Processing, nutritional composition and health benefits of finger millet in sub-saharan Africa

Shonisani Eugenia RAMASHIA Tonna Ashim ANYASI Eastonce Tend GWATA Stephen MEDDOWS-TAYLOR Afam Israel Obiefuna JIDEANI About the authors

Abstract

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) also known as tamba, is a staple cereal grain in some parts of the world with low income population. The grain is characterized by variations in colour (brown, white and light brown cultivars); high concentration of carbohydrates, dietary fibre, phytochemicals and essential amino acids; presence of essential minerals; as well as a gluten-free status. Finger millet (FM) in terms of nutritional composition, ranks higher than other cereal grains, though the grain is extremely neglected and widely underutilized. Nutritional configuration of FM contributes to reduced risk of diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and gastro-intestinal tract disorder when absorbed in the body. Utilization of the grain therefore involves traditional and other processing methods such as soaking, malting, cooking, fermentation, popping and radiation. These processes are utilised to improve the dietetic and sensory properties of FM and equally assist in the reduction of anti-nutritional and inhibitory activities of phenols, phytic acids and tannins. However, with little research and innovation on FM as compared to conventional cereals, there is the need for further studies on processing methods, nutritional composition, health benefits and valorization with a view to commercialization of FM grains.

Keywords:
finger millet; nutritional composition; gluten-free; antioxidant properties; traditional processing; value-added products

1 Introduction

The term millet is derived from the French word “mille’’ which means thousand, with a handful of millet containing up to 1000 grains ( Shahidi & Chandrasekara, 2013 Shahidi, F., & Chandrasekara, A. (2013). Millet grain phenolics and their role in diseases risk reduction and health promotion – review. Journal of Functional Foods , 5(2), 570-581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.02.004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.02...
). Millet belongs to the group of small-seeded species of cereal crops or grains which are annual plants ( Shiihii et al., 2011 Shiihii, S. U., Musa, H., Bhati, P. G., & Martins, E. (2011). Evaluation of physicochemical properties of Eleusine coracana starch. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(1), 91-102. ). Finger millet, a member of the millet group and also known as ragi or tamba ( Jideani et al., 1996 Jideani, I. A., Takeda, Y., & Hizukuri, S. (1996). Structures and physiochemical properties of acha (Digitaria exilis), iburu (D. iburua ) and tamba (Eleusine coracana). Cereal Chemistry, 73(6), 677-685. Retrieved from http://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1996/documents/73_677.pdf
http://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/...
; Ramashia et al., 2018 Ramashia, S. E., Gwata, E. T., Meddows-Taylor, S., Anyasi, T. A., & Jideani, A. I. O. (2018). Some physical and functional properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) obtained in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Research International, 104, 113-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.065. PMid:29433775.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.201...
) is so called due to its growth form of panicles which takes the form of several fingers ( Sood et al., 2017 Sood, S., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2017). Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]: a minor crop for sustainable food and nutrition. Mini Review. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 29(4), 707-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017.20284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017....
). The grain belongs to the family Poaceae which originated in Ethiopia and the sub-family Chloridodeae ( Pradeep & Sreerama, 2015 Pradeep, P. M., & Sreerama, Y. N. (2015). Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: Evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia. Food Chemistry, 9, 455-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.010. PMid:25236251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
; Sood et al., 2016 Sood, S., Komar, A., Babu, B. K., Gaur, V. S., Pandey, D., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2016). Gene, discovery and advances in Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Genomics-An important nutri-cereal of future. Frontiers in Plant Science , 7, 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01634.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.016...
; Ramashia et al., 2018 Ramashia, S. E., Gwata, E. T., Meddows-Taylor, S., Anyasi, T. A., & Jideani, A. I. O. (2018). Some physical and functional properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) obtained in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Research International, 104, 113-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.065. PMid:29433775.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.201...
). Different cultivars of FM grain exist: brown, light brown and white ( Devi et al., 2014 Devi, P. B., Vijayabharathi, R., Sathyabama, S., Malleshi, N. G., & Priyadarisini, V. B. (2014). Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L) polyphenols and dietary fibre – Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 6(6), 1021-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0584-9. PMid:24876635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-05...
; Kumar et al., 2016 Kumar, A., Metwal, M., Kaur, S., Gupta, A. K., Puranik, S. S., Singh, M., Singh, M., Gupta, S., Babu, B. K., Sood, S., & Yadav, R. (2016). Nutraceutical value of finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], and their improvement using omics approaches. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00934.
http://dx.doi.org/ ...
), with grain colour used as the distinct means of cultivar differentiation. The white cultivars have been developed mainly for the baking industry, the brown and light brown types used for porridge while the brown cultivar is utilised for brewing traditional opaque beer in Southern Africa ( Sood et al., 2017 Sood, S., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2017). Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]: a minor crop for sustainable food and nutrition. Mini Review. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 29(4), 707-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017.20284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017....
).

The grain is a semi-arid region crop cultivated in dry areas with limited rainfall and can adapt to various agro-climatic conditions ( Gull et al., 2014 Gull, A., Jan, R., Nayik, G. A., Prasad, K., & Kumar, P. (2014). Significance of finger millet in nutrition, health and value added products: a review. Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering and Technology, 3(3), 1601-1608. Retrieved from www.jecet.org ). Period of cultivation of the grain is February and August with the period of harvest set in June or January. Finger millet grains are cultivated in Nepal ( Adhikari, 2012 Adhikari, R. K. (2012). Economic of finger millet (Eleusine coracana G.) Production and marketing in Peri urban area of Pokhara valley of Nepal. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 4(60), 151-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JDAE11.119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JDAE11.119 ...
; Jideani, 2012 Jideani, I. A. (2012). Digitaria exilis (acha/ fonio), Digitaria iburua (iburu/ fonio) and Eleusine coracana (tamba/ finger millet) - Non-conventional cereal grains with potentials. Scientific Research and Essays, 7(45), 3834-3843. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416 ...
), Sri Lanka, Bhutan and the Himalayan regions of India. The grain is also cultivated in Taiwan, China, Japan (to a limited extent), as well as in South Carolina in the United States ( Mathur, 2012 Mathur, P. N. (2012). Global strategy for the ex situ conservation of finger millet and its wild relatives (pp. 1-62). New Delhi, India: Biodiversity International, Sub-regional Office for South Asia, NASC Complex, Pusa Campus. Retrieved from https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Finger-Millet-Strategy-FINAL-14May2012.pdf.
https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/up...
). About 55-60% of globally produced FM is cultivated in Africa ( Dlamini & Siwela, 2015 Dlamini, N. R., & Siwela, M. (2015). The future of grain science: the contribution of indigenous small grains to food security, nutrition, and health in South Africa. Cereal Foods World, 60(4), 177-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CFW-60-4-0177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CFW-60-4-0177...
), mainly in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe ( Mathur, 2012 Mathur, P. N. (2012). Global strategy for the ex situ conservation of finger millet and its wild relatives (pp. 1-62). New Delhi, India: Biodiversity International, Sub-regional Office for South Asia, NASC Complex, Pusa Campus. Retrieved from https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Finger-Millet-Strategy-FINAL-14May2012.pdf.
https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/up...
). The grain is widely cultivated in Africa using different names ( Table 1 ). The total annual production of all millets worldwide is approximately 4.5-5 million tons ( Table 2 ), with India alone producing about 2.5 million tons and some countries in Africa accounting for about 2 million tons of the grains ( Mathur, 2012 Mathur, P. N. (2012). Global strategy for the ex situ conservation of finger millet and its wild relatives (pp. 1-62). New Delhi, India: Biodiversity International, Sub-regional Office for South Asia, NASC Complex, Pusa Campus. Retrieved from https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Finger-Millet-Strategy-FINAL-14May2012.pdf.
https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/up...
). India is thus reported to be the largest producer of FM ( Wankhede et al., 1979 Wankhede, D. B., Shehnaj, A., & Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1979). Carbohydrate composition of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and foxtail millet (Setaria Italica). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) , 4(4), 293-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01095511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01095511 ...
; Pandhre et al., 2011 Pandhre, G. R., Satwase, A. N., & Hashmi, A. I. (2011). Studies on drying characteristics and nutritional composition of sprouted wheat and finger millet. International Journal of Current Research, 3(7), 218-221. Retrieved from http://www.journalcra.com/sites/default/files/Download%20864.pdf
http://www.journalcra.com/sites/default...
), contributing a total of 60% of the global production ( Gull et al., 2014 Gull, A., Jan, R., Nayik, G. A., Prasad, K., & Kumar, P. (2014). Significance of finger millet in nutrition, health and value added products: a review. Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering and Technology, 3(3), 1601-1608. Retrieved from www.jecet.org ). Apart from India being its largest producer, FM is the oldest cultivated cereal crop in India and is referred to as “nrttakondaka”, although also named “rajika’’ or “markataka” which means dancing grain ( Shobana et al., 2013 Shobana, S., Krishnaswamy, K., Sudha, V., Malleshi, N. G., Anjana, R. M., Palaniappan, L., & Mohan, V. (2013). Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.). Review of its nutritional properties, processing and plausible health benefits. Chapter 1. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 69, 1-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-410540-9.00001-6. PMid:23522794.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-410...
). In terms of production in the semi-arid regions, FM ranks fourth after sorghum, pearl millet and foxtail millet respectively ( Shiihii et al., 2011 Shiihii, S. U., Musa, H., Bhati, P. G., & Martins, E. (2011). Evaluation of physicochemical properties of Eleusine coracana starch. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(1), 91-102. ; Mathur, 2012 Mathur, P. N. (2012). Global strategy for the ex situ conservation of finger millet and its wild relatives (pp. 1-62). New Delhi, India: Biodiversity International, Sub-regional Office for South Asia, NASC Complex, Pusa Campus. Retrieved from https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Finger-Millet-Strategy-FINAL-14May2012.pdf.
https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/up...
).

Table 1
Common names of finger millet (Eleusine coracana).
Table 2
African countries that produce millet grains in thousands per tons from 2010-2014.

Finger millet grains are gluten-free, non-acid-forming ( Muthamilarasan et al., 2016 Muthamilarasan, M., Dhaka, A., Yadav, R., & Prasad, M. (2016). Exploration of millet models for developing nutrients rich graminaceous crops. Plant Science , 242, 89-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2015.08.023. PMid:26566827.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.20...
), easy to digest with low glycemic index foods ( Manjula & Visvanathan, 2014 Manjula, B., & Visvanathan, R. (2014). Process optimisation of extruded breakfast cereal from rice mill brokens-finger millet-maize flour blends. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3(4), 66-71. Retrieved from www.ifans.com/currentissue.html ). Its low glycemic index food property is reported to be a good choice for people with celiac disease (disease caused by gluten-containing cereal protein ingestion) and diabetes as consumption of the grain assist in the regulation of blood glucose level ( Jideani & Jideani, 2011 Jideani, I. A., & Jideani, V. A. (2011). Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua ( iburu). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(3), 251-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0208-9. PMid:23572743.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-02...
). The grains consist of nutrients: dietary fibre, carbohydrates, iron and calcium in high concentration when compared to other cereal grains ( Sood et al., 2016 Sood, S., Komar, A., Babu, B. K., Gaur, V. S., Pandey, D., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2016). Gene, discovery and advances in Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Genomics-An important nutri-cereal of future. Frontiers in Plant Science , 7, 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01634.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.016...
). Finger millet grains also contain high amount of magnesium and phosphorus. Absorption and utilization of these nutrients in the human body contributes to the reduction of chronic diseases such as lowering of high blood pressure, ischemic strokes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, obesity and type II diabetes ( Kaur et al., 2014 Kaur, K. D., Jha, A., Sabikhi, L., & Singh, A. K. (2014). Significance of coarse cereals in health and nutrition: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 51(8), 1429-1441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0612-9. PMid:25114333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-06...
; Ramashia et al., 2018 Ramashia, S. E., Gwata, E. T., Meddows-Taylor, S., Anyasi, T. A., & Jideani, A. I. O. (2018). Some physical and functional properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) obtained in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Research International, 104, 113-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.065. PMid:29433775.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.201...
). Krishnan et al. (2012) Krishnan, R., Dharmaraj, U., & Malleshi, N. G. (2012). Influence of decortication, popping and malting on bioavailability of calcium, iron and zinc in finger millet. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 48(2), 169-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03...
reported that FM grains contain polyphenols and phytates which are known to influence the availability of minerals.

Processing of FM grains comprises both the traditional and modern methods. The traditional method of processing can be employed in the manufacture of value-added products such as soaked, cooked, malted, papad, fermented, popped or puffed, extruded and multi-grain flour ( Sood et al., 2017 Sood, S., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2017). Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]: a minor crop for sustainable food and nutrition. Mini Review. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 29(4), 707-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017.20284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017....
). Traditional method of FM processing also includes a method of spreading and drying the grains in the sun for a period of one week. Upon drying, the grains are stored in a bag and later used for the processing and manufacture of different food products ( Young, 1999 Young, R. (1999). Finger miller processing in East Africa. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 8(1-2), 31-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02042840.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02042840 ...
). Dried FM grains can be stored for more than 5-10 y, but a major hurdle is that the grains are very tiny and not easy to handle. The grains are resistant to diseases and insects but are easily invaded by fungal disease ( Usai et al., 2013 Usai, T., Nyamunda, B. C., & Mutonhodza, B. (2013). Malt quality parameters of finger millet for brewing commercial opaque beer. International Journal of Science and Research, 2(9), 146-149. Retrieved from https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v2i9/MTIwMTMxMzk=.pdf
https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v2i9/MTIwM...
; Sood et al., 2016 Sood, S., Komar, A., Babu, B. K., Gaur, V. S., Pandey, D., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2016). Gene, discovery and advances in Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Genomics-An important nutri-cereal of future. Frontiers in Plant Science , 7, 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01634.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.016...
). Despite its usefulness and health beneficial properties, there is little research and innovation on FM grains/ flours as compared to conventional cereal grains such as maize, sorghum, rice and wheat. This study therefore reviews the processing, nutritional and health benefits of FM as well as its use in value-added products.

2 Structure of finger millet grains

Finger millet grains are globular in shape and its diameter varies from 1.0 to 1.5 mm ( Siwela, 2009 Siwela, M. (2009). Finger millet grains phenolics and their impact on malt and cookie quality (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/28784/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/ha...
; Gull et al., 2014 Gull, A., Jan, R., Nayik, G. A., Prasad, K., & Kumar, P. (2014). Significance of finger millet in nutrition, health and value added products: a review. Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering and Technology, 3(3), 1601-1608. Retrieved from www.jecet.org ). The predominant cultivar of FM grains is the brown (purna) cultivar, with few varieties occurring as white (hamsa) ( Wankhede et al., 1979 Wankhede, D. B., Shehnaj, A., & Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1979). Carbohydrate composition of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and foxtail millet (Setaria Italica). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) , 4(4), 293-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01095511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01095511 ...
; Vadivoo et al., 1998 Vadivoo, A. S., Joseph, R., & Ganesan, N. M. (1998). Genetic variability and calcium contents in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) in relation to grain colour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 52(4), 353-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008074002390. PMid:10426122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:10080740023...
; Ramashia, 2018 Ramashia, S. E. (2018). Physical, functional and nutritional properties of flours from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) varieties fortified with vitamin B2 and zinc oxide (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245
http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245 ...
) and red cultivars ( Emmambux & Taylor, 2013 Emmambux, M. N., & Taylor, J. R. N. (2013). Morphology, physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches from cereals, legumes, and tubers cultivated in Africa – review. Starch, 65(9-10), 715-729. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/star.201200263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/star.20120026...
). Sood et al. (2017) Sood, S., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2017). Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]: a minor crop for sustainable food and nutrition. Mini Review. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 29(4), 707-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017.20284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017....
reported that FM grains consist of a unique grain characteristic of an utricle instead of a true caryopsis, thus making the pericarp not to be completely fused with the testa. Similarly, the structure of other millets such as pearl, foxtail, fonio and teff millet are regarded as caryopses. The term caryopses refers to a single-seeded fruit in which the fruit coat or pericarp surrounds the grain, adheres tightly to the grain coat ( Wrigley & Batey, 2010 Wrigley, C. W., & Batey, I. L. (2010). Cereal grains: assessing and managing quality. USA: CRC Press. . ) and has a brick red-coloured seed coat ( Patel et al., 2014 Patel, S., Naik, R. K., Sahu, R., & Nag, S. K. (2014). Entrepreneurship development through finger millet processing for better livelihood in production catchment. American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 8(2), 223-227. Retrieved from http://iasir.net/AIJRHASSpapers/AIJRHASS14-711.pdf
http://iasir.net/AIJRHASSpapers/AIJRHAS...
).

The uniqueness of FM grain imparts a characteristic of allowing the pericarp to be easily removed upon rubbing the grains with mortar and pestle. Another unique structural characteristic of FM grain is its five (5) layered-testa which has been implicated as one of the likely reasons for the presence of a high dietary fibre content in the grain ( Shobana et al., 2013 Shobana, S., Krishnaswamy, K., Sudha, V., Malleshi, N. G., Anjana, R. M., Palaniappan, L., & Mohan, V. (2013). Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.). Review of its nutritional properties, processing and plausible health benefits. Chapter 1. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 69, 1-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-410540-9.00001-6. PMid:23522794.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-410...
). The principal anatomical parts of the FM grains are pericarp, germ and the endosperm ( Figure 1 ). The pericarp is an outer thin layer which covers the grain and it is known as the glume. The grain pericarp consist of three (3) layers with varying thickness: the epicarp (outermost layer), mesocarp (middle layer) and endocarp (inner layer) ( Siwela, 2009 Siwela, M. (2009). Finger millet grains phenolics and their impact on malt and cookie quality (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/28784/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/ha...
; Wrigley & Batey, 2010 Wrigley, C. W., & Batey, I. L. (2010). Cereal grains: assessing and managing quality. USA: CRC Press. . ; Ramashia, 2018 Ramashia, S. E. (2018). Physical, functional and nutritional properties of flours from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) varieties fortified with vitamin B2 and zinc oxide (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245
http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245 ...
). Prior to further processing, the pericarp is removed from the kernel because it is a non-edible tissue ( Patel & Verma, 2015 Patel, S., & Verma, V. (2015). Ways for better utilization of FM through processing and value addition and enhance nutritional security among tribals. Global Journal of Medical Research Nutrition and Food Science, 15(1), 22-29. ). The endosperm forms the largest anatomical component of the kernel. Endosperm is attached to the seed coat and is used in the production of flour ( Palanisamy et al., 2012 Palanisamy, B. D., Rajendran, V., Sathyaseelan, S., Bhat, R., & Venkatesan, B. P. (2012). Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa ) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 63(1), 5-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011.591367. PMid:21696301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011...
).

Figure 1
Structure of finger millet grain. Source: Ramashia (2018) Ramashia, S. E. (2018). Physical, functional and nutritional properties of flours from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) varieties fortified with vitamin B2 and zinc oxide (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245
http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245 ...
.

3 Nutritional, antioxidant properties and potential health benefits of finger millet grains

Finger millet grains are said to contain essential minerals such as calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). The grains contain the highest amount of Ca, ranging from 162.0-358.0 mg/100 g when compared to other millet species ( Roopa & Premavalli, 2008 Roopa, S., & Premavalli, K. S. (2008). Effect of processing on starch fractions in different varieties of finger millet. Food Chemistry, 106(3), 875-882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.035.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
; Manjula et al., 2015 Manjula, K., Bhagath, Y. B., & Nagalakshmi, K. (2015). Effect of radiation processing on bioactive components of finger millet flour (Eleusine coracana L.). International Food Research Journal, 22(2), 556-560. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%202015/(16).pdf
http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%20...
). Calcium which is predominantly present in FM, plays an essential role in growing children, pregnant women, the elderly ( Jideani, 2012 Jideani, I. A. (2012). Digitaria exilis (acha/ fonio), Digitaria iburua (iburu/ fonio) and Eleusine coracana (tamba/ finger millet) - Non-conventional cereal grains with potentials. Scientific Research and Essays, 7(45), 3834-3843. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416 ...
; Chappalwar et al., 2013 Chappalwar, V. M., Peter, D., Bobde, H., & John, S. M. (2013). Quality characteristics of cookies prepared from oats and finger millet based composite flour. Engineering Science and Technology: An International Journal (Toronto, Ont.), 3(4), 667-683. Retrieved from http://www.estij.org/papers/vol3no42013/11vol3no4.pdf
http://www.estij.org/papers/vol3no42013...
) as well as in people suffering from obesity, diabetes and malnutrition ( Jayasinghe et al., 2013 Jayasinghe, M. A., Ekanayake, S., & Nugegoda, D. B. (2013). Effect of different milling methods on glycemic response of foods made with finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) flour. The Ceylon Medical Journal, 58(4), 148-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v58i4.6305. PMid:24385055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v58i4.630...
; Manjula et al., 2015 Manjula, K., Bhagath, Y. B., & Nagalakshmi, K. (2015). Effect of radiation processing on bioactive components of finger millet flour (Eleusine coracana L.). International Food Research Journal, 22(2), 556-560. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%202015/(16).pdf
http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%20...
). Deficiency of Ca in the body can be mitigated by consuming FM food products in the daily diet of both young and elderly people ( Towo et al., 2006 Towo, E., Mgoba, C., Ndossi, G. D., & Kimboka, S. (2006). Effect of phytate and iron-binging phenolics on the content and availability of iron and zinc in micronutrients fortified cereal flours. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 6(2), 1-13. ). Phosphorus, another mineral present in FM, contributes to the development of body tissue and energy metabolism ( Vanithasri et al., 2012 Vanithasri, J., Kanchana, S., Hemalatha, G., Vanniarajan, C., & Sahulhameed, M. (2012). Role of millets and its importance in new mellinium. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2(1), 35-47. Retrieved from http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjprcfile342.pdf
http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjpr...
; Ramashia et al., 2018 Ramashia, S. E., Gwata, E. T., Meddows-Taylor, S., Anyasi, T. A., & Jideani, A. I. O. (2018). Some physical and functional properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) obtained in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Research International, 104, 113-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.065. PMid:29433775.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.201...
), with concentration of P in FM ranging from 130.0-283.0 mg/g. Other minerals present in FM grains include iron with a concentration of 3-20% ( Rajiv et al., 2011 Rajiv, J., Soumya, C., Indrani, D., & Venkateswara Rao, G. (2011). Effect of replacement of wheat flour with finger millet flour (Eleusine coracana) on the batter microscopy, rheology and quality characteristics of muffins. Journal of Texture Studies, 42(6), 478-489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2011.00309.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2...
; Shukla & Srivastava, 2014 Shukla, K., & Srivastava, S. (2014). Evaluation of finger millet incorporated noodles for nutritive value and glycemic index. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 51(3), 527-534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0530-x. PMid:24587528.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-05...
) and magnesium implicated for the reduction of high blood pressure, severity of asthma, frequency of migraines and the risk of heart attack ( Saleh et al., 2013 Saleh, S. M., Zhang, Q., Chen, J., & Shen, Q. (2013). Millet grains, nutritional quality, processing and potential health benefits. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Technology, 12(3), 281-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.120...
; Verma & Patel, 2013 Verma, V., & Patel, S. (2013). Value added products from nutria-cereals, finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture , 25(3), 169-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10764.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10...
; Prashantha & Muralikrishna, 2014 Prashantha, M. R. S., & Muralikrishna, G. (2014). Arabinoxylan from finger millet (Eleusine coracana, v. Indaf 15) bran purification and characterization. Carbohydrates Polymers, 99, 800-807. ). In comparison with other millet species, FM grains are more nutritious ( Upadhyaya et al., 2011 Upadhyaya, H. D., Ramesh, S., Sharma, S., Singh, S. K., Varshney, S. K., Sarma, N. D. R. K., Ravishankar, C. R., Narasimhudu, Y., Reddy, V. G., Sahrawat, K. L., Dhanalakshmi, T. N., Mgonja, M. A., Parzies, H. K., Gowda, C. L. L., & Singh, S. (2011). Genetic diversity for grains nutrients contents in a core collection of finger millet, Eleusine coracana L. germplasm. Field Crops Research, 121(1), 42-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2010.11.017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2010.11...
; Adhikari, 2012 Adhikari, R. K. (2012). Economic of finger millet (Eleusine coracana G.) Production and marketing in Peri urban area of Pokhara valley of Nepal. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 4(60), 151-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JDAE11.119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JDAE11.119 ...
; Shobana et al., 2013 Shobana, S., Krishnaswamy, K., Sudha, V., Malleshi, N. G., Anjana, R. M., Palaniappan, L., & Mohan, V. (2013). Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.). Review of its nutritional properties, processing and plausible health benefits. Chapter 1. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 69, 1-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-410540-9.00001-6. PMid:23522794.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-410...
; Devi et al., 2014 Devi, P. B., Vijayabharathi, R., Sathyabama, S., Malleshi, N. G., & Priyadarisini, V. B. (2014). Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L) polyphenols and dietary fibre – Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 6(6), 1021-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0584-9. PMid:24876635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-05...
; Dlamini & Siwela, 2015 Dlamini, N. R., & Siwela, M. (2015). The future of grain science: the contribution of indigenous small grains to food security, nutrition, and health in South Africa. Cereal Foods World, 60(4), 177-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CFW-60-4-0177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CFW-60-4-0177...
), with higher mineral content and proximate composition ( Table 3 ), though the grain is still extremely neglected and widely underutilized ( Roopa & Premavalli, 2008 Roopa, S., & Premavalli, K. S. (2008). Effect of processing on starch fractions in different varieties of finger millet. Food Chemistry, 106(3), 875-882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.035.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
).

Table 3
Proximate composition and mineral contents of millet species.

Vitamins which are other nutrients present in FM grains are important micronutrients required by the human body for normal growth and self-maintenance. Vitamins are grouped into categories such as fat and water-soluble vitamins and a lack of vitamins may lead to vitamin deficiencies which can cause health problems ( Ottaway, 2008 Ottaway, P. B. (2008). Food fortification and supplementation. Technological, safety and regulatory aspects. England: CRC Press. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9781845694265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9781845694265...
; Dionex Corporation, 2010 Dionex Corporation. (2010). Determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins by HPLC (Technical Note, No. 89, LPN 2598). Sunnyvale: Dionex Corporation. Retrieved from https://tools.thermofisher.com/content/sfs/brochures/88784-TN89-HPLC-WaterFatSolubleVitamins-27Oct
https://tools.thermofisher.com/content/...
). Finger millet grains possess fat and water-soluble vitamins and are rich in vitamins A and B complex ( Table 4 ) ( Chappalwar et al., 2013 Chappalwar, V. M., Peter, D., Bobde, H., & John, S. M. (2013). Quality characteristics of cookies prepared from oats and finger millet based composite flour. Engineering Science and Technology: An International Journal (Toronto, Ont.), 3(4), 667-683. Retrieved from http://www.estij.org/papers/vol3no42013/11vol3no4.pdf
http://www.estij.org/papers/vol3no42013...
; Devi et al., 2014 Devi, P. B., Vijayabharathi, R., Sathyabama, S., Malleshi, N. G., & Priyadarisini, V. B. (2014). Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L) polyphenols and dietary fibre – Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 6(6), 1021-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0584-9. PMid:24876635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-05...
). However, vitamin C is absent in the dried grain ( Siwela, 2009 Siwela, M. (2009). Finger millet grains phenolics and their impact on malt and cookie quality (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/28784/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/ha...
). Finger millet grains contain 44.7% of essential amino acids ( Singh & Raghuvanshi, 2012 Singh, P., & Raghuvanshi, S. (2012). Finger millet for food and nutritional security. African Journal of Food Science, 6(4), 77-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010 ...
) including methionine, cysteine and tryptophan ( Jideani, 2012 Jideani, I. A. (2012). Digitaria exilis (acha/ fonio), Digitaria iburua (iburu/ fonio) and Eleusine coracana (tamba/ finger millet) - Non-conventional cereal grains with potentials. Scientific Research and Essays, 7(45), 3834-3843. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416 ...
; Manjula et al., 2015 Manjula, K., Bhagath, Y. B., & Nagalakshmi, K. (2015). Effect of radiation processing on bioactive components of finger millet flour (Eleusine coracana L.). International Food Research Journal, 22(2), 556-560. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%202015/(16).pdf
http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%20...
; Ramashia et al., 2018 Ramashia, S. E., Gwata, E. T., Meddows-Taylor, S., Anyasi, T. A., & Jideani, A. I. O. (2018). Some physical and functional properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) obtained in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Research International, 104, 113-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.065. PMid:29433775.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.201...
), lysine ( Mamatha & Begum, 2013 Mamatha, H. S., & Begum, J. M. (2013). Nutrition analysis and cooking quality of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) vermicelli with hypoglycemic foods. International Journal of Farm Sciences, 3(2), 56-62. Retrieved from https://www.inflibnet.ac.in/ojs/index.php/IJFS/article/download/2318/1883
https://www.inflibnet.ac.in/ojs/index.p...
); isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine ( Sood et al., 2017 Sood, S., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2017). Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]: a minor crop for sustainable food and nutrition. Mini Review. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 29(4), 707-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017.20284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017....
) as well as threonine ( Table 5 ) which helps to lower cholesterol levels and reduce risk of cancer and obesity in the human body ( Mathanghi & Sudha, 2012 Mathanghi, S. K., & Sudha, K. (2012). Functional and Phytochemical properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) for health. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences, 2(4), 431-438. Retrieved from http://www.ijpcbs.com/files/volume2-4-2012/4.pdf
http://www.ijpcbs.com/files/volume2-4-2...
; Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
). The grains contain the highest amount of methionine (194 mg/g) when compared to other millet species ( Singh et al., 2012 Singh, K. P., Mishra, A., & Mishra, H. N. (2012). Fuzzy analysis of sensory attributes of bread prepared from millet-based composite flours. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 48, 276-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.026.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03...
; Prashantha & Muralikrishna, 2014 Prashantha, M. R. S., & Muralikrishna, G. (2014). Arabinoxylan from finger millet (Eleusine coracana, v. Indaf 15) bran purification and characterization. Carbohydrates Polymers, 99, 800-807. ).

Table 4
Major vitamin content and fatty acids of finger millet.
Table 5
Essential and non-essential amino acids of finger millet.

Finger millet grains also contain essential fatty acids such as linolenic and palmitic acids which are essential for the development of brain and neural tissue ( Kunyanga et al., 2013 Kunyanga, C. N., Imungi, J. K., & Vellingiri, V. (2013). Nutritional evaluation of indigenous foods with potential food-based solution to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in Kenya. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 67(0), 5277-5288. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v67i0.95049.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v67i0.950...
; Muthamilarasan et al., 2016 Muthamilarasan, M., Dhaka, A., Yadav, R., & Prasad, M. (2016). Exploration of millet models for developing nutrients rich graminaceous crops. Plant Science , 242, 89-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2015.08.023. PMid:26566827.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.20...
). Fat which contributes to better storage properties and helps to prevent obesity risk, and/ or regulate body weight ( Singh et al., 2012 Singh, K. P., Mishra, A., & Mishra, H. N. (2012). Fuzzy analysis of sensory attributes of bread prepared from millet-based composite flours. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 48, 276-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.026.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03...
; Verma & Patel, 2013 Verma, V., & Patel, S. (2013). Value added products from nutria-cereals, finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture , 25(3), 169-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10764.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10...
; Gunashree et al., 2014 Gunashree, B. S., Kumar, R. S., Roobini, R., & Venkateswaran, G. (2014). Nutrients and antinutrients of ragi and wheat as influenced by traditional processes. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(7), 720-736. Retrieved from http://ir.cftri.com/12404
http://ir.cftri.com/12404 ...
), has low occurrence (1-2%) in FM grain. Conversely, other millet grains contain higher amount of fat ranging from 3.5-5.2% ( Shahidi & Chandrasekara, 2013 Shahidi, F., & Chandrasekara, A. (2013). Millet grain phenolics and their role in diseases risk reduction and health promotion – review. Journal of Functional Foods , 5(2), 570-581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.02.004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.02...
). Low fat content together with dietary fibre and higher amounts of carbohydrates which are available in the form of non-starchy polysaccharides are essential in providing nutritional and physiological benefits such as hypocholestrolaemic and hypoglycemic effects ( Vanithasri et al., 2012 Vanithasri, J., Kanchana, S., Hemalatha, G., Vanniarajan, C., & Sahulhameed, M. (2012). Role of millets and its importance in new mellinium. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2(1), 35-47. Retrieved from http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjprcfile342.pdf
http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjpr...
; Banusha & Vasantharuba, 2013 Banusha, S., & Vasantharuba, S. (2013). Effect of malting on nutritional contents of finger millet and mung bean. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 13(12), 1642-1646. http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2013.13.12.12285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes....
). Dietary fibre which contributes to high nutritional and functional importance is also present in FM grains. Dietary fibre which is classified into cellulose, pectin, arabinoxylan, lignin and β-glucan ( Prashantha & Muralikrishna, 2014 Prashantha, M. R. S., & Muralikrishna, G. (2014). Arabinoxylan from finger millet (Eleusine coracana, v. Indaf 15) bran purification and characterization. Carbohydrates Polymers, 99, 800-807. ), assist in determining the end-use quality of cereal-based food products.

Tryptin inhibitors, phytate, phytic acid, tannins and flavonoids which are present in FM grains are reported to contribute in reducing the bioavailability of minerals which brings about a reduction in the nutritional quality of FM ( Palanisamy et al., 2012 Palanisamy, B. D., Rajendran, V., Sathyaseelan, S., Bhat, R., & Venkatesan, B. P. (2012). Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa ) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 63(1), 5-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011.591367. PMid:21696301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011...
). However, phenolic acids and tannins are the main polyphenols present in FM, while flavonoids are reported to be available in small amounts. Polyphenols are regarded as major antioxidants that conduct activities which help to maintain the body immune system. Polyphenols occur naturally in a wide range of food products including FM grains ( Siwela et al., 2007 Siwela, M., Taylor, J. R. N., de Milliano, W. A. J., & Duodu, K. G. (2007). Occurrence and location of tannins in finger millet grain and antioxidant activity of different grain type. Cereal Chemistry, 84(2), 169-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-84-2-0169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-84-2-01...
; Devi et al., 2014 Devi, P. B., Vijayabharathi, R., Sathyabama, S., Malleshi, N. G., & Priyadarisini, V. B. (2014). Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L) polyphenols and dietary fibre – Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 6(6), 1021-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0584-9. PMid:24876635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-05...
; Udeh et al., 2017 Udeh, H. O., Doudu, K. G., & Jideani, A. I. O. (2017). Finger millet bioactive compounds, bioaccessibility, and potential health effects – a review. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 35(1), 7-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.17221/206/2016-CJFS.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17221/206/2016-CJF...
). Tannins in the outer layer of the grain, serves as a physical barrier to fungal invasion ( Devi et al., 2014 Devi, P. B., Vijayabharathi, R., Sathyabama, S., Malleshi, N. G., & Priyadarisini, V. B. (2014). Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L) polyphenols and dietary fibre – Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 6(6), 1021-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0584-9. PMid:24876635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-05...
) and plays an important role in the biological function of plants and humans. However, their anti-nutritional effects are partly negative because they reduce the digestibility of nutrients and the absorption of minerals. Recent studies have shown that some processing methods such as malting, fermentation, decortication, soaking, and steaming can improve the bio-availability of these nutrients ( Sood et al., 2017 Sood, S., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2017). Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]: a minor crop for sustainable food and nutrition. Mini Review. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 29(4), 707-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017.20284.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017....
; Sripriya et al., 1997 Sripriya, G., Antony, U., & Chandra, T. S. (1997). Changes in carbohydrate, free amino acids, organic acids, phytate and HCl extractability of minerals during germination and fermentation of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Food Chemistry , 58(4), 345-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00206-3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96...
; Platel et al., 2010 Platel, K., Eipeson, S. W., & Srinivasan, K. (2010). Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(13), 8100-8103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf100846e. PMid:20560601.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf100846e ...
; Krishnan et al., 2012 Krishnan, R., Dharmaraj, U., & Malleshi, N. G. (2012). Influence of decortication, popping and malting on bioavailability of calcium, iron and zinc in finger millet. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 48(2), 169-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03...
; Dharmaraj and Malleshi, 2011 Dharmaraj, U., & Malleshi, N. G. (2011). Changes in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids of finger millet after hydrothermal processing. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 44(7), 1636-1642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.08.014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.08...
). Tannins also inhibit growth because of their negative influence on the function of pancreases, the thyroid gland and can result in pathological alteration of the liver. Tannin compounds have been reported to affect colour, flavour, nutritional quality of the grains and products prepared from FM ( Table 6 ). The compound also contributes to the antioxidant activity of FM foods which has been an important factor in healthy aging and the prevention of metabolic disease ( Shibairo et al., 2014 Shibairo, S. I., Nyongesa, O., Onwonga, R., & Ambuko, J. (2014). Variation of nutritional and anti-nutritional contents in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) genotypes. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7(11), 6-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/2380-071110612. [Retrieved from http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-javs/papers/vol7-issue11/Version-1/B071110612.pdf]
http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/2380-07111061...
).

Table 6
Potential health compounds of finger millet.

Health benefits of FM grains include slow release of glucose into the blood stream during digestion ( Chappalwar et al., 2013 Chappalwar, V. M., Peter, D., Bobde, H., & John, S. M. (2013). Quality characteristics of cookies prepared from oats and finger millet based composite flour. Engineering Science and Technology: An International Journal (Toronto, Ont.), 3(4), 667-683. Retrieved from http://www.estij.org/papers/vol3no42013/11vol3no4.pdf
http://www.estij.org/papers/vol3no42013...
; Mamatha & Begum, 2013 Mamatha, H. S., & Begum, J. M. (2013). Nutrition analysis and cooking quality of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) vermicelli with hypoglycemic foods. International Journal of Farm Sciences, 3(2), 56-62. Retrieved from https://www.inflibnet.ac.in/ojs/index.php/IJFS/article/download/2318/1883
https://www.inflibnet.ac.in/ojs/index.p...
) as well as its effect in reducing constipation ( Vanithasri et al., 2012 Vanithasri, J., Kanchana, S., Hemalatha, G., Vanniarajan, C., & Sahulhameed, M. (2012). Role of millets and its importance in new mellinium. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2(1), 35-47. Retrieved from http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjprcfile342.pdf
http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjpr...
). Finger millet grains are also reported to be associated with lowering the risk of diabetes, reduction of blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases ( Pradeep & Sreerama, 2015 Pradeep, P. M., & Sreerama, Y. N. (2015). Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: Evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia. Food Chemistry, 9, 455-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.010. PMid:25236251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
). Consumption of the grain has also been reported to reduce the risk of cancer ( Subastri et al., 2015 Subastri, A., Ramamurthy, C., Suyavaran, A., Mareeswaran, R., Mandal, P., Rellegadla, S., & Thirunavukkarasu, C. (2015). Nutrient profile of porridge made from Eleusine coracana (L.) grains: effect of germination and fermentation. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(9), 6024-6030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1713-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-17...
) and help to lower cholesterol levels ( Table 6 ) ( Asharani et al., 2010 Asharani, V. T., Jayadeep, A., & Malleshi, N. G. (2010). Natural antioxidants in edible flours of selected small millets. International Journal of Food Properties , 13(1), 41-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942910802163105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1094291080216...
). Finger millet starch is used in the pharmaceutical industries as a binder for the preparation of granules and capsule dosage forms ( Shiihii et al., 2011 Shiihii, S. U., Musa, H., Bhati, P. G., & Martins, E. (2011). Evaluation of physicochemical properties of Eleusine coracana starch. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(1), 91-102. ). Other benefits of FM are development and repair of body tissue, prevention of gallstones, protection against breast cancer and protection against postmenopausal women and childhood cancer ( Verma & Patel, 2013 Verma, V., & Patel, S. (2013). Value added products from nutria-cereals, finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture , 25(3), 169-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10764.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10...
). The grains are also consumed as whole grains, are easily digestible and taste good ( Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
). Finger millet grains are among the most important cereal grains for low socioeconomic communities especially Africa and some parts of Asian countries due to the grains serving as good sources of vitamins and fatty acids ( Das et al., 2012 Das, A., Raychaudhuri, Y., & Chakraborty, R. (2012). Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent - a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 49(6), 665-672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0474-1. PMid:24293685.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-04...
; Verma & Patel, 2013 Verma, V., & Patel, S. (2013). Value added products from nutria-cereals, finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture , 25(3), 169-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10764.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10...
; Rurinda et al., 2014 Rurinda, J., Mapfumo, P., van Wijk, M. T., Mtambanengwe, F., Rufino, M. C., Chikowo, R., & Giller, K. E. (2014). Comparative assessment of maize, finger millet and sorghum for household food security in the face of increasing climatic risk. European Journal of Agronomy , 55, 29-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2013.12.009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2013.12...
).

4 Processing methods of finger millet grains

Processing of FM grains through modern and traditional means, assist in converting the grains to edible forms of food products. Traditional forms of processing the grains include soaking, germination, malting, fermentation, milling or grinding, cooking, roasting and popping or puffing ( Table 7 ) carried out mostly in rural areas ( Hemalatha et al., 2007 Hemalatha, S., Platel, K., & Srinivasan, K. (2007). Influence of germination and fermentation on bioaccessibility of zinc and iron from food grains. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(3), 342-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602524. PMid:16969377.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.16025...
; Saleh et al., 2013 Saleh, S. M., Zhang, Q., Chen, J., & Shen, Q. (2013). Millet grains, nutritional quality, processing and potential health benefits. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Technology, 12(3), 281-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.120...
; Dutta et al., 2015 Dutta, A., Mukherjee, R., Gupta, A., Ledda, A., & Chakraborty, R. (2015). Ultrastructural and physicochemical characteristics of rice under various conditions of puffing. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(11), 7037-7047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1808-1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-18...
). The traditional processing of FM food products has received poor scientific applications especially in the developing countries. Thus, the use of modern processing technology in the manufacture of commercial products from FM is required ( Saleh et al., 2013 Saleh, S. M., Zhang, Q., Chen, J., & Shen, Q. (2013). Millet grains, nutritional quality, processing and potential health benefits. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Technology, 12(3), 281-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.120...
; Subastri et al., 2015 Subastri, A., Ramamurthy, C., Suyavaran, A., Mareeswaran, R., Mandal, P., Rellegadla, S., & Thirunavukkarasu, C. (2015). Nutrient profile of porridge made from Eleusine coracana (L.) grains: effect of germination and fermentation. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(9), 6024-6030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1713-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-17...
).

Table 7
Technological processes of finger millet food products.

Availability of value-added convenience food products from FM grains/ flours in urban areas promotes its consumption ( Gunashree et al., 2014 Gunashree, B. S., Kumar, R. S., Roobini, R., & Venkateswaran, G. (2014). Nutrients and antinutrients of ragi and wheat as influenced by traditional processes. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(7), 720-736. Retrieved from http://ir.cftri.com/12404
http://ir.cftri.com/12404 ...
). Most research on FM has been conducted on the development of composite flours and extruded products which also increases the availability and awareness of FM food products in urban areas ( Patel & Verma, 2015 Patel, S., & Verma, V. (2015). Ways for better utilization of FM through processing and value addition and enhance nutritional security among tribals. Global Journal of Medical Research Nutrition and Food Science, 15(1), 22-29. ). Presently, food scientists are more interested in neglected minor grains such as FM in order to reduce hunger and food shortage in developing countries. Accordingly, a huge percentage of people living in developing countries have limited access to animal food products, hence the need to consume highly nutritional FM food products that contributes significantly to their health ( Tripathi & Platel, 2010 Tripathi, B., & Platel, K. (2010). Finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) flour as a vehicle for fortification with zinc. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 24(1), 46-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2009.09.001. PMid:20122580.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2009....
; Akhtar et al., 2011 Akhtar, S., Anjum, F. M., & Anjum, M. A. (2011). Micronutrient fortification of wheat flour: recent development and strategies. Food Research International , 44(3), 752-659. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.12.033.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.201...
; Kunyanga et al., 2013 Kunyanga, C. N., Imungi, J. K., & Vellingiri, V. (2013). Nutritional evaluation of indigenous foods with potential food-based solution to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in Kenya. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 67(0), 5277-5288. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v67i0.95049.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v67i0.950...
).

4.1 Soaking

Soaking is a process of adding distilled water to FM grains until the grains are fully steeped in water and left for an overnight period at an ambient temperature of 30 to 60 °C. The soaked water will then be discarded and the FM grains thoroughly cleaned and washed using clean water to remove foreign materials. The washed grains are then dried in a hot air oven at 60 °C for 90 min before milling to flour ( Banusha & Vasantharuba, 2013 Banusha, S., & Vasantharuba, S. (2013). Effect of malting on nutritional contents of finger millet and mung bean. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 13(12), 1642-1646. http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2013.13.12.12285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes....
). Soaking thus reduces the availability of antinutritional compounds such as phytic acid which increases the bioavailability of minerals like zinc ( Saleh et al., 2013 Saleh, S. M., Zhang, Q., Chen, J., & Shen, Q. (2013). Millet grains, nutritional quality, processing and potential health benefits. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Technology, 12(3), 281-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.120...
).

4.2 Germination

It is a traditional process where the whole unhusked grains are soaked for 2-24 h and then spread on a damp cloth for up to 24-48 h or incubated at 30 °C for 48 h ( Shimray et al., 2012 Shimray, C. A., Gupta, S., & Venkateswara Rao, G. (2012). Effect of native and germinated finger millet flour on rheological and sensory characteristics of biscuits. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 47(11), 2413-2420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03117.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2...
). Germination process has been operated at low cost without the use of expensive equipment and it is an easily adaptable technology. Germination has been used for centuries to soften the kernel structure and improve the nutritional composition and concentration of carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and essential amino acids, thus increasing the functional properties of the grains ( Mbithi-Mwikya et al., 2000 Mbithi-Mwikya, S., van Camp, J., Yiru, Y., & Huyghebaert, A. (2000). Nutrient and antinutrients changes in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) during sprouting. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 33(1), 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1999.0605.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1999.060...
; Chove & Mamiro, 2010 Chove, E. B., & Mamiro, P. S. (2010). Effect of germination and autoclaving of sprouted finger millet and kidney beans on cyanide content. Tanzania Journal of Health , 12(4), 261-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0157-3. PMid:24409633.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-01...
; Pushparaj & Urooj, 2011 Pushparaj, F. S., & Urooj, A. (2011). Influence of processing of dietary fibre, tannin and in Vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2(08), 895-900. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.28122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.2812...
).

4.3 Malting

It is a combined process of steeping, germination, drying, toasting, grinding and sieving in order to achieve high nutritional quality, better starch digestibility, sensory properties and reduced antinutritional activities ( Table 7 ). Malting improves the fibre, crude fat, vitamin B, C and mineral content in the grains, while antinutritional activities of tannins and phytic acid in brown millet are decreased significantly. Malting is a common technology used in Africa as malted FM grains are considered of best quality when compared to malted sorghum and maize ( Banusha & Vasantharuba, 2013 Banusha, S., & Vasantharuba, S. (2013). Effect of malting on nutritional contents of finger millet and mung bean. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 13(12), 1642-1646. http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2013.13.12.12285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes....
; Sarkar et al., 2015 Sarkar, P., Lohith Kumar, D. H., Dhumal, C., Panigrahi, S. S., & Choudhary, R. (2015). Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin. Journal of Ethnic Foods , 2(3), 97-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08.003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08...
; Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
). Dlamini & Siwela, (2015) Dlamini, N. R., & Siwela, M. (2015). The future of grain science: the contribution of indigenous small grains to food security, nutrition, and health in South Africa. Cereal Foods World, 60(4), 177-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CFW-60-4-0177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CFW-60-4-0177...
reported that malted FM millet is produced in small scale among rural dwellers to brew local beverages. The brewed grains are then used for refreshment during community ceremonies and for consumption by farmers engaged in farming activities ( Rurinda et al., 2014 Rurinda, J., Mapfumo, P., van Wijk, M. T., Mtambanengwe, F., Rufino, M. C., Chikowo, R., & Giller, K. E. (2014). Comparative assessment of maize, finger millet and sorghum for household food security in the face of increasing climatic risk. European Journal of Agronomy , 55, 29-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2013.12.009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2013.12...
).

4.4 Milling or grinding

It is the most common traditional processing method that converts dried and moistened cereal grains into flour by using wooden or stoned mortar and pestle. Milling or grinding is normally practiced in developing countries by mostly women ( Young, 1999 Young, R. (1999). Finger miller processing in East Africa. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 8(1-2), 31-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02042840.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02042840 ...
). The milling process of grains consists of sorting, cleaning, hulling, branning and kilning for further processing ( Rasane et al., 2015 Rasane, P., Jha, A., Sabikhi, L., Kumar, A., & Unnikrishnan, V. S. (2015). Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for processing as value-added foods - Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(2), 662-675. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1072-1. PMid:25694675.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-10...
). Finger millet grain requires dehulling and debranning before consumption because FM grain contains large portions of husk and bran. During milling process, about 10% of water is added to the grain in order to facilitate the removal of fibrous husk. Milling is mostly done to remove the fibrous coarse bran or the seed coat of the grains. Furthermore, removal of some phytochemicals such as phytates and tannin during milling improves the bioavailability of iron ( Singh & Raghuvanshi, 2012 Singh, P., & Raghuvanshi, S. (2012). Finger millet for food and nutritional security. African Journal of Food Science, 6(4), 77-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010 ...
).

Other methods of milling includes the use of modern and conventional equipment/ machines, conventional stone mills, burr mills (steel or emery type), hammer mills and ball mills. Upon completion of the milling process, the fine flour obtained is used for preparing chapatti while the coarse flour is normally used in the preparation of mudde, a compact ball made from FM dough ( Table 7 ) and pez, a thin porridge or gruel ( Patel & Verma, 2015 Patel, S., & Verma, V. (2015). Ways for better utilization of FM through processing and value addition and enhance nutritional security among tribals. Global Journal of Medical Research Nutrition and Food Science, 15(1), 22-29. ).

4.5 Fermentation

Fermentation is a processing method widely used on FM grains whereby the raw material becomes the medium of growth for the microorganism. The fermentation process as a means of food processing has been employed traditionally and continues to be applied in the production of fermented foods and beverages in homes, villages and in small-scale industries ( Osungbaro, 2009 Osungbaro, T. O. (2009). Physical and nutritive properties of fermented cereal foods. African Journal of Food Science, 3(2), 23-27. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380633566_Taiwo.pdf
http://www.academicjournals.org/article...
). Finger millet may be fermented at room temperature for 24 to 72 h depending on the product or beverages intended to be produced. The most common indigenous FM based fermented food and beverages are produced in Africa ( Ranasalva & Visvanathan, 2014 Ranasalva, N., & Visvanathan, R. (2014). Development of bread from fermented pearl millet flour. Food Processing & Technology, 5(5), 2-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.100...
).

Presently, fermentation process has been upgraded and is now used in commercial industries to provide value-added products that meet the needs of the urban populace. It is also an economic process used for preserving food products ( Blandino et al., 2003 Blandino, A., Al-Aseeri, M. E., Pandiella, S. S., Cantero, D., & Webb, C. (2003). Cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. Food Research International, 36(6), 527-543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(03)00009-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(03...
). During the fermentation process, growing microorganisms produce their own byproducts such as acids or antibiotics as they break down starch. This process in turn inhibits spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, improves amino acid balance as well as the sensory quality and nutritional value of the grains ( Ranasalva & Visvanathan, 2014 Ranasalva, N., & Visvanathan, R. (2014). Development of bread from fermented pearl millet flour. Food Processing & Technology, 5(5), 2-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.100...
). Fermentation also provides health benefits by reducing antinutritional compounds such as tryptin, amylase inhibitor, phytic acid and tannins in cereal grains ( Rasane et al., 2015 Rasane, P., Jha, A., Sabikhi, L., Kumar, A., & Unnikrishnan, V. S. (2015). Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for processing as value-added foods - Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(2), 662-675. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1072-1. PMid:25694675.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-10...
). It should however be noted that each product of FM fermentation is associated with specific microorganisms ( Table 8 ).

Table 8
Common indigenous millet-based fermented foods and beverages.

4.6 Cooking

It is a processing method that involves boiling FM grains in water until the grain becomes soft, mashed and again mixed with water to give a final product soup. Grueling helps to reduce the microbial load and improves the desirable sensory quality of the cooked grain ( Khamgaonkar et al., 2013 Khamgaonkar, S. G., Singh, A., Chand, K., Shahi, N. C., & Lohani, U. C. (2013). Processing technologies of Uttarakhand of lesser known crops: an overview. Journal of Academic Industry Research, 1(8), 447-452. Retrieved from http://jairjp.com/JANUARY%202013/04%20KHAMGAONKAR.pdf
http://jairjp.com/JANUARY%202013/04%20K...
). Cooking of FM grains can also be prepared by mixing boiled water and flour to produce porridge ( Emmambux & Taylor, 2013 Emmambux, M. N., & Taylor, J. R. N. (2013). Morphology, physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches from cereals, legumes, and tubers cultivated in Africa – review. Starch, 65(9-10), 715-729. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/star.201200263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/star.20120026...
).

4.7 Puffing or popping

Puffing or popping is a traditional method used for producing ready-to-eat and stable shelf-life products which are crunchy and porous ( Singh & Raghuvanshi, 2012 Singh, P., & Raghuvanshi, S. (2012). Finger millet for food and nutritional security. African Journal of Food Science, 6(4), 77-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010 ...
; Dutta et al., 2015 Dutta, A., Mukherjee, R., Gupta, A., Ledda, A., & Chakraborty, R. (2015). Ultrastructural and physicochemical characteristics of rice under various conditions of puffing. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(11), 7037-7047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1808-1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-18...
). Puffing also involves soaking whole unhusked grains in water and mixing with sand heated at 250 °C for 15-60 s. ( Sarkar et al., 2015 Sarkar, P., Lohith Kumar, D. H., Dhumal, C., Panigrahi, S. S., & Choudhary, R. (2015). Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin. Journal of Ethnic Foods , 2(3), 97-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08.003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08...
; Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
). Puffed snack foods are desirable in terms of colour, texture, flavour and shape thereby enhancing consumer acceptability.

Presently, modern air puffed machines have been developed for the mass production of puffing millet grains. Puffed FM can be milled to flour and further enriched with additional ingredients ( Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
). Finger millet popped products have been reported to improve the pleasant aroma, acceptable taste and quality of grains by inactivating destructive bacteria ( Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
). Puffing on its part, increases the digestibility and solubility of starch due to gelatinization ( Table 7 ). Puffing also increases the dietary fibre of the final products and decreases antinutritional factors ( Choudhury et al., 2011 Choudhury, M., Das, P., & Baroova, B. (2011). Nutritional evaluation of popped and malted indigenous millet of Assam. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 48(6), 706-711. PMid:23572808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0157-3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-01...
; Sarkar et al., 2015 Sarkar, P., Lohith Kumar, D. H., Dhumal, C., Panigrahi, S. S., & Choudhary, R. (2015). Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin. Journal of Ethnic Foods , 2(3), 97-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08.003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08...
).

4.8 Roasting

It is a simple traditional technology commonly practiced in households and rural areas. Roasting is similar to puffing process but differs in the volume expansion which is higher in puffing. During roasting, the antinutritional or toxic effect such as saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, gioterogenic agents, tryptin inhibitor and hemagglutinin are removed. Roasting improves the nutritional quality and increases the shelf-life of the roasted grains ( Table 7 ). Processed foods obtained as a result of roasting of FM grains include weaning foods which increases the bioavailability of iron ( Singh & Raghuvanshi, 2012 Singh, P., & Raghuvanshi, S. (2012). Finger millet for food and nutritional security. African Journal of Food Science, 6(4), 77-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010 ...
; Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
).

4.9 Extrusion

It is a modern food processing method applied to foods and used in solving problems associated with the processing of small cereal based products in terms of physical state, quality, functionality and shelf-life extension ( Table 7 ). Extrusion process has many advantages in terms of preparation of ready-to-eat foods desired in different shapes, size, texture and sensory characteristics ( Vanithasri et al., 2012 Vanithasri, J., Kanchana, S., Hemalatha, G., Vanniarajan, C., & Sahulhameed, M. (2012). Role of millets and its importance in new mellinium. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2(1), 35-47. Retrieved from http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjprcfile342.pdf
http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjpr...
; Dhurve et al., 2015 Dhurve, P., Bakane, P. H., & Agrawal, S. (2015). Optimisation of process parameters of finger millet-soy pasta using response surface methodology. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 3(2), 415-427. Retrieved from http://pnrsolution.org/Datacenter/Vol3/Issue2/60.pdf
http://pnrsolution.org/Datacenter/Vol3/...
). Extrusion has also found application in solving the problem of malnutrition in developing countries due to its beneficial process. The cooking process employed is high temperature for a short time which is used in processing starchy materials. Common advantages of extrusion cooking include low cost, high productivity, speed and high product quality. Extrusion also assists in product development without waste, increases in-vitro protein digestibility, versatility, unique product shapes and energy savings ( Manjula & Visvanathan, 2014 Manjula, B., & Visvanathan, R. (2014). Process optimisation of extruded breakfast cereal from rice mill brokens-finger millet-maize flour blends. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3(4), 66-71. Retrieved from www.ifans.com/currentissue.html ; Divate et al., 2015 Divate, A., Sawant, A. A., & Thakor, N. J. (2015). Effect of extruder temperature on functional characteristics of finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L) Gaertn] based extrudates. Global Science Research Journals, 3(6), 239-246. Retrieved from http://www.globalscienceresearchjournals.org/gjas/877382015392.pdf
http://www.globalscienceresearchjournal...
; Gat & Ananthanarayan, 2015 Gat, Y., & Ananthanarayan, L. (2015). Effect of extrusion process parameters and pregelatinized rice flour on physico-chemical properties of ready-to-eat expanded snacks. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(5), 2634-2645. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1378-7. PMid:25892761.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-13...
). During the extrusion process, protein solubility and structure are decreased and disrupted when applied under high pressure and temperature ( Manjula & Visvanathan, 2014 Manjula, B., & Visvanathan, R. (2014). Process optimisation of extruded breakfast cereal from rice mill brokens-finger millet-maize flour blends. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3(4), 66-71. Retrieved from www.ifans.com/currentissue.html ). Extrusion is a process of gelatinizing and cooking the product completely until it is fully cooked, thereby leading to the production of different forms of food.

The extrusion process is extensively applied in food industries to make breakfast cereals and snacks. Flour from various plant sources can be prepared in different forms to produce common extruded products such as snacks, noodles, macaroni, spaghetti, baby foods and pasta which are preferred by children and teenagers. Furthermore, this technology can be applied in the preparation of pet foods which are very convenient and requires short time to prepare. Snacks are ready-to-eat products which are very popular and whose demand is increasing among all age groups ( Limsangouan et al., 2010 Limsangouan, N., Takenaka, M., Sotome, I., Nanamyama, K., Charunuch, C., & Isobe, S. (2010). Functional properties of cereal and legume based extruded snack foods fortified with by-products from herbs and vegetables. Journal of Natural Science , 44, 271-279. Retrieved from http://kasetsartjournal.ku.ac.th/kuj_files/2010/A1004071451290937.pdf
http://kasetsartjournal.ku.ac.th/kuj_fi...
; Siddhart, 2014 Siddhart, M. (2014). Determination of physical characteristics of extruded snack food prepared using little millet (Panicum sumatranc) based composite flours. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology , 2(7), 213-218. Retrieved from http://www.ijraset.com/fileserve.php?FID=659
http://www.ijraset.com/fileserve.php?FI...
; Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
; Masli et al., 2018 Masli, M. D. P., Gu, B.-J., Rasco, B. A., & Ganjyal, G. M. (2018). Fiber-rich food processing byproducts enhance the expansion of cornstarch extrudates. Journal of Food Science , 83(10), 2500-2510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.142...
). Fortification of extruded products with minerals and vitamins is also employed to balance the nutritional composition that is lost during processing and to prevent micronutrient deficiencies ( Towo et al., 2006 Towo, E., Mgoba, C., Ndossi, G. D., & Kimboka, S. (2006). Effect of phytate and iron-binging phenolics on the content and availability of iron and zinc in micronutrients fortified cereal flours. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 6(2), 1-13. ; Ottaway, 2008 Ottaway, P. B. (2008). Food fortification and supplementation. Technological, safety and regulatory aspects. England: CRC Press. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9781845694265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9781845694265...
). The extruded products can be coated with sweet or savory flavors to appeal to children ( Mariotti et al., 2006 Mariotti, M., Alamprese, C., Pagani, M. A., & Lucisano, M. (2006). Effect of puffing on ultrastructure and physical characteristics of cereal grains and flours. Journal of Cereal Science, 43(1), 47-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2005.06.007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2005.06...
; Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
).

4.10 Radiation process

Food irradiation technology is a process in which packed foods are subjected to controlled ionizing radiation in the form of x-rays, alpha, beta and gamma rays ( Manjula et al., 2015 Manjula, K., Bhagath, Y. B., & Nagalakshmi, K. (2015). Effect of radiation processing on bioactive components of finger millet flour (Eleusine coracana L.). International Food Research Journal, 22(2), 556-560. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%202015/(16).pdf
http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%20...
). The technology is also in the preservation of foods by extending their shelf-life. This contributes to better quality products, improves the nutritional quality of foods and reduces antinutritional compounds ( Singer et al., 2006 Singer, C. S., Sabato, S. F., & Tadini, C. C. (2006, April 26-28). Bread making properties of flour produced from irradiated wheat. In International Symposium on Future of Food Engineering. Warsaw, Poland: CIGR. Retrieved from http://www.cigr.org/Governance/technical-sections-6.php
http://www.cigr.org/Governance/technica...
; Pushparaj & Urooj, 2011 Pushparaj, F. S., & Urooj, A. (2011). Influence of processing of dietary fibre, tannin and in Vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2(08), 895-900. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.28122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.2812...
; Rodrigues et al., 2014 Rodrigues, M., Mandalika, S., Jamdar, S. N., & Sharma, A. (2014). Evaluation of the efficacy of malted, gamma irradiated and enzymatically processed finger millet-soybean blends in supporting growth of a mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 59, 908-914. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.07.006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.07...
). Food irradiation has been recommended by other researchers as an efficient, potential food preservation process used in food processing industries. The United States, France, Canada and United Kingdom are among 42 countries which have been given clearance to use radiation in their food processing industries ( Manjula et al., 2015 Manjula, K., Bhagath, Y. B., & Nagalakshmi, K. (2015). Effect of radiation processing on bioactive components of finger millet flour (Eleusine coracana L.). International Food Research Journal, 22(2), 556-560. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%202015/(16).pdf
http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%20...
).

Traditional processing technologies such as germination, soaking, fermentation, puffing and cooking reduces the level of tannins and phenols while increasing the bioavailability of micronutrients ( Devi et al., 2014 Devi, P. B., Vijayabharathi, R., Sathyabama, S., Malleshi, N. G., & Priyadarisini, V. B. (2014). Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L) polyphenols and dietary fibre – Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 6(6), 1021-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0584-9. PMid:24876635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-05...
; Gunashree et al., 2014 Gunashree, B. S., Kumar, R. S., Roobini, R., & Venkateswaran, G. (2014). Nutrients and antinutrients of ragi and wheat as influenced by traditional processes. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(7), 720-736. Retrieved from http://ir.cftri.com/12404
http://ir.cftri.com/12404 ...
; Sarkar et al., 2015 Sarkar, P., Lohith Kumar, D. H., Dhumal, C., Panigrahi, S. S., & Choudhary, R. (2015). Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin. Journal of Ethnic Foods , 2(3), 97-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08.003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08...
). However, new processing and preparation methods are needed to enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients and improve the quality of millet diets in humans ( Pradeep & Sreerama, 2015 Pradeep, P. M., & Sreerama, Y. N. (2015). Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: Evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia. Food Chemistry, 9, 455-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.010. PMid:25236251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
). The commercialisation of FM food products that may be consumed by people, especially those suffering from celiac disease and diabetes is important more so as the demand for gluten-free food product is increasing in urban areas ( Angioloni & Collar, 2012 Angioloni, A., & Collar, C. (2012). Effects of pressure treatment of hydrated oat, finger millet and sorghum flours on the quality and nutritional properties of composite wheat breads. Journal of Cereal Science, 56(3), 713-719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.08.001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.08...
).

5 Compositing finger millet flour and bakery products

Composite flour is a technological process of mixing wheat flour and flour from other cereal grains such as finger millet ( Devani et al., 2016 Devani, B. M., Jani, B. L., Kapopara, M. B., Vyas, D. M., & Ningthoujam, M. D. (2016). Study on quality of white bread enriched with finger millet flour. International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Biotechnology, 9(5), 903-907. http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/2230-732X.2016.00116.9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/2230-732X.201...
). Compositing is usually applied in the preparation of bakery products including biscuits, muffins, rusk, cakes and bread which possess good texture, appearance, flavour and sensory acceptability. The processing technique has also been used by mixing non-wheat flours, roots and tubers and other raw edible materials. Compositing has equally found application in the fortification of one material with another for enhanced nutritional quality and sensory attributes ( Rajiv et al., 2011 Rajiv, J., Soumya, C., Indrani, D., & Venkateswara Rao, G. (2011). Effect of replacement of wheat flour with finger millet flour (Eleusine coracana) on the batter microscopy, rheology and quality characteristics of muffins. Journal of Texture Studies, 42(6), 478-489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2011.00309.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2...
; Thapliyal and Singh 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
). Studies have been conducted where FM flour was combined with wheat flour to produce baked products and pastries ( Singh et al., 2012 Singh, K. P., Mishra, A., & Mishra, H. N. (2012). Fuzzy analysis of sensory attributes of bread prepared from millet-based composite flours. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 48, 276-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.026.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03...
; Sawant et al., 2013 Sawant, A. A., Thakor, N. J., Swami, S. B., & Divate, A. D. (2013). Physical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat food prepared from finger millet based composite mixer by extrusion. Agricultural Engineering International Journal, 15(1), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2265/1704
http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ej...
; Noorfarahzilah et al., 2014 Noorfarahzilah, M., Lee, J. S., Sharifodin, M. S., & Hasmadi, M. (2014). Application of composite flour in development of food products. International Food Research Journal, 21(6), 2061-2074. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/21%20(06)%202014/1%20IFRJ%2021%20(06)%202014%20Hasmadi%20124.pdf
http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/21%20(06)%20...
). The specified ratios of compositing leads to an increase in the concentration of proteins, fat, phosphorus, dietary fibre, calcium, ash content, tannin and phytic acid in the final processed food product ( Chhavi & Savita, 2012 Chhavi, A., & Savita, S. (2012). Evaluation of composite millet breads for sensory and nutritional qualities and glycemic response. Malnutrition Journal of Nutrition , 18(1), 89-101. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23713233
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/237...
; Thapliyal & Singh, 2015 Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf ...
). Furthermore, Shahidi & Chandrasekara (2013) Shahidi, F., & Chandrasekara, A. (2013). Millet grain phenolics and their role in diseases risk reduction and health promotion – review. Journal of Functional Foods , 5(2), 570-581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.02.004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.02...
and Patel et al. (2014) Patel, S., Naik, R. K., Sahu, R., & Nag, S. K. (2014). Entrepreneurship development through finger millet processing for better livelihood in production catchment. American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 8(2), 223-227. Retrieved from http://iasir.net/AIJRHASSpapers/AIJRHASS14-711.pdf
http://iasir.net/AIJRHASSpapers/AIJRHAS...
reported that most research on multigrain products have been focused mostly on gluten-free products and are regarded as the present day niche focus areas or markets.

6 Use and application of finger millet grains/flours

Finger millet grains are used primarily in the production of traditional foods such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages ( Table 8 ), while its flour is utilised in the manufacture of different types of FM value-added food products ( Figure 2 ). The grains are also used in the preparation of geriatric, infant and health foods both in the natural and malted form ( Kulkarni et al., 2012 Kulkarni, S. S., Desai, A. D., Ranveer, R. C., & Sahoo, A. K. (2012). Development of nutrient rich noodles by supplementation with malted ragi flour. International Food Research Journal, 19(1), 309-313. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/19%20(01)%202011/(41)IFRJ-2011-136%20Sahoo.pdf
http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/19%20(01)%20...
). Most food products of FM grain or flour origin are not commercialized, especially those produced in the developing countries. Conversely, food products obtained from sorghum and wheat are commercialised and sold in supermarkets or retail shops around the world ( Roopa & Premavalli, 2008 Roopa, S., & Premavalli, K. S. (2008). Effect of processing on starch fractions in different varieties of finger millet. Food Chemistry, 106(3), 875-882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.035.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.20...
; Siwela, 2009 Siwela, M. (2009). Finger millet grains phenolics and their impact on malt and cookie quality (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/28784/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/ha...
). Towo et al. (2006) Towo, E., Mgoba, C., Ndossi, G. D., & Kimboka, S. (2006). Effect of phytate and iron-binging phenolics on the content and availability of iron and zinc in micronutrients fortified cereal flours. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 6(2), 1-13. reported that foods prepared from grain/flour of FM differ from country to country and occasionally from region to region. Abulude et al. (2005) Abulude, F. O., Lawal, L. O., & Kayode, A. O. (2005). Effect of processing on some functional properties of millet (Eleusine coracana) flour. Journal of Food Technology, 3(3), 460-463. Retrieved from http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/jftech/2005/460-463.pdf
http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljourna...
also reported that FM grains are not toxic to health at any stage of consumption yet, FM grains are neglected despite their nutritional advantages.

Figure 2
Finger millet value-added products: (1) = finger millet flour; (2) = Ragi cookies, (3) = Finger millet roti and (4) = Ragi puttu. Source: Ramashia (2018) Ramashia, S. E. (2018). Physical, functional and nutritional properties of flours from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) varieties fortified with vitamin B2 and zinc oxide (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245
http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245 ...
.

Some recent studies on FM grain highlighting opportunities for research, utilisation and health benefits in developing countries are presented in Table 9 . The foregoing discussion shows that more research needs to be conducted on FM grains, especially in the developed countries, with research on FM focusing on the increased consumption of the grain products in developed countries ( Jideani, 2012 Jideani, I. A. (2012). Digitaria exilis (acha/ fonio), Digitaria iburua (iburu/ fonio) and Eleusine coracana (tamba/ finger millet) - Non-conventional cereal grains with potentials. Scientific Research and Essays, 7(45), 3834-3843. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416 ...
; Amadou et al., 2013 Amadou, I., Mahamadou, E. G., & Le, G.-W. (2013). Millets, nutritional composition, some health benefits and processing – Review. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 25(7), 501-508. http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i7.12045.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i7.12...
). This may help in reducing the occurrence of ischemic strokes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, obesity and type II diabetes especially among elderly people living in these countries ( Kaur et al., 2014 Kaur, K. D., Jha, A., Sabikhi, L., & Singh, A. K. (2014). Significance of coarse cereals in health and nutrition: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 51(8), 1429-1441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0612-9. PMid:25114333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-06...
).

Table 9
Identified research gaps on scientific investigation of finger millet grains/flours.

7 Conclusion

The grain FM can be seen to contribute to food security, especially for low income populations across the globe. Focus of previous research on traditional FM products and not on commercialized processed FM products, has made information on innovative research of FM to be scarce. This is more so when comparing studies on FM with that of other major cereals such as maize, wheat and rice. Moreover, the nutritional and health benefits of FM confer on this gluten-free cereal a huge potential for commercial exploitation. Though a lot of improvement still needs to be done in the commercialisation of African FM foods, ways of increasing utilization of the grains through traditional and commercial methods are also needed. There is thus a necessity for further research on FM by food scientists, government agencies, non-governmental organizations, research institutions and industries to generate more information on FM utilization. Commercialisation and development of value-added fortified FM and other gluten-free products holds a lot of potential as the availability of commercialised FM products in developed countries will assist in mitigating the incident of celiac disease and obesity.

  • Practical Application: Effects of processing on nutritional composition, health benefits and valorization of finger millet grains.

References

  • Abraham, B., Araya, H., Berhe, T., Edwards, S., Gujja, B., Khadka, R. B., Koma, D. S., Sharif, A., Styger, E., Uphoff, N., & Verma, A. (2014). The system of crop intensification: reports from the field on improving agricultural production, food security, and resilience to climate change for multiple crops. Agriculture & Food Security, 3(4), 1-12. Retrieved from http://www.agricultureandfoodsecurity.com/content/3/1/4
    » http://www.agricultureandfoodsecurity.com/content/3/1/4
  • Abulude, F. O., Lawal, L. O., & Kayode, A. O. (2005). Effect of processing on some functional properties of millet (Eleusine coracana) flour. Journal of Food Technology, 3(3), 460-463. Retrieved from http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/jftech/2005/460-463.pdf
    » http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/jftech/2005/460-463.pdf
  • Adhikari, R. K. (2012). Economic of finger millet (Eleusine coracana G.) Production and marketing in Peri urban area of Pokhara valley of Nepal. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 4(60), 151-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JDAE11.119.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JDAE11.119
  • Akhtar, S., Anjum, F. M., & Anjum, M. A. (2011). Micronutrient fortification of wheat flour: recent development and strategies. Food Research International , 44(3), 752-659. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.12.033.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.12.033
  • Amadou, I., Mahamadou, E. G., & Le, G.-W. (2013). Millets, nutritional composition, some health benefits and processing – Review. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 25(7), 501-508. http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i7.12045.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i7.12045
  • Angioloni, A., & Collar, C. (2012). Effects of pressure treatment of hydrated oat, finger millet and sorghum flours on the quality and nutritional properties of composite wheat breads. Journal of Cereal Science, 56(3), 713-719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.08.001.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.08.001
  • Asharani, V. T., Jayadeep, A., & Malleshi, N. G. (2010). Natural antioxidants in edible flours of selected small millets. International Journal of Food Properties , 13(1), 41-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942910802163105.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942910802163105
  • Banusha, S., & Vasantharuba, S. (2013). Effect of malting on nutritional contents of finger millet and mung bean. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 13(12), 1642-1646. http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2013.13.12.12285.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2013.13.12.12285
  • Belton, P. S., & Taylor, J. R. N. (2004). Sorghum and millets: protein sources for Africa. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15(2), 94-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2003.09.002.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2003.09.002
  • Blandino, A., Al-Aseeri, M. E., Pandiella, S. S., Cantero, D., & Webb, C. (2003). Cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. Food Research International, 36(6), 527-543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(03)00009-7.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(03)00009-7
  • Blench, R. (2012). Finger millet: the contribution of vernacular names towards its prehistory. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 8(1), 79-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12520-012-0103-6.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12520-012-0103-6
  • Chandra, A., Singh, A. K., & Mahto, B. (2018). Processing and value addition of finger millet to achieve nutritional and financial security – case study. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7, 2901-2910. Retrieved from https://www.ijcmas.com/special/7/Anjali%20Chandra,%20et%20al.pdf
    » https://www.ijcmas.com/special/7/Anjali%20Chandra,%20et%20al.pdf
  • Chappalwar, V. M., Peter, D., Bobde, H., & John, S. M. (2013). Quality characteristics of cookies prepared from oats and finger millet based composite flour. Engineering Science and Technology: An International Journal (Toronto, Ont.), 3(4), 667-683. Retrieved from http://www.estij.org/papers/vol3no42013/11vol3no4.pdf
    » http://www.estij.org/papers/vol3no42013/11vol3no4.pdf
  • Chhavi, A., & Savita, S. (2012). Evaluation of composite millet breads for sensory and nutritional qualities and glycemic response. Malnutrition Journal of Nutrition , 18(1), 89-101. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23713233
    » https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23713233
  • Choudhury, M., Das, P., & Baroova, B. (2011). Nutritional evaluation of popped and malted indigenous millet of Assam. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 48(6), 706-711. PMid:23572808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0157-3.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0157-3
  • Chove, E. B., & Mamiro, P. S. (2010). Effect of germination and autoclaving of sprouted finger millet and kidney beans on cyanide content. Tanzania Journal of Health , 12(4), 261-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0157-3. PMid:24409633.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0157-3
  • Das, A., Raychaudhuri, Y., & Chakraborty, R. (2012). Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent - a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 49(6), 665-672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0474-1. PMid:24293685.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0474-1
  • Devani, B. M., Jani, B. L., Kapopara, M. B., Vyas, D. M., & Ningthoujam, M. D. (2016). Study on quality of white bread enriched with finger millet flour. International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Biotechnology, 9(5), 903-907. http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/2230-732X.2016.00116.9.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/2230-732X.2016.00116.9
  • Devi, P. B., Vijayabharathi, R., Sathyabama, S., Malleshi, N. G., & Priyadarisini, V. B. (2014). Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L) polyphenols and dietary fibre – Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 6(6), 1021-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0584-9. PMid:24876635.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0584-9
  • Dharmaraj, U., & Malleshi, N. G. (2011). Changes in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids of finger millet after hydrothermal processing. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 44(7), 1636-1642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.08.014.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2010.08.014
  • Dhurve, P., Bakane, P. H., & Agrawal, S. (2015). Optimisation of process parameters of finger millet-soy pasta using response surface methodology. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 3(2), 415-427. Retrieved from http://pnrsolution.org/Datacenter/Vol3/Issue2/60.pdf
    » http://pnrsolution.org/Datacenter/Vol3/Issue2/60.pdf
  • Dionex Corporation. (2010). Determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins by HPLC (Technical Note, No. 89, LPN 2598). Sunnyvale: Dionex Corporation. Retrieved from https://tools.thermofisher.com/content/sfs/brochures/88784-TN89-HPLC-WaterFatSolubleVitamins-27Oct
    » https://tools.thermofisher.com/content/sfs/brochures/88784-TN89-HPLC-WaterFatSolubleVitamins-27Oct
  • Divate, A., Sawant, A. A., & Thakor, N. J. (2015). Effect of extruder temperature on functional characteristics of finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L) Gaertn] based extrudates. Global Science Research Journals, 3(6), 239-246. Retrieved from http://www.globalscienceresearchjournals.org/gjas/877382015392.pdf
    » http://www.globalscienceresearchjournals.org/gjas/877382015392.pdf
  • Dlamini, N. R., & Siwela, M. (2015). The future of grain science: the contribution of indigenous small grains to food security, nutrition, and health in South Africa. Cereal Foods World, 60(4), 177-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CFW-60-4-0177.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CFW-60-4-0177
  • Dutta, A., Mukherjee, R., Gupta, A., Ledda, A., & Chakraborty, R. (2015). Ultrastructural and physicochemical characteristics of rice under various conditions of puffing. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(11), 7037-7047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1808-1.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1808-1
  • Emmambux, M. N., & Taylor, J. R. N. (2013). Morphology, physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches from cereals, legumes, and tubers cultivated in Africa – review. Starch, 65(9-10), 715-729. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/star.201200263.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/star.201200263
  • Fernandez, D. R., Vanderjagt, D. J., Millson, M., Huang, Y., Chuang, L., Pastuszyn, A., & Glew, R. H. (2003). Fatty acid, amino acid and trace mineral composition of Eleusine coracana (pwana) grains from Northern Nigeria. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 58(3), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:QUAL.0000040323.67339.cb. PMid:12859008.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:QUAL.0000040323.67339.cb
  • Food and Agricultural Organisation – FAO. (2016). Retrieved from http//faostat.fao.org
  • Gat, Y., & Ananthanarayan, L. (2015). Effect of extrusion process parameters and pregelatinized rice flour on physico-chemical properties of ready-to-eat expanded snacks. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(5), 2634-2645. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1378-7. PMid:25892761.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1378-7
  • Gull, A., Jan, R., Nayik, G. A., Prasad, K., & Kumar, P. (2014). Significance of finger millet in nutrition, health and value added products: a review. Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering and Technology, 3(3), 1601-1608. Retrieved from www.jecet.org
  • Gunashree, B. S., Kumar, R. S., Roobini, R., & Venkateswaran, G. (2014). Nutrients and antinutrients of ragi and wheat as influenced by traditional processes. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(7), 720-736. Retrieved from http://ir.cftri.com/12404
    » http://ir.cftri.com/12404
  • Hemalatha, S., Platel, K., & Srinivasan, K. (2007). Influence of germination and fermentation on bioaccessibility of zinc and iron from food grains. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(3), 342-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602524. PMid:16969377.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602524
  • Jayasinghe, M. A., Ekanayake, S., & Nugegoda, D. B. (2013). Effect of different milling methods on glycemic response of foods made with finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) flour. The Ceylon Medical Journal, 58(4), 148-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v58i4.6305. PMid:24385055.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v58i4.6305
  • Jideani, I. A. (2012). Digitaria exilis (acha/ fonio), Digitaria iburua (iburu/ fonio) and Eleusine coracana (tamba/ finger millet) - Non-conventional cereal grains with potentials. Scientific Research and Essays, 7(45), 3834-3843. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/SRE12.416
  • Jideani, I. A., & Jideani, V. A. (2011). Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua ( iburu). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(3), 251-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0208-9. PMid:23572743.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0208-9
  • Jideani, I. A., Takeda, Y., & Hizukuri, S. (1996). Structures and physiochemical properties of acha (Digitaria exilis), iburu (D. iburua ) and tamba (Eleusine coracana). Cereal Chemistry, 73(6), 677-685. Retrieved from http://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1996/documents/73_677.pdf
    » http://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/backissues/1996/documents/73_677.pdf
  • Kakade, S. B., & Hathan, B. S. (2014). Finger millet processing – review. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 3(4), 1003-1008. Retrieved from http://www.ijair.org/administrator/components/com_jresearch/files/publications/IJAIR-1074_final.pdf
    » http://www.ijair.org/administrator/components/com_jresearch/files/publications/IJAIR-1074_final.pdf
  • Kaur, K. D., Jha, A., Sabikhi, L., & Singh, A. K. (2014). Significance of coarse cereals in health and nutrition: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 51(8), 1429-1441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0612-9. PMid:25114333.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0612-9
  • Khamgaonkar, S. G., Singh, A., Chand, K., Shahi, N. C., & Lohani, U. C. (2013). Processing technologies of Uttarakhand of lesser known crops: an overview. Journal of Academic Industry Research, 1(8), 447-452. Retrieved from http://jairjp.com/JANUARY%202013/04%20KHAMGAONKAR.pdf
    » http://jairjp.com/JANUARY%202013/04%20KHAMGAONKAR.pdf
  • Krishnan, R., Dharmaraj, U., & Malleshi, N. G. (2012). Influence of decortication, popping and malting on bioavailability of calcium, iron and zinc in finger millet. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 48(2), 169-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.003.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.003
  • Kulkarni, S. S., Desai, A. D., Ranveer, R. C., & Sahoo, A. K. (2012). Development of nutrient rich noodles by supplementation with malted ragi flour. International Food Research Journal, 19(1), 309-313. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/19%20(01)%202011/(41)IFRJ-2011-136%20Sahoo.pdf
    » http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/19%20(01)%202011/(41)IFRJ-2011-136%20Sahoo.pdf
  • Kumar, A., Metwal, M., Kaur, S., Gupta, A. K., Puranik, S. S., Singh, M., Singh, M., Gupta, S., Babu, B. K., Sood, S., & Yadav, R. (2016). Nutraceutical value of finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], and their improvement using omics approaches. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00934.
    » http://dx.doi.org/ » 10.3389/fpls.2016.00934
  • Kunyanga, C. N., Imungi, J. K., & Vellingiri, V. (2013). Nutritional evaluation of indigenous foods with potential food-based solution to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in Kenya. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 67(0), 5277-5288. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v67i0.95049.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v67i0.95049
  • Limsangouan, N., Takenaka, M., Sotome, I., Nanamyama, K., Charunuch, C., & Isobe, S. (2010). Functional properties of cereal and legume based extruded snack foods fortified with by-products from herbs and vegetables. Journal of Natural Science , 44, 271-279. Retrieved from http://kasetsartjournal.ku.ac.th/kuj_files/2010/A1004071451290937.pdf
    » http://kasetsartjournal.ku.ac.th/kuj_files/2010/A1004071451290937.pdf
  • Mamatha, H. S., & Begum, J. M. (2013). Nutrition analysis and cooking quality of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) vermicelli with hypoglycemic foods. International Journal of Farm Sciences, 3(2), 56-62. Retrieved from https://www.inflibnet.ac.in/ojs/index.php/IJFS/article/download/2318/1883
    » https://www.inflibnet.ac.in/ojs/index.php/IJFS/article/download/2318/1883
  • Manjula, B., & Visvanathan, R. (2014). Process optimisation of extruded breakfast cereal from rice mill brokens-finger millet-maize flour blends. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3(4), 66-71. Retrieved from www.ifans.com/currentissue.html
  • Manjula, K., Bhagath, Y. B., & Nagalakshmi, K. (2015). Effect of radiation processing on bioactive components of finger millet flour (Eleusine coracana L.). International Food Research Journal, 22(2), 556-560. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%202015/(16).pdf
    » http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/22%20(02)%202015/(16).pdf
  • Mariotti, M., Alamprese, C., Pagani, M. A., & Lucisano, M. (2006). Effect of puffing on ultrastructure and physical characteristics of cereal grains and flours. Journal of Cereal Science, 43(1), 47-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2005.06.007.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2005.06.007
  • Masli, M. D. P., Gu, B.-J., Rasco, B. A., & Ganjyal, G. M. (2018). Fiber-rich food processing byproducts enhance the expansion of cornstarch extrudates. Journal of Food Science , 83(10), 2500-2510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14290.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14290
  • Mathanghi, S. K., & Sudha, K. (2012). Functional and Phytochemical properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) for health. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences, 2(4), 431-438. Retrieved from http://www.ijpcbs.com/files/volume2-4-2012/4.pdf
    » http://www.ijpcbs.com/files/volume2-4-2012/4.pdf
  • Mathur, P. N. (2012). Global strategy for the ex situ conservation of finger millet and its wild relatives (pp. 1-62). New Delhi, India: Biodiversity International, Sub-regional Office for South Asia, NASC Complex, Pusa Campus. Retrieved from https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Finger-Millet-Strategy-FINAL-14May2012.pdf.
    » https://www.croptrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Finger-Millet-Strategy-FINAL-14May2012.pdf
  • Mbithi-Mwikya, S., van Camp, J., Yiru, Y., & Huyghebaert, A. (2000). Nutrient and antinutrients changes in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) during sprouting. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, 33(1), 9-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1999.0605.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1999.0605
  • Muthamilarasan, M., Dhaka, A., Yadav, R., & Prasad, M. (2016). Exploration of millet models for developing nutrients rich graminaceous crops. Plant Science , 242, 89-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2015.08.023. PMid:26566827.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2015.08.023
  • Noorfarahzilah, M., Lee, J. S., Sharifodin, M. S., & Hasmadi, M. (2014). Application of composite flour in development of food products. International Food Research Journal, 21(6), 2061-2074. Retrieved from http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/21%20(06)%202014/1%20IFRJ%2021%20(06)%202014%20Hasmadi%20124.pdf
    » http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/21%20(06)%202014/1%20IFRJ%2021%20(06)%202014%20Hasmadi%20124.pdf
  • Osungbaro, T. O. (2009). Physical and nutritive properties of fermented cereal foods. African Journal of Food Science, 3(2), 23-27. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380633566_Taiwo.pdf
    » http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380633566_Taiwo.pdf
  • Ottaway, P. B. (2008). Food fortification and supplementation. Technological, safety and regulatory aspects England: CRC Press. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9781845694265.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9781845694265
  • Palanisamy, B. D., Rajendran, V., Sathyaseelan, S., Bhat, R., & Venkatesan, B. P. (2012). Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa ) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 63(1), 5-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011.591367. PMid:21696301.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2011.591367
  • Pandhre, G. R., Satwase, A. N., & Hashmi, A. I. (2011). Studies on drying characteristics and nutritional composition of sprouted wheat and finger millet. International Journal of Current Research, 3(7), 218-221. Retrieved from http://www.journalcra.com/sites/default/files/Download%20864.pdf
    » http://www.journalcra.com/sites/default/files/Download%20864.pdf
  • Patel, S., & Verma, V. (2015). Ways for better utilization of FM through processing and value addition and enhance nutritional security among tribals. Global Journal of Medical Research Nutrition and Food Science, 15(1), 22-29.
  • Patel, S., Naik, R. K., Sahu, R., & Nag, S. K. (2014). Entrepreneurship development through finger millet processing for better livelihood in production catchment. American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, 8(2), 223-227. Retrieved from http://iasir.net/AIJRHASSpapers/AIJRHASS14-711.pdf
    » http://iasir.net/AIJRHASSpapers/AIJRHASS14-711.pdf
  • Platel, K., Eipeson, S. W., & Srinivasan, K. (2010). Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(13), 8100-8103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf100846e. PMid:20560601.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf100846e
  • Pradeep, P. M., & Sreerama, Y. N. (2015). Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: Evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia. Food Chemistry, 9, 455-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.010. PMid:25236251.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.010
  • Prashantha, M. R. S., & Muralikrishna, G. (2014). Arabinoxylan from finger millet (Eleusine coracana, v. Indaf 15) bran purification and characterization. Carbohydrates Polymers, 99, 800-807.
  • Pushparaj, F. S., & Urooj, A. (2011). Influence of processing of dietary fibre, tannin and in Vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2(08), 895-900. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.28122.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.28122
  • Rajiv, J., Soumya, C., Indrani, D., & Venkateswara Rao, G. (2011). Effect of replacement of wheat flour with finger millet flour (Eleusine coracana) on the batter microscopy, rheology and quality characteristics of muffins. Journal of Texture Studies, 42(6), 478-489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2011.00309.x.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2011.00309.x
  • Ramashia, S. E. (2018). Physical, functional and nutritional properties of flours from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) varieties fortified with vitamin B2 and zinc oxide (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245
    » http://hdl.handle.net/11602/1245
  • Ramashia, S. E., Gwata, E. T., Meddows-Taylor, S., Anyasi, T. A., & Jideani, A. I. O. (2018). Some physical and functional properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) obtained in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Research International, 104, 113-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.065. PMid:29433775.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.09.065
  • Ranasalva, N., & Visvanathan, R. (2014). Development of bread from fermented pearl millet flour. Food Processing & Technology, 5(5), 2-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000327.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000327
  • Rasane, P., Jha, A., Sabikhi, L., Kumar, A., & Unnikrishnan, V. S. (2015). Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for processing as value-added foods - Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(2), 662-675. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1072-1. PMid:25694675.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1072-1
  • Rathore, S., Singh, K., & Kumar, V. (2016). Millet grain processing, utilization and its role in health promotion - a review. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 5(5), 318-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160505.12.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160505.12
  • Rodrigues, M., Mandalika, S., Jamdar, S. N., & Sharma, A. (2014). Evaluation of the efficacy of malted, gamma irradiated and enzymatically processed finger millet-soybean blends in supporting growth of a mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 59, 908-914. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.07.006.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.07.006
  • Roopa, S., & Premavalli, K. S. (2008). Effect of processing on starch fractions in different varieties of finger millet. Food Chemistry, 106(3), 875-882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.035.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.035
  • Rurinda, J., Mapfumo, P., van Wijk, M. T., Mtambanengwe, F., Rufino, M. C., Chikowo, R., & Giller, K. E. (2014). Comparative assessment of maize, finger millet and sorghum for household food security in the face of increasing climatic risk. European Journal of Agronomy , 55, 29-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2013.12.009.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2013.12.009
  • Saleh, S. M., Zhang, Q., Chen, J., & Shen, Q. (2013). Millet grains, nutritional quality, processing and potential health benefits. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Technology, 12(3), 281-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12012.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12012
  • Sarita, E. S., & Singh, E. (2016). Potential of millets: nutrients composition and health benefits. Journal of Scientific & Innovative Research, 5(2), 46-50. Retrieved from https://www.jsir.journal.com
    » https://www.jsir.journal.com
  • Sarkar, P., Lohith Kumar, D. H., Dhumal, C., Panigrahi, S. S., & Choudhary, R. (2015). Traditional and ayurvedic foods of Indian origin. Journal of Ethnic Foods , 2(3), 97-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08.003.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jef.2015.08.003
  • Sawant, A. A., Thakor, N. J., Swami, S. B., & Divate, A. D. (2013). Physical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat food prepared from finger millet based composite mixer by extrusion. Agricultural Engineering International Journal, 15(1), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2265/1704
    » http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2265/1704
  • Serna-Saldivar, S. O. (2010). Cereal Grains. Properties, processing and nutritional attributes (pp. 538-562). USA: CRC Press.
  • Shahidi, F., & Chandrasekara, A. (2013). Millet grain phenolics and their role in diseases risk reduction and health promotion – review. Journal of Functional Foods , 5(2), 570-581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.02.004.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.02.004
  • Shibairo, S. I., Nyongesa, O., Onwonga, R., & Ambuko, J. (2014). Variation of nutritional and anti-nutritional contents in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) genotypes. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7(11), 6-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/2380-071110612. [Retrieved from http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-javs/papers/vol7-issue11/Version-1/B071110612.pdf]
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/2380-071110612 » http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-javs/papers/vol7-issue11/Version-1/B071110612.pdf]
  • Shiihii, S. U., Musa, H., Bhati, P. G., & Martins, E. (2011). Evaluation of physicochemical properties of Eleusine coracana starch. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(1), 91-102.
  • Shimelis, A., Mulugela, T., & Dawit, A. (2009). Chemical composition pf local and improved finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) varieties grown in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 19(1), 1-18. Retrieved from https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhs/issue/view/14822
    » https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejhs/issue/view/14822
  • Shimray, C. A., Gupta, S., & Venkateswara Rao, G. (2012). Effect of native and germinated finger millet flour on rheological and sensory characteristics of biscuits. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 47(11), 2413-2420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03117.x.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03117.x
  • Shobana, S., Krishnaswamy, K., Sudha, V., Malleshi, N. G., Anjana, R. M., Palaniappan, L., & Mohan, V. (2013). Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.). Review of its nutritional properties, processing and plausible health benefits. Chapter 1. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 69, 1-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-410540-9.00001-6. PMid:23522794.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-410540-9.00001-6
  • Shukla, K., & Srivastava, S. (2014). Evaluation of finger millet incorporated noodles for nutritive value and glycemic index. Journal of Food Science and Technology , 51(3), 527-534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0530-x. PMid:24587528.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0530-x
  • Siddhart, M. (2014). Determination of physical characteristics of extruded snack food prepared using little millet (Panicum sumatranc) based composite flours. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology , 2(7), 213-218. Retrieved from http://www.ijraset.com/fileserve.php?FID=659
    » http://www.ijraset.com/fileserve.php?FID=659
  • Singer, C. S., Sabato, S. F., & Tadini, C. C. (2006, April 26-28). Bread making properties of flour produced from irradiated wheat. In International Symposium on Future of Food Engineering Warsaw, Poland: CIGR. Retrieved from http://www.cigr.org/Governance/technical-sections-6.php
    » http://www.cigr.org/Governance/technical-sections-6.php
  • Singh, K. P., Mishra, A., & Mishra, H. N. (2012). Fuzzy analysis of sensory attributes of bread prepared from millet-based composite flours. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 48, 276-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.026.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.026
  • Singh, P., & Raghuvanshi, S. (2012). Finger millet for food and nutritional security. African Journal of Food Science, 6(4), 77-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJFSX10.010
  • Siwela, M. (2009). Finger millet grains phenolics and their impact on malt and cookie quality (PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/28784/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
    » http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/28784/02chapter2.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
  • Siwela, M., Taylor, J. R. N., de Milliano, W. A. J., & Duodu, K. G. (2007). Occurrence and location of tannins in finger millet grain and antioxidant activity of different grain type. Cereal Chemistry, 84(2), 169-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-84-2-0169.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-84-2-0169
  • Sood, S., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2017). Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]: a minor crop for sustainable food and nutrition. Mini Review. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 29(4), 707-710. http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017.20284.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2017.20284
  • Sood, S., Komar, A., Babu, B. K., Gaur, V. S., Pandey, D., Kant, L., & Pattnayak, A. (2016). Gene, discovery and advances in Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Genomics-An important nutri-cereal of future. Frontiers in Plant Science , 7, 1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01634.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01634
  • Sripriya, G., Antony, U., & Chandra, T. S. (1997). Changes in carbohydrate, free amino acids, organic acids, phytate and HCl extractability of minerals during germination and fermentation of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Food Chemistry , 58(4), 345-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00206-3.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00206-3
  • Subastri, A., Ramamurthy, C., Suyavaran, A., Mareeswaran, R., Mandal, P., Rellegadla, S., & Thirunavukkarasu, C. (2015). Nutrient profile of porridge made from Eleusine coracana (L.) grains: effect of germination and fermentation. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(9), 6024-6030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1713-7.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1713-7
  • Thapliyal, V., & Singh, K. (2015). Finger millet: potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry , 2(2), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
    » http://www.ijraf.org/pdf/v2-i2/4.pdf
  • Thilagavathi, T., Banumathi, P., Kanchana, S., & Ilamaran, M. (2015). Effect of heat moisture treatment on functional and phytochemical properties of native and modified millet flours. Plant Archives, 15(1), 15-20. Retrieved from https://org/PDF%2015%20-%201/15-21%20(2953).pdf
    » https://org/PDF%2015%20-%201/15-21%20(2953).pdf
  • Towo, E., Mgoba, C., Ndossi, G. D., & Kimboka, S. (2006). Effect of phytate and iron-binging phenolics on the content and availability of iron and zinc in micronutrients fortified cereal flours. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 6(2), 1-13.
  • Tripathi, B., & Platel, K. (2010). Finger millet (Eleusine coracana ) flour as a vehicle for fortification with zinc. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 24(1), 46-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2009.09.001. PMid:20122580.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2009.09.001
  • Udeh, H. O., Doudu, K. G., & Jideani, A. I. O. (2017). Finger millet bioactive compounds, bioaccessibility, and potential health effects – a review. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 35(1), 7-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.17221/206/2016-CJFS.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.17221/206/2016-CJFS
  • Upadhyaya, H. D., Ramesh, S., Sharma, S., Singh, S. K., Varshney, S. K., Sarma, N. D. R. K., Ravishankar, C. R., Narasimhudu, Y., Reddy, V. G., Sahrawat, K. L., Dhanalakshmi, T. N., Mgonja, M. A., Parzies, H. K., Gowda, C. L. L., & Singh, S. (2011). Genetic diversity for grains nutrients contents in a core collection of finger millet, Eleusine coracana L. germplasm. Field Crops Research, 121(1), 42-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2010.11.017.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2010.11.017
  • Usai, T., Nyamunda, B. C., & Mutonhodza, B. (2013). Malt quality parameters of finger millet for brewing commercial opaque beer. International Journal of Science and Research, 2(9), 146-149. Retrieved from https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v2i9/MTIwMTMxMzk=.pdf
    » https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v2i9/MTIwMTMxMzk=.pdf
  • Vadivoo, A. S., Joseph, R., & Ganesan, N. M. (1998). Genetic variability and calcium contents in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) in relation to grain colour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 52(4), 353-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008074002390. PMid:10426122.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008074002390
  • van Wyk, B. E., & Gericke, N. (2018). People’s plants – a guide to useful plants of Southern Africa. A guide to useful plants of Southern Africa (2nd ed., pp. 405). Pretoria: Briza Publications. Retrieved from www.briza.co.za/catalog/product_info_php? Products_id =324
  • Vanithasri, J., Kanchana, S., Hemalatha, G., Vanniarajan, C., & Sahulhameed, M. (2012). Role of millets and its importance in new mellinium. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2(1), 35-47. Retrieved from http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjprcfile342.pdf
    » http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/tjprcfile342.pdf
  • Verma, V., & Patel, S. (2013). Value added products from nutria-cereals, finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture , 25(3), 169-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10764.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i3.10764
  • Wankhede, D. B., Shehnaj, A., & Raghavendra Rao, M. R. (1979). Carbohydrate composition of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and foxtail millet (Setaria Italica). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) , 4(4), 293-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01095511.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01095511
  • Wrigley, C. W., & Batey, I. L. (2010). Cereal grains: assessing and managing quality USA: CRC Press. .
  • Young, R. (1999). Finger miller processing in East Africa. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 8(1-2), 31-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02042840.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02042840

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    31 Jan 2019
  • Date of issue
    Apr-Jun 2019

History

  • Received
    29 Aug 2017
  • Accepted
    10 Dec 2018
Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Av. Brasil, 2880, Caixa Postal 271, 13001-970 Campinas SP - Brazil, Tel.: +55 19 3241.5793, Tel./Fax.: +55 19 3241.0527 - Campinas - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revista@sbcta.org.br