Abstract in English:The Brazilian government has approved many transgenic maize lines for commercialization and has established a threshold of 1% for food labeling, which underscores need for monitoring programs. Thirty four samples including flours and different types of nacho chips were analyzed by conventional and real-time PCR in 2011 and 2012. The events MON810, Bt11, and TC1507 were detected in most of the samples, and NK603 was present only in the samples analyzed in 2012. The authorized lines GA21, T25, and the unauthorized Bt176 were not detected. All positive samples in the qualitative tests collected in 2011 showed a transgenic content higher than 1%, and none of them was correctly labeled. Regarding the samples collected in 2012, all positive samples were quantified higher than the threshold, and 47.0% were not correctly labeled. The overall results indicated that the major genetically modified organisms detected were MON810, TC1507, Bt11, and NK603 events. Some industries that had failed to label their products in 2011 started labeling them in 2012, demonstrating compliance with the current legislation observing the consumer rights. Although these results are encouraging, it has been clearly demonstrated the need for continuous monitoring programs to ensure consumers that food products are labeled properly.
Abstract in English:The opportunity to supplement common cassava biscuits with a product of higher nutritional value meets consumer expectations. In this work it was studied the effects of process parameters and flaxseed addition on physical properties of expanded snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single screw extruder in a factorial central composite rotatable design with four factors: flaxseed flour percentage (0-20%), moisture (12-20%), extrusion temperature (90-130 °C) and screw speed (190-270). The effect of extrusion variables was investigated in terms of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index, color parameters (L*, a* ,b*) and hardness. The data analysis showed that variable parameters of the extrusion process and flaxseed flour affected physical properties of puffed snacks. Among the experimental conditions used in the present study, expanded snack products with good physical properties can be obtained under the conditions of 10% flaxseed flour, 230 rpm screw speed, temperature of 90 °C and moisture of 12%.
Abstract in English:In this study, the effects of hot-air drying conditions on color, water holding capacity, and total phenolic content of dried apple were investigated using artificial neural network as an intelligent modeling system. After that, a genetic algorithm was used to optimize the drying conditions. Apples were dried at different temperatures (40, 60, and 80 °C) and at three air flow-rates (0.5, 1, and 1.5 m/s). Applying the leave-one-out cross validation methodology, simulated and experimental data were in good agreement presenting an error < 2.4 %. Quality index optimal values were found at 62.9 °C and 1.0 m/s using genetic algorithm.
Abstract in English:Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with 10 and 20% Annona crassiflora pulp. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value. The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers (pulp and flour), minerals (potassium, calcium, manganese and others) and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.
Abstract in English:Jaboticaba is a Brazilian fruit, native to the Atlantic forest, which belongs to the Myrtaceae family. In this work we describe the effect of the thinning of "flower", "fruit" and "flower & fruit" compared to non-thinned fruit (control) and of edible coatings with respect on nutritional composition, overall acceptability and shelf-life of jaboticaba ‘Sabara’, grown in an irrigated commercial orchard. "Flower and fruit" thinning allows fruit with higher quality as diameter, volume and mass. Non-thinned fruit shows higher yield, however fruit have lower quality. As a result of the improving quality at harvest, the shelf life was twice (~8 days) for thinned fruit. The lack of change in concentration of soluble sugar and absence of formation of volatile compounds during storage indicate that there was no natural fermentation of the jaboticaba pulp after harvest. Treatments with wax and calcium did not improve the jaboticaba shelf life.
Abstract in English:Brazilian peach production is insufficient for domestic supply. Aiming to increase production in the state of Minas Gerais, 16 new peach tree varieties were introduced in the Serra da Mantiqueira region and their fruit were analyzed for sugar, total phenol and total carotenoid contents by colorimetric methods, and for organic acid content by high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, we examined the effect of fruit bagging on the levels of such constituents. To do so, the fruit of half the trees of each variety were bagged. The levels of sugars, phenols, carotenoids and organic acids are genotypic characteristics and significantly differed among varieties. Despite being a good form of fruit protection, providing better aspect and reducing the need for pesticides, bagging leads to lower contents of components such as sugars, phenols and organic acids in most varieties. However, it cannot be stated that this practice interferes with sensory characteristics. Knowledge of the chemical constituents of these new varieties allows determining those ideal for fresh consumption (e.g., "Maciel", "Diamante", "T. Beauty", "Ouromel 2" and "C.1056", among others) and those more suitable for industrial processing (e.g., "A. Gold", "C.1122" and "C.1050"), as well as those which serve both purposes.
Abstract in English:Prunus mume is widely studied due to its health benefits regarding increase of blood fluidity and consequent improvement of the cardiovascular system and the prevention or even the fight against different types of cancer. However, in Brazil this culture is found only among oriental descendants. The present study aimed to characterize mume fruit collected from three different locations in the State of São Paulo regarding general aspects such as pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), total soluble solids (TTS), pectin content and yield of pulp and chemical characteristics: total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity. Mume fruit were collected unripe and analyzed until maturation about 88 days after flowering. Fruit collected in Botucatu came from a commercial mume fruit producer and had average weight of 16.9 g, while in fruit from other locations weight varied from 5.7-6.9 g. TSS ranged from 9.5 to 10.0 Brix, total solids was 10.2-12.2% and pH showed values between 2.5 and 2.7 for all locations. TTA expressed in citric acid decreased from 4.0-5.7 g (100g- 1) at unripe stage to 2.0-3.8 g (100g- 1) in mature-stage fruit. Pectin content decreased from 11.2 to 10.8% during fruit maturation, TPC content was 147-226 mg catechin (g- 1) on a dry matter basis and the antioxidant capacity was 96-169 µMol Trolox (g- 1) on a dry matter basis or 21-34 µMol Trolox (g- 1) on a wet matter basis.
Abstract in English:Beef can be contaminated during the slaughter process, thus other methods, besides the traditional water washing, must be adopted to preserve meat safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% acetic acid interventions on the reduction of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses at a commercial slaughterhouse in Mexico. Reduction was measured by the count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TPC), total coliform (TC), and fecal coliform (FC) (log CFU/ cm²). Among the different interventions tested, treatments combining acetic acid solution sprayed following carcass water washing had greater microbial reduction level. Acetic acid solution sprayed at low pressure and longer time (10-30 psi/ 60 s) reached higher TPC, TC, and FC reductions than that obtained under high pressure/ shorter time (1,700 psi/ 15 s; P<0.05). Exposure time significantly affected microbial reduction on carcasses. Acetic acid solution sprayed after carcass washing can be successfully used to control sources of indicator bacteria on beef carcasses under commercial conditions.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between the products' market price and attributes related to fish purchase and consumption within a university community in Brazil. A structured questionnaire consisting of a five-point Likert scale was used. It was previously tested and made available to the university community via the Internet. The sample comprised 1966 voluntaries including university students and faculty and staff members. A descriptive analysis of data was performed using Spearman's correlation analysis. The results showed that the majority of the respondents (56%) consume fish at home; some consume fish at restaurants (39%), and 5% at family or friends' houses, reinforcing the idea that variables such as culture and reference groups are fundamental determinants of purchase and consumption behavior. It was identified a significant (p < 0.001) and very strong correlation between the attributes price and nutritional value (r = 0.92); price and availability at the usual places of purchase (r = 0.92); price and packaging (r = 0.92); price and brand name (r = 0.91); and price and of the Federal Inspection stamp (r = 0.91) and a low positive correlation (p < 0.001) between the price variable and the initiative for fish traceability (r = 0.16). This study demonstrated that the price of fish is associated with the quality of the product and the attributes related to it such as packaging, nutritional value, and availability of the product in the market.
Abstract in English:Cassava starch factories produce residues that can be commercialized as food ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety of cassava peel and bagasse during storage, with and without chemical treatment. The bagasse was acidified with lactic acid, and the peel was immersed in a sodium hypochlorite solution. The microbiological analyses were carried out for 72 h after harvest. All of the samples showed the absence of pathogenic microorganisms, and the acidification and sanitization were effective in controlling total coliforms. Cassava bagasse and peel samples can be considered safe for consumption by humans as ingredients for other food products.
Abstract in English:Yellowfin tuna has a high level of free histidine in their muscle, which can lead to histamine formation by microorganisms if temperature abuse occurs during handling and further processing. The objective of this study was to measure levels of histamine in damaged and undamaged thawed muscle to determine the effect of physical damage on the microbial count and histamine formation during the initial steps of canning processing and to isolate and identify the main histamine-forming microorganisms present in the flesh of yellowfin tuna. Total mesophilic and psicrophilic microorganisms were determined using the standard plate method. The presence of histamine-forming microorganisms was determined in a modified Niven's agar. Strains were further identified using the API 20E kit for enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacilli. Physically damaged tuna did not show higher microbiological contamination than that of undamaged muscle tuna. The most active histamine-forming microorganism present in tuna flesh was Morganella morganii. Other decarboxylating microorganisms present were Enterobacter agglomerans and Enterobacter cloacae. Physical damage of tune during catching and handling did not increase the level of histamine or the amount of microorganisms present in tuna meat during frozen transportation, but they showed a higher risk of histamine-forming microorganism growth during processing.
Abstract in English:To investigate microbial diversity and identify spoilage bacteria in fresh pork sausages during storage, twelve industrial pork sausages of different trademarks were stored at 4 ºC for 0, 14, 28 and 42 days, 80% relative humidity and packaged in sterile plastic bags. Microbiological analysis was performed. The pH and water activity (a w) were measured. The culture-independent method performed was the Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The culture-dependent method showed that the populations of mesophilic bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) increased linearly over storage time. At the end of the storage time, the average population of microorganisms was detected, in general, at the level of 5 log cfu g-1. A significant (P < 0.005) increase was observed in pH and a w values at the end of the storage time. The PCR-DGGE allowed a rapid identification of dominant communities present in sausages. PCR-DGGE discriminated 15 species and seven genera of bacteria that frequently constitute the microbiota in sausage products. The most frequent spoilage bacteria identified in the sausages were Lactobacillus sakei and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The identification of dominant communities present in fresh pork sausages can help in the choice of the most effective preservation method for extending the product shelf-life.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of the BAX® system for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw chicken meat. The conventional culture method (IN 62, MAP) was used as a reference method. A total of 8,813 chicken carcass samples were analyzed. In the first part of the study, 1,200 samples were analyzed using the BAX® System and the conventional culture method. In the second part, 7,613 samples were analyzed by the BAX® system, and the conventional method was used only for samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the BAX® system. The sensitivity, specificity, relative accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value obtained in the first part of this study were 100%, 92.3%, 96.4%, 53.3% and 100%, respectively. The BAX® system showed no false-negative results and reduced the time to obtain presumptive positive results. It is a suitable method for use in laboratories that perform a large number of food samples analyses daily. However, the conventional method is still required to confirm the presence of Salmonella spp. in samples that test positive using the BAX® system.
Abstract in English:The increased marketing of olive oil in Brazil has intensified legal requirements to ensure regulation of this product. The measurement of the specific extinction at 270 nm (E 270) and content of stigmastadiene can be used to assess the presence of refined oils in virgin olive oil. During the vegetable oil refining process, compounds with conjugated double bonds are generated from unsaturated fatty acids that absorb at 270 nm and sterols, such as stigmasta-3,5-diene. To compare these parameters, seven samples of extra virgin olive oil and three samples of olive oil (blend of virgin and refined) were analyzed. Among the samples analyzed, four extra virgin samples had levels of stigmastadiene and E 270 higher than expected, among which two were adulterated with seed oil (rich in linoleic acid) and the other two with olive pomace oil. The results demonstrate the higher sensitivity of stigmastadiene to determine the presence of the refined oil in virgin olive oil and good agreement with determining E 270. The latter technique is a simple, quick, and low cost method of determination that can be easily implemented in laboratories to assist in the screening and regulation of olive oils sold in Brazil.
Abstract in English:The effect of different process -defatting, protein concentration, thermal treatment, hydrolysis with Alcalase and in vitro digestion- on the antioxidant capacity of amaranth seeds was studied. The antioxidant capacity of the products was determined in methanolic and aqueous extracts and varied from 1.00 to 21.22 and 4.97 to 369.18 µ mol TE/g sample for DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. The combination of protein concentration and hydrolysis with Alcalase led to products with higher antioxidant activity. However, after in vitro digestion, protein concentrate and its hydrolysate showed similar antioxidant capacity. A high correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content for methanolic extracts, with r² values ranging from 0.6133 to 0.9352.
Abstract in English:There are several obstacles to the use of chymosin in cheese production. Consequently, plant proteases have been studied as possible rennet substitutes, but most of these enzymes are unsuitable for the manufacture of cheese. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of latex from Sideroxylon obtusifolium as a source of milk-clotting proteases and to partially characterize the enzyme. The enzyme extract showed high protease and coagulant activities, with an optimal pH of 8.0 and temperature of 55 °C. The enzyme was stable in wide ranges of temperature and pH. Its activity was not affected by any metal ions tested; but was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and pepstatin. For the coagulant activity, the optimal concentration of CaCl2 was 10 µmol L- 1. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed four bands, with molecular weights between 17 and 64 kDa. These results indicate that the enzyme can be applied to the cheese industry.
Abstract in English:Pequi peel comprises 76% of the whole fruit and it is discarded during consumption. Thus, pequi peel has been considered a solid residue, although it has potential for use in various applications. Limitations in the use of this material are mainly due to the lack of information of its nutritional composition, especially about the toxic or antinutritional factors. Soaking is often used to prepare complementary foods and has been reported to be beneficial for enhancing nutritive value. The effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi peel flour was determined by measuring changes in chemical composition, antinutritional factors, total phenols and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. The results showed that 24 h of maceration increases the content of lipids (200%), protein (28.3%) and dietary fibber (31%), while carbohydrate and ash content decreases. There were no haemagglutination activity or α-amylase inhibitors, but it was detected the presence of phytic acid (0.4 g 100 g-1). The soaking reduced 8.5% phenols and 19.0% tannins, 6.2% protein digestibility, and was also effective to eliminate trypsin inhibitors, and increase starch digestibility (24.2%). Soaking was efficient to improve nutritional characteristics of the pequi peel flour, opening up possibilities for its use in food formulations.
Abstract in English:A mathematical model previously developed to study microbial growth in food products under an isothermal environment was adapted to a time-varying temperature regime. The resulting model was applied to study the growth of Clostridium perfringens in meat products. This micro-organism is of particular relevance to public health and economy due to the loss of productivity caused by it. Results showed a similar performance of the model used compared to the Baranyi model under an isothermal situation and a slightly better performance under a non-isothermal temperature profile.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to identify antioxidant peptides from caprine casein hydrolysates by papain application using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, and a 2² full factorial design, with 4 axial points, in order to evaluate kinetic parameters (time and pH) effects on the degree of hydrolysis as well as the antioxidant activity of Moxotó goat milk casein peptides. Degree of hydrolysis was determined by total and soluble protein ratio in casein. Antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS method with 2, 2-cation-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). TROLOX was used as standard. Peptide pattern and sequence of antioxidant amino acids were obtained using MALDI-TOF/MS. The highest degree of hydrolysis (28.5%) and antioxidant activity (2329.6 mmol.L TROLOX. mg- 1 peptide) were observed in the permeate. NENLL, NPWDQVK and LLYQEPVLGPV peptides, detected in the permeate, were pointed as the responsible for antioxidant activity, suggesting their potential application as food supplement and pharmaceutical products.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services using external and internal auditors. Eleven hospitals were evaluated for their nutrition and dietary services using an evaluation checklist based on food safety requirements in the current legislation. The checklist was applied by an internal auditor (a technical supervisor) and an external auditor (a professional with experience in food services) between August and October 2011. According to the number of items on the evaluation checklist that were considered adequate, the hospital facilities were ranked as excellent, good, regular, bad, or very bad. The results obtained by the auditors were compared. According to these results, it can be said that most of the hospital nutrition and dietary services were rated as good for overall quality by the internal auditor, while the external auditor classified them as Regular. There was a clear difference between the evaluations of the auditors, both in terms of the number of items considered adequate and the overall requirements' average score. It can be concluded that hospital nutrition and dietary services should meet safety requirements in order to provide food. These facilities should have external audits conducted as a way to prevent routine problems from being perpetuated.
Abstract in English:Acerola is a fruit that can be consumed in the form of juice and pulp. However, during its processing, a large amount of waste is generated (seed and bagasse). Adding value to these by-products is of great interest, since their use can enrich foods with nutrients and fiber. In this study, we performed phytochemical screening, determined the proximate and mineral composition, bioactive compounds and the technological functional properties of acerola seed flour and acerola bagasse flour. Seeds were dried in a ventilated oven at ± 45 °C and the bagasse was lyophilized. Samples were ground, stored in flasks protected from light. Phytochemical screening revealed metabolites of nutritional and pharmacological interest and no potentially toxic substances in the flours. Seed flour and bagasse flour showed high levels (g 100 g- 1 of dry matter - DM) of soluble fiber: 4.76 and 8.74; insoluble fiber: 75.76 and 28.58, and phenolic compounds: 4.73 and 10.82, respectively. The flours also showed high absorption of water, oil and emulsion stability, presenting potential for inclusion in meat products and bakery products.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acid composition of Pimedolus maculatus fillets of fish fed with different diets. The fish were submitted to an adaptation period (over 30 days) and fed only a control diet (diet I). After this period, the fish were divided into two groups: one group received a diet enriched with flaxseed oil (diet II), and the other received a diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (diet III). Subsequent collections were undertaken after 25 and 50 days. Compared to the control samples, fish fed diet II showed an increase in concentrations of total fatty acid omega-3 (n-3) in the fillets, with an improvement ratio of n-6/n-3. The incorporation of CLA into fish fed diet III was successful. Supplementing the diet of Pimedolus maculatus with CLA and flaxseed oil led to improvements in nutritional quality and fatty acid profile of the fish fillets.
Abstract in English:The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP). The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxseed varieties, ranging between 531.44 mg g-1 of lipids in brown perilla, 539.07 mg g-1 of lipids in white perilla, and 544.85 mg g-1 of lipis in chia seed. The antioxidant capacity of the seeds, evaluated with ABTS•+, DPPH• , and FRAP methods, showed that brown perilla had greater antioxidant capacity when compared with white perilla, flax, and chia seeds.
Abstract in English:In this work, three freeze-dried (FD) egg products (whole egg (WE), egg yolk (EY) and egg white (EW)) were obtained and the acceptability of confections prepared with each was evaluated. Sensory analyses for confections were performed by hedonic testing with fifty panelists in each evaluation. The studied confections were: Condensed Milk Pudding (P), Quindim (Q) and Meringue (M). The results obtained for confections made with FD egg products were compared with the achieved through other formulations of the same desserts made with fresh (F) or spray-dried (SD) egg products. The sensory analysis results for confections made with FD egg products showed good acceptance by panelists. A principal component analysis of the sensory evaluation data was carried out to identify similarities between the different egg products. The PCA supported the conclusion that FD egg products can substitute their fresh and SD counterparts in dessert formulations with good acceptability while keeping the advantages conferred by the freeze-drying method.
Abstract in English:Sweeteners based on stevia extract contain a series of diterpene glycosides derivatives from steviol, standing out the rebaudioside-A. There is no tabletop sweeteners in the market formulated purely with rebaudioside-A yet, so its use in foods depends on the development of new products followed by physicochemical and sensory evaluations. This work presents the formulation of a diet strawberry jam dyed with cranberry juice and sweetened with rebaudioside-A purified from stevia plants of the lineage UEM-320 developed in the Centro de Estudos de Produtos Naturais da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Evaluations of physicochemical properties, microbiological and sensory characteristics were carried out for the product in comparison with a control sweetened with equal amount of sucralose. The results showed that the physicochemical characteristics of the sample and the control are not significantly different and the supplementation with cranberry juice increased both color and total phenolic content in both samples. The sensory acceptability indicated a significant preference for the formulation sweetened with 100% of rebaudioside-A, only in the items flavor and purchase intent. We concluded that rebaudioside-A has a better sensory performance than sucralose, even this last one being 1.33 fold sweeter than rebaudioside-A.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the concentration of some antioxidant compounds and the antiradical efficiency during the ripening process of 'Ataulfo' mango. The fruits at physiological maturity stage were pressurized at 15, 30, or 60 MPa for 10 or 20 min. Control fruits were not pressurized. The fruits were stored at 25 °C and changes in the concentration of ascorbic acid, total phenols, total flavonoids, total carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency were evaluated. It was demonstrated that in 'Ataulfo' mango high hydrostatic pressure treatments at 60 and 30 MPa for 20 minutes induced the synthesis of ascorbic acid during storage maybe as a consequence of physiological changes and possible structural modification of the cells, while the fruits pressurized at 15 MPa showed no effect on this parameter. On the other hand, the use of 15 MPa for 10 minutes increased the synthesis of phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency in 'Ataulfo' mango compared to that of the control fruit. In conclusion, this behavior seemed to be due to the low hydrostatic pressure treatments (15 Mpa), which stimulated the synthesis of antioxidants in the mango fruit and ripening was not inhibited.
Abstract in English:Fried foods are widely consumed in Brazil and their quality depends on the oil or fat they are fried. Qualitative (physical chemistry indices) and quantitative measurements (fry-life oil or fat until disposal, oil turnover, type of oil or fat and amount and type of fried foods) and associations were performed. We applied a structured form and collected 60 mL of frying oil or fat in each of the 70 fried food stands of 15 street-fairs in Goiânia, Brazil. All samples were suitable in the quantity of free fat acids (<0.9% oleic acid), one was inadequate to peroxide value (>10 mEq/kg) and 1/3 was unsuitable to polar compounds (<25%). The majority (62%) use temperature up to the allowed (180 ºC). Approximately 250 units of products are fried in at least one day in 42% of the fried food stands. Soybean oil is used in the majority (94%) of fried food stands and the fry-life is of 6 hours (60%) or a day of work/sale. The nonconformity of the content of total polar compounds in fried foods had significant association with frying time and the conformity of acidity had significant relationship with frying time by a chi-square test. All other associations were not significant. A fry-life of oil or fat up to 6 hours can avoid the excess of polar compounds in the frying medium and protect the quality of fred foods.
Abstract in English:"La Niora" is a red pepper variety cultivated in Tadla Region (Morocco) which is used for manufacturing paprika after sun drying. The paprika quality (nutritional, chemical and microbiological) was evaluated immediately after milling, from September to December. Sampling time mainly affected paprika color and the total capsaicinoid and vitamin C contents. The commercial quality was acceptable and no aflatoxins were found, but the microbial load sometimes exceeded permitted levels.
Abstract in English:Ordered probit regression was used to analyze data of sensory acceptance tests designed to study the effect of brand name on the acceptability of beer samples. Eight different brands of Pilsen beer were evaluated by 101 consumers in two sessions of acceptance tests: blind evaluation and brand information test. Ordered probit regression, although a relatively sophisticated technique compared to others used to analyze sensory data, was chosen to enable the observation of consumers' behavior using graphical interpretations of estimated probabilities plotted against hedonic scales. It can be concluded that brands B, C, and D had a positive effect on the sensory acceptance of the product, whereas brands A, F, G, and H had a negative influence on consumers' evaluation of the samples. On the other hand, brand E had little influence on consumers' assessment.
Abstract in English:Gelatin was extracted from the skin of tilapia (Oreochromis urolepis hornorum) and characterized according to its physical and chemical properties. It had pH 4.66, which is slightly higher than the values reported for gelatins processed by acid solubilization. In general, the ionic content was low, and the average yield of the process was 5.10 g/100 g. The proximal composition of the gelatin was similar to that of the commercial gelatins, with slightly higher moisture content. The tilapia skin gelatin had whitish-yellow color and average turbidity of 67 NTU.