food Processing and Preservation, 43(9), e14081. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.14081.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.14081...
, used a process of mixture of a banana flour with boiling water (70 g/100 g f.b.) for 20 minutes before using this ingredient for GFP production, which was also used by other authors, as could be observed in Table 1.

Protein

Protein-rich ingredients are frequently used in GFP formulations because the starch network formed in GFPs is considered weak due the lack of an associated gluten network, and can break easily during cooking. The major effect of proteins is the entrapment of the starch granules, helping to reduce the cooking loss, as occurs in conventional pasta (Brockway, 2001Brockway, B. E. (2001). Pasta. In D. A. V. Dendy & B. J. Dobraszczyk (Eds.), Cereals and cereal products: chemistry and technology (pp. 254-262). Boston: Aspen Publishers.). However, so far, no protein source has been able to replace the wheat gluten network.

The high-protein foods, such as egg albumin, with good foaming properties and formation of a three-dimensional network, mainly used in cakes and confectionery products for structuration, are also used in GFP for this same purpose. In contrast, egg yolk proteins, that have emulsifying properties (Paucar-Menacho et al., 2008Paucar-Menacho, L. M., Silva, L. H., Barretto, P. A. D. A., Mazal, G., Fakhouri, F. M., Steel, C. J., & Collares-Queiroz, F. P. (2008). Desenvolvimento de massa alimentícia fresca funcional com a adição de isolado proteico de soja e polidextrose utilizando páprica como corante. Food Science and Technology, 28(4), 767-778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612008000400002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612008...
), can also confer desirable color and smooth texture for the GFPs by its compound’s retinol and lecithin, respectively. Some authors have studied egg-derived ingredients in GFP as structuring protein sources, such as dehydrated egg or its protein fractions, such as albumin (Larrosa et al., 2015Larrosa, V., Lorenzo, G., Zaritzky, A. C., & Califano, A. (2015). Dynamic rheological analysis of gluten-free pasta as affected by composition and cooking time. Journal of Food Engineering, 160, 11-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.03.019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.201...
). In addition to acting as structure-forming agents, these ingredients also contribute to a greater nutritional value, flavor, and for greater acceptance of GFP by consumers.

Other ingredients have also been used for their structuring properties, such as legumes and oilseeds. Laleg et al. (2016)Laleg, K., Cassan, D., Barron, C., Prabhasankar, P., & Micard, V. (2016). Structural, culinary, nutritional and anti- nutritional properties of high protein, gluten free, 100% legume pasta. PLoS One, 11(9), e0160721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160721. PMid:27603917.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0...
used only legume flours (bean, green lentil, and black-gram) in GFP spaghetti-type, and found different firmness, cohesiveness and elasticity behavior when compared to commercial GFP made from maize, millet, and rice flour. Bresciani et al. (2021)Bresciani, A., Giuberti, G., Cervini, M., & Marti, A. (2021). Pasta from yellow lentils: how process affects starch features and pasta quality. Food Chemistry, 364, 130387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130387. PMid:34233245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.202...
evaluated the obtention de GFP made only with yellow lentils flour, concluding that the most suitable production process for these was the thermoplastic extrusion. The pseudo cereals were widely used in gluten-free products, especially in GFPs. They are starchy grains like cereals, with botanical and biochemical differences in the amino acids profile, as they are dicotyledonous plants (Fabio & Parraga, 2017Fabio, A., & Parraga, G. (2017). Origin, production and utilization of pseudocereals. In R. Haros & C.M. Schoenlechner (Eds.), Pseudocereals: chemistry and technology (pp. 1-27). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118938256.ch1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118938256....
). Their use may be associated with other ingredients, as reported by D’Amico et al. (2015)D’Amico, S., Mäschle, J., Jekle, M., Tömösközi, S., Langó, B., & Schoenlechner, R. (2015). Effect of high temperature drying on gluten-free pasta properties. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 63(1), 391-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.080.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03....
who studied GFPs with pseudocereals, buckwheat, amaranth, and quinoa, by Demir & Bilgiçli (2021)Demir, B., & Bilgiçli, N. (2021). Utilization of quinoa flor (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in gluten-free pasta formulation: effects on nutritional and sensory properties. Food Science & Technology International, 27(3), 242-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1082013220940092. PMid:32781850.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10820132209400...
, who used a quinoa flour in partial substitution of a cereal blend (rice and corn semolina). These ingredients could provide structure and nutritional improvement in GFP formulation due to its protein content.

Regional structuring agents and food processing by-products

The use of regional raw materials is an important initiative to stimulate the local economy, since the cost of GFP is high, hampering the adherence to the diet. It was reported in research conducted by White et al. (2016)White, L. E., Bannerman, E., & Gillett, P. M. (2016). Coeliac disease and the gluten-free diet: a review of the burdens; factors associated with adherence and impact on health-related quality of life, with specific focus on adolescence. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 29(5), 593-606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12375. PMid:27214084.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12375...
about the market of GFPs that these products cost 334% more than wheat-based pastas, and its commercialization was limited to specialty food stores and internet sales.

The use of food processing by-products is also an important initiative for reducing economic impacts, and could be used as GFPs ingredients for technological, nutritional, sensory and/or value-added purposes, contributing to sustainability actions, avoiding food waste and promoting changes in the food processing chain. As addressed in Difonzo et al. (2022)Difonzo, G., Gennaro, G., Pasqualone, A., & Caponio, F. (2022). Potential use of plant-based by-products and waste to improve the quality of gluten-free foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 102(6), 2199-2211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11702. PMid:34855216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11702...
review article, fruits and cereals parts as peels, leaves, pomaces, or husks are rich sources of dietary fibers, minerals, vitamins and biocompounds, and could be obtained from different stages of the food processing chain. For example, as reported by Bastos et al. (2016)Bastos, G. M., Soares, M. S. Jr., Caliari, M., Pereira, A. L. A., Morais, C. C., & Campos, M. R. H. (2016). Physical and sensory quality of gluten-free spaghetti processed from amaranth flour and potato pulp. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 65, 128-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.07.067.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.07....
, who studied the use of dehydrated potato pulp flour to GFPs formulations, obtained from residual water from potato chip processing, these ingredients contributed to the acceptability of GFP by the local population, already habituated to the flavor of these foods. In the study of Güngormüşler et al. (2020)Güngormüşler, M., Başınhan, I., & Uçtuǧ, F. G. (2020). Optimum formulation determination and carbon footprint analysis of a novel gluten-free pasta recipe using buckwheat, teff, and chickpea flours. Food Processing and Preservation, 44, 1-9., the authors formulated GFPs with teff flour, chickpea flour and xanthan gum, and the selected formulation (5 g/100 g f.b. of TF, 10 g/100 g f.b. CF, and 1 g/100 g f.b. XG) presented 33% less carbon footprint when compared to a commercial wheat-based pasta, due to the use of local raw materials and economy of non-renewable resources (as fossil fuels) during transportation.

2.2 Technological improvers

These are ingredients used to facilitate shaping and improve the texture of GFP. Among the additives, those recognized as GRAS stand out, which reinforces the trend towards studies for a healthy appeal of GFPs. A brief description of the technological function of each technological coadjuvant ingredient is presented below:

  • Hydrocolloids: such as gums, for example, are high molecular weight polysaccharides that have long chains containing many hydrophilic groups (-OH), and forms dispersions in water. They can be used in small quantities due to their high solubility and gelling ability (Saha & Bhattacharya, 2010Saha, D., & Bhattacharya, S. (2010). Hydrocolloids as thickening and gelling agents in food: a critical review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47(6), 587-597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0162-6. PMid:23572691.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-016...
    ). The network formed by the hydrocolloids can reduce the cooking loss and contribute to a better texture of GFP (Witczak et al., 2016Witczak, T., Juszczak, L., Ziobro, R., & Korus, J. (2016). Rheology of gluten-free dough and physical characteristics of bread with with potato protein. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40(3), e12491. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12491.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12491...
    ; Sukchum & Ratphitagsanti, 2018Sukchum, A., & Ratphitagsanti, W. (2018). Addition of dietary fiber for enriched nutrition of gluten-free Macaroni. Journal of Food Science and Agricultural Technology, 4(Spe), 86-92.; Demir & Bilgiçli, 2021Demir, B., & Bilgiçli, N. (2021). Utilization of quinoa flor (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in gluten-free pasta formulation: effects on nutritional and sensory properties. Food Science & Technology International, 27(3), 242-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1082013220940092. PMid:32781850.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10820132209400...
    ), also reducing the optimum cooking time and increasing the water absorption capacity (Moura et al., 2016Moura, C. M. A., Soares, M. S. Jr., Fiorda, F. A., Caliari, M., Vera, R., & Grossmann, M. V. E. (2016). Cooking and texture properties of gluten-free fettuccine processed from defatted flaxseed flour and rice flour. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(6), 1495-1501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13097.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13097...
    ).

  • Emulsifiers: chemical additives used to stabilize two immiscible phases. In addition, they are widely used in cereal products to delay the starch gelatinization (Witczak et al., 2016Witczak, T., Juszczak, L., Ziobro, R., & Korus, J. (2016). Rheology of gluten-free dough and physical characteristics of bread with with potato protein. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40(3), e12491. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12491.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12491...
    ; Liu et al., 2012Liu, Z., Gong, B., Zhang, L., An, H., & Liu, B. (2012). The influence of emulsifiers on retrogradation properties of waxy starch. In G. Lee (Ed.), Advances in computational environment science (pp. 351-358). Berlin: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27957-7_43.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-2795...
    ). Thus, the use of emulsifiers can contribute to obtaining a softer GFP after cooking.

  • Vegetable oils: such as soybean oil (Ferreira et al., 2016Ferreira, S. M. R., Mello, A. P., Anjos, M. C. R., Krüger, C. C. H., Azoubel, P. M., & Alves, M. A. O. (2016). Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta. Food Chemistry, 191, 147-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.085. PMid:26258714.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
    ), sunflower oil (Larrosa et al., 2015Larrosa, V., Lorenzo, G., Zaritzky, A. C., & Califano, A. (2015). Dynamic rheological analysis of gluten-free pasta as affected by composition and cooking time. Journal of Food Engineering, 160, 11-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.03.019.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.201...
    ), or vegetable fat (Milde et al., 2020Milde, L. B., Chigal, P. S., Olivera, J. E., & González, K. G. (2020). Incorporation of xanthan gum to gluten-free pasta with cassava starch. Physical, textural and sensory attributes. LWT, 131, 109674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109674.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109...
    ), provides the lubrication needed for cold extrusion and/or shaping processes and reducing the adhesiveness of the dough.

  • Color-conferring ingredients: most studies have not used artificial colorants. Several authors have studied the use of natural color-conferring ingredients, such as eggs, in GFPs formulations. The yellow color of these products is derived from the presence of carotenoid compounds, which may be important in starch-based pasta or those made from white flour such as rice flour, for example. Among the natural ingredients that add color, we highlight blue maize flour, of Mexican origin (Camelo-Méndez et al., 2018Camelo-Méndez, G. A., Tovar, J., & Bello-Pérez, L. A. (2018). Influence of blue maize flour on gluten-free pasta quality and antioxidant retention characteristics. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(7), 2739-2748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3196-9. PMid:30042590.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-319...
    ), pumpkin flour (Mirhosseini et al., 2015Mirhosseini, H., Rashid, N. F. A., Amid, B. T., Cheong, K. W., Kazemi, M., & Zulkurnain, M. (2015). Effect of partial replacement of corn flour with durian seed flour and pumpkin flour on cooking yield, texture properties, and sensory attributes of gluten free pasta. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 63(1), 184-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.078.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03....
    ), and sweet potato flour (Marengo et al., 2018Marengo, M., Amoah, I., Carpen, A., Benedetti, S., Zanoletti, M., Buratti, S., Lutterodt, H. E., Johnson, P.-N. T., Manful, J., Marti, A., Bonomi, F., & Iametti, S. (2018). Enriching gluten-free rice pasta with soybean and sweet potato flours. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(7), 2641-2648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3185-z. PMid:30042580.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-318...
    ).

2.3 Nutritional improvers

Nutrition enhancers are used to improve the health appeal of GFPs. Table 1 shows some ingredients for nutritional enhancement and their functions in GFP. For nutrition enhancement, we have the proteins and micronutrients. This group also includes the ingredients that contribute to satiety, such as dietary fibers, and those for the control of the glycemic index (GI), such as resistant starch.

Proteic enrichers

Amino acids can be classified as nutritionally essential or non-essential, and an adequate supply of these is a requirement for health maintenance. In GFPs, it is important that proteins possess high digestibility and bioavailability, aiming to improve the intestinal absorption of nutrients (Lamacchia et al., 2014Lamacchia, C., Camarca, A., Picascia, S., Luccia, A., & Gianfrani, C. (2014). Cereal-based gluten-free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients. Nutrients, 6(2), 575-590. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6020575. PMid:24481131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6020575...
). Legume flours with high protein contents, such as beans (Laleg et al., 2015; Silva et al., 2016Silva, E. M. M., Ascheri, J. L. R., & Ascheri, D. P. R. (2016). Quality assessment of gluten-free pasta prepared with a brown rice and corn meal blend via thermoplastic extrusion. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 68, 698-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.12.067.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.12....
), lupine (Linares-García et al., 2019Linares-García, L., Repo-Carrasco-Valencia, R., Paulet, P. G., & Schoenlechner, R. (2019). Development of gluten-free and egg-free pasta based on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) with addition of lupine flour, vegetable proteins and the oxidizing enzyme POx. European Food Research and Technology, 245(10), 2147-2156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-019-03320-1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-019-033...
; Albuja-Vaca et al., 2020Albuja-Vaca, D., Yepez, C., Vernaza, M. G., & Navarrete, D. (2020). Gluten-free pasta: development of a new formulation based on rice and lupine bean flour (Lupinus Mutabilis) using a mixture-process design. Food Science and Technology, 40(2), 408-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.02319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.02319...
) and chickpeas (Vijaykrishnaraj et al., 2015Vijaykrishnaraj, M., Kumar, S. B., & Prabhasankar, P. (2015). Green mussel (Perna canaliculus) as a marine ingredient to enrich gluten free pasta: product quality, microstructure and biofunctional evaluation. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 9(1), 76-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11694-014-9212-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11694-014-921...
; Bouasla et al., 2016Bouasla, A., Wójtowicz, A., Zidoune, M. N., Olech, M., Nowak, R., Mitrus, M., & Oniszczuk, A. (2016). Gluten-free precooked rice-yellow pea pasta: effect of extrusion-cooking conditions on phenolic acids composition, selected properties and microstructure. Journal of Food Science, 81(5), C1070-C1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13287. PMid:27074432.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.1328...
; Güngormüşler et al., 2020Güngormüşler, M., Başınhan, I., & Uçtuǧ, F. G. (2020). Optimum formulation determination and carbon footprint analysis of a novel gluten-free pasta recipe using buckwheat, teff, and chickpea flours. Food Processing and Preservation, 44, 1-9.), are frequently used. The association of legume flours with cereal flours is recommended for complementation of essential amino acids (Marti & Pagani, 2013Marti, A., & Pagani, M. A. (2013). What can play the role of gluten in gluten free pasta? Trends in Food Science & Technology, 31(1), 63-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.03.001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.03...
). Eggs and milk have a complete amino acid profile; thus, they are important ingredients for healthy eating that can be used in GFP. Some authors have studied egg-derived ingredients in GFP as structuring protein sources, such as fresh whole egg (Albuja-Vaca et al., 2020Albuja-Vaca, D., Yepez, C., Vernaza, M. G., & Navarrete, D. (2020). Gluten-free pasta: development of a new formulation based on rice and lupine bean flour (Lupinus Mutabilis) using a mixture-process design. Food Science and Technology, 40(2), 408-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.02319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.02319...
) or dehydrated egg (Larrosa et al., 2015Larrosa, V., Lorenzo, G., Zaritzky, A. C., & Califano, A. (2015). Dynamic rheological analysis of gluten-free pasta as affected by composition and cooking time. Journal of Food Engineering, 160, 11-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.03.019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.201...
), or its protein fractions, such as albumin (Flores-Silva et al., 2015Flores-Silva, P. C., Berrios, J. J., Pan, J., Agama-Acevedo, E., Molsalve-González, A., & Bello-Pérez, L. A. (2015). Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties. CyTA: Journal of Food, 13(2), 159-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2014.929178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2014....
; Rachman et al., 2019Rachman, A., Brennan, M. A., Morton, J., & Brennan, C. S. (2019). Effect of egg white protein and soy protein fortification on physicochemical characteristics of banana pasta. Food Processing and Preservation, 43(9), e14081. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.14081.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.14081...
). The use of whole-milk powder was also verified (Milde et al., 2020Milde, L. B., Chigal, P. S., Olivera, J. E., & González, K. G. (2020). Incorporation of xanthan gum to gluten-free pasta with cassava starch. Physical, textural and sensory attributes. LWT, 131, 109674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109674.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109...
), as well from marine organisms, as green mussel (Vijaykrishnaraj et al., 2015Vijaykrishnaraj, M., Kumar, S. B., & Prabhasankar, P. (2015). Green mussel (Perna canaliculus) as a marine ingredient to enrich gluten free pasta: product quality, microstructure and biofunctional evaluation. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 9(1), 76-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11694-014-9212-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11694-014-921...
) and seabass concentrate (Aínsa et al., 2021Aínsa, A., Vega, A., Honrado, A., Marquina, P., Roncales, P., Gracia, J., & Morales, J. (2021). Gluten-free pasta enriched with fish by-product for special dietary uses: technological quality and sensory properties. Foods, 10(12), 3049. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10123049. PMid:34945600.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10123049...
) as innovative sources of protein in GFPs.

The protein content and amino acids profile of pseudo cereals may contribute to the production of GFP. Amaranth, for example, has a high content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, which can complement cereal flours that are poor in this amino acid, such as rice flour (Bastos et al., 2016Bastos, G. M., Soares, M. S. Jr., Caliari, M., Pereira, A. L. A., Morais, C. C., & Campos, M. R. H. (2016). Physical and sensory quality of gluten-free spaghetti processed from amaranth flour and potato pulp. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 65, 128-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.07.067.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.07....
). It is desirable that the selected proteins should not be recognized by anti-gliadin antibodies to prevent the inflammatory bowel response in the celiac individual, especially in unconventional protein sources (Susanna & Prabhasankar, 2015Susanna, S., & Prabhasankar, P. (2015). Effect of different enzymes on immunogenicity of pasta. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 26(2), 231-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540105.2014.893999.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540105.2014....
). The presence of antinutritional or toxicity compounds, such as phytic acid, protease inhibitors, or cyanogenic compounds, which may be present in legumes, roots, fruits or seeds, should be considered, by adopting measures to eliminate or reduce these compounds at levels that do not cause adverse health effects (Morandini, 2010Morandini, P. (2010). Inactivation of allergens and toxins. New Biotechnology, 27(5), 482-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2010.06.011. PMid:20601271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2010.06....
).

The legume-derived ingredients can be pretreated using heat treatments, for example, whereas GFPs are rapid-cooking products, which may be insufficient for inactivation of its anti-nutritional compounds. According to Sun (2011)Sun, X. D. (2011). Enzymatic hydrolysis of soy proteins and the hydrolysates utilisation. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46(12), 2447-2459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02785.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.20...
, the enzymatic hydrolysis in legume flours such as soybean and chickpeas, contributes to the production of GFPs with higher digestibility. Thus, innovative studies are focused on evaluation of the biological processes to increase the digestibility and decrease the anti-nutritional factors. As an example, Marengo et al. (2018)Marengo, M., Amoah, I., Carpen, A., Benedetti, S., Zanoletti, M., Buratti, S., Lutterodt, H. E., Johnson, P.-N. T., Manful, J., Marti, A., Bonomi, F., & Iametti, S. (2018). Enriching gluten-free rice pasta with soybean and sweet potato flours. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(7), 2641-2648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3185-z. PMid:30042580.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-318...
used a non-tannin white sorghum cultivar and evaluated the fermentation and germination processes in the preparation of sorghum flour for use as GFP base, together with pre-gelatinized parboiled rice. The fermentation improved the flavor, structure, and pasta stability, and the substitution of 15 g/100 g (f.b.) was considered ideal. However, the germinated sorghum cannot be used due to its very high enzymatic activities (amylolytic and proteolytic), which can affect the pasta during cooking, dissolving the GFP and impairing its technological quality.

In the study of Laleg et al. (2016)Laleg, K., Cassan, D., Barron, C., Prabhasankar, P., & Micard, V. (2016). Structural, culinary, nutritional and anti- nutritional properties of high protein, gluten free, 100% legume pasta. PLoS One, 11(9), e0160721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160721. PMid:27603917.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0...
, the authors evaluated the anti-nutritional compounds of dried GFP made from raw legume flour, obtained by conventional extrusion and drying at 55 °C for 12 hours. The authors compared the anti-nutritional compounds in the raw flours and the respective cooked GFPs and observed a decrease in the number of trypsin inhibitors, α-galactosides, and phytic acid, but without a complete elimination of these.

Micronutrient and bioactive compounds enrichment

There are few studies evaluating the addition of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals in GFP, which is a promising field of research, considering that the consumers of GFP may have poor absorption of these nutrients (Tonutti & Bizzaro, 2014Tonutti, E., & Bizzaro, N. (2014). Diagnosis and classification of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Autoimmunity Reviews, 13(4-5), 472-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.043. PMid:24440147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2014....
). Radoi et al. (2015)Radoi, P. B., Alexa, E., Radulov, I., Morvay, A., Mihai, C. S. S., & Trasca, T.-I. (2015). Total phenolic, cinnamic acids and selected microelements in gluten free pasta fortified with banana. Revista de Chimie, 66(8), 1162-1165. evaluated GFPs made from rice flour and different concentrations (10 to 40 g/100 g) of dehydrated banana pulp, fresh banana pulp, and fresh banana pulp treated with ascorbic acid and eggs. The authors observed an increase in the mineral content of the pasta, mainly iron (8.4 to 23.9 mg/kg), manganese (2.6 to 12.3 mg/kg), and zinc (20 to 78 mg/kg). Scarton et al. (2021)Scarton, M., Ribeiro, T., Godoy, H. T., Behrens, J. H., Campelo, P. H., & Clerici, M. T. P. S. (2021). Gluten free pasta with natural ingredient of color and carotene source. Research, Society and Development, 10(4), e21310413959. http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i4.13959.
http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i4.139...
studied the use of the biofortified sweet potato flour as an ingredient in rice-based GPFs, obtaining pastas with improvement of provitamin A content.

There are also few studies about bioactive compounds, as antioxidants, anthocyanins, flavonoids, or total phenolic compounds, in GFPs. Recent studies highlight the application of sorghum as a source of dietary fiber and phytochemicals compounds - mostly phenolic acids and flavonoids (Chávez et al., 2018Chávez, D., Ascheri, J., Martins, A., Carvalho, C., Bernardo, C., & Teles, A. (2018). Sorghum, an alternative cereal for gluten-free product. Revista Chilena de Nutrición, 45(2), 169-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-75182018000300169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-75182018...
; Célia et al., 2022Célia, J. A., Resende, O., Lima, M. S., Correia, J. S., Oliveira, K. B., & Takeuchi, K. P. (2022). Technological properties of gluten-free biscuits from sorghum flour granifero (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Food Science and Technology, 42, e29222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.29222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.29222...
) - in GFP (Palavecino et al., 2019Palavecino, P. M., Ribotta, P. D., León, A. E., & Bustos, M. C. (2019). Gluten-free sorghum pasta: starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity compared with commercial products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(3), 1351-1357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9310. PMid:30094850.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9310...
), and other gluten-free products.

Resistant starch

Resistant starch is defined as the starch portion that is not converted to glucose during the digestive process and has beneficial effects to the glycemic control. According to the review conducted by Raigond et al. (2015)Raigond, P., Ezekiel, R., & Raigond, B. (2015). Resistant starch in food: a review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95(10), 1968-1978. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6966. PMid:25331334.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6966...
, resistant starches can be classified into five types: starch type I, which are physically inaccessible in the plant matrix; type II, which are native, non-gelatinized starch granules; type III, which are digestion-resistant starches from the retrogradation process; type IV, or chemically modified starches; type V, formed by amylose-lipid complexes.

Some authors have studied the addition of sources of resistant starch in GFPs to control the glycemic response among celiac individuals to reduce the risk of developing type II diabetes and obesity. For example, Foschia et al. (2017)Foschia, M., Beraldo, P., & Peressini, D. (2017). Evaluation of the physicochemical properties of gluten-free pasta enriched with resistant starch. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 97(2), 572-577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7766. PMid:27098055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7766...
studied GFP spaghetti-type made with rice flour and resistant starch type II and found a degradation of 31% of the added RS II during the manufacturing process. Thus, the GFPs-making process should be considered to preserve the maximum nutritional value when using these ingredients.

The addition of resistant starch also promotes technological changes in GFPs. As an example, in a study by Cervini et al. (2021)Cervini, M., Gruppi, A., Bassani, A., Spigno, G., & Giuberti, G. (2021). Potential application of resistant starch sorghum in gluten-free pasta: nutritional, structural and sensory evaluations. Foods, 10(5), 908. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050908. PMid:33919201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10050908...
the authors developed formulations with 5 to 15% of sorghum-derived resistant starch in rice-based GFPs, and found that this ingredient increased firmness, water holding capacity and cooking time, and reduced the loss of solids in cooking.

Soluble and insoluble fiber

Some studies on the inclusion of ingredients rich in fibers in GFP have been reported. Fibers are polymers of non-starch carbohydrates resistant to digestion by humans with health benefits, such as intestinal transit regulation and satiety (Slavin, 2013Slavin, J. (2013). Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients, 5(4), 1417-1435. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5041417. PMid:23609775.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5041417...
). In addition, diets with a high concentration of insoluble fiber may reduce the absorption of nutrients, which should be considered for celiac patients or individuals with intestinal sensitivity to gluten (Lamacchia et al., 2014Lamacchia, C., Camarca, A., Picascia, S., Luccia, A., & Gianfrani, C. (2014). Cereal-based gluten-free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients. Nutrients, 6(2), 575-590. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6020575. PMid:24481131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6020575...
). The authors Bouasla et al. (2016)Bouasla, A., Wójtowicz, A., Zidoune, M. N., Olech, M., Nowak, R., Mitrus, M., & Oniszczuk, A. (2016). Gluten-free precooked rice-yellow pea pasta: effect of extrusion-cooking conditions on phenolic acids composition, selected properties and microstructure. Journal of Food Science, 81(5), C1070-C1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13287. PMid:27074432.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.1328...
used legume flour in rice-based GFP and found an increase of cooking loss due to the weakening of the dough structure from the presence of high insoluble fiber content. Thus, the authors recommended the inclusion of soluble fibers to maintain the structure and to provide greater nutritional benefits. The soluble fibers (pectin and gums) are readily hydratable, and some of these forms a high-viscous gel fermentable by intestinal bacteria, with a beneficial prebiotic action to the gastrointestinal tract, which may contribute to individuals with intestinal sensitivity (Lamacchia et al., 2014Lamacchia, C., Camarca, A., Picascia, S., Luccia, A., & Gianfrani, C. (2014). Cereal-based gluten-free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients. Nutrients, 6(2), 575-590. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6020575. PMid:24481131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6020575...
). In Sakurai et al. (2020)Sakurai, Y. C. N., Rodrigues, A. M. C., Pires, M. B., & Silva, L. H. M. (2020). Quality of pasta made of cassava, peach palm and golden linseed flour. Food Science and Technology, 40(Suppl. 1), 228-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.09119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.09119...
studies, the authors evaluated the application of two ingredients - peach palm meal, and golden linseed in GFPs, obtaining nutritional fiber improvement. Despite its nutritional benefits, it is important to consider that the inclusion of fibers in GFP formulation could lead to technological effects. As example, Llavata et al. (2019)Llavata, B., Albors, A., & Martin-Esparza, M. E. (2019). High fibre gluten-free fresh pasta with tiger nut, chickpea and fenugreek: technofunctional, sensory and nutritional properties. Foods, 9(1), 11. PMid:31877757. utilized two innovative ingredients in fresh pappardelle GFP - tiger nut flour and fenugreek flour - aiming a high fiber content. The increase of these ingredients increased both soluble and insoluble fiber contents, but also increased the hardness and cohesiveness of these pastas. In study with short pastas (macaroni type), Sukchum & Ratphitagsanti (2018)Sukchum, A., & Ratphitagsanti, W. (2018). Addition of dietary fiber for enriched nutrition of gluten-free Macaroni. Journal of Food Science and Agricultural Technology, 4(Spe), 86-92. evaluated the inclusion of 10 to 20% of fibers from different sources (wheat fiber, corn meal and cellulose fiber) in GFP made with rice flour and tapioca starch (control formulation, 80:20). The increase of fiber content leaded to increase of the cooking loss and to GFP softer than control, due to the interference of the fiber in starch matrix.

Ingredients for glycemic index reduction

The GI indicates how fast blood glucose rises after consuming a carbohydrate-containing food (Goñi et al., 1997Goñi, I., Garcia-Alonso, A., & Saura-Calixto, F. (1997). A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index. Nutrition Research, 17(3), 427-437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(97)00010-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(97)...
). Foods with a low GI contribute to a prolonged sensation of satiety and reduce the risks associated with diabetes and obesity. In conventional wheat-based pasta, the gluten protein network has an effect on the reduction of the GI, because it forms a network around the starch granules, impairing the access of the digestive enzymes to the starch (Brockway, 2001Brockway, B. E. (2001). Pasta. In D. A. V. Dendy & B. J. Dobraszczyk (Eds.), Cereals and cereal products: chemistry and technology (pp. 254-262). Boston: Aspen Publishers.). In GFP, this reduction may not occur, especially in formulations based in starch and reduced amounts of fiber and proteins (Lamacchia et al., 2014Lamacchia, C., Camarca, A., Picascia, S., Luccia, A., & Gianfrani, C. (2014). Cereal-based gluten-free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients. Nutrients, 6(2), 575-590. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6020575. PMid:24481131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6020575...
; Lee & Newman, 2003Lee, A., & Newman, J. M. (2003). Celiac diet: its impact on quality of life. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(11), 1533-1535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2003.08.027. PMid:14576723.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2003.08...
).

The authors Menga et al. (2017)Menga, V., Amato, M., Phillips, T. D., Angelino, D., Morreale, F., & Fares, C. (2017). Gluten-free pasta incorporating chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as thickening agent: an approach to naturally improve the nutritional profile and the in vitro carbohydrate digestibility. Food Chemistry, 221, 1954-1961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.151. PMid:27979185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
studied the addition of 5 to 10 g/100 g (f.b.) of chia seeds or its mucilage in long rice flour-based GFP tagliatelle-type made by conventional cold extrusion, and also evaluated the possibility of using those seeds as a substitute for hydrocolloids and the carbohydrate in vitro digestibility of these pastas. They observed that the ground seeds contributed to the reduction of the digestion rate due to the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which increased the viscosity and reduced the amylase activity. The use of 10 g/100 g (f.b.) of chia seeds mucilage provided a more nutritious GFP with higher protein, dietary fiber, and phenolic acids contents when compared to a commercial control maize starch-based pasta.

3 Processing of gluten-free pastas

There are low investments in research and development of processes and suitable equipment for GFPs production, when compared with the conventional pasta (Heller, 2009Heller, L. (2009). Commercial aspects of gluten-free products. In In E. Gallagher (Ed.), Gluten-free food science and technology (pp. 99-106). New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444316209.ch7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444316209....
; Shewry, 2009Shewry, P. R. (2009). Wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60(6), 1537-1553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp058. PMid:19386614.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erp058...
; Marti & Pagani, 2013Marti, A., & Pagani, M. A. (2013). What can play the role of gluten in gluten free pasta? Trends in Food Science & Technology, 31(1), 63-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.03.001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.03...
). As shown in Table 1, the GFP can be produced and formatted from several processes such as lamination, conventional cold extrusion or thermoplastic extrusion. To provide resistance, various processes can be used to enhance the GFPs shape maintenance during the production, transport, and commercialization steps, such as thermoplastic extrusion.

The combination of high pressure and heat in this process leads to a pre-gelatinization of the starch and protein denaturation, which helps in the formation of the pasta structure and allows the production of instant pasta (Bouasla et al., 2016Bouasla, A., Wójtowicz, A., Zidoune, M. N., Olech, M., Nowak, R., Mitrus, M., & Oniszczuk, A. (2016). Gluten-free precooked rice-yellow pea pasta: effect of extrusion-cooking conditions on phenolic acids composition, selected properties and microstructure. Journal of Food Science, 81(5), C1070-C1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13287. PMid:27074432.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.1328...
). Although there are more studies on dry and long GFPs, those may present disadvantages such as higher cracks and defects occurrence, especially during drying, packaging, transport, and storage, due to the fragility of the pasta structure. Thus, the production of short dry GFP can be a technological alternative to reduce the losses during process and storage. The combination of ingredients and processes suitable for the production of GFP is essential, thus research on these products should be encouraged to meet the consumer expectations and offer products that are nutritionally rich and attractive from the sensory point of view.

4 Conclusion

The development of GFP with better technological and nutritional characteristics has been possible since new ingredients and processes have been studied. Regional ingredients that are sources of protein, starch and insoluble fiber, and additives, such as gums, are among the most used ingredients in GFPs formulations. The biggest challenge remains the texture of these pastas after cooking, once the sensory characteristics such as color, overall appearance, and flavor have already been widely studied. In this review, we could propose the following guidelines for the GFP, concerning about:

  • The ingredients - utilization of protein sources free from anti-nutritional or toxic factors; preference for ingredients that increase satiety and reduce the glycemic index, such as soluble fibers and resistant starches;

  • The processing - choose conditions that preserve the bioactive compounds, and that contribute to the structuring of GFP and reduce the number of additives, for example, production of instant pasta or precooked pasta.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the following funding agencies: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior program (grant number 001), for the maintenance of the Postgraduate Program; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq for scholarship to Michele Scarton (Processes 131208/2015-2 and 140791/2017-5).

  • Practical Application: This review presents the state-of-art of the gluten-free pasta studies, highlighting the needs for research and development for technological and nutritional improvement of these products, and proposing some guidelines for the selection of its ingredients and processes.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    04 Nov 2022
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    07 July 2022
  • Accepted
    28 Sept 2022
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