Food Science and Technology, Volume: 33, Issue: 4, Published: 2013
  • Biochemical characteristics of composite flours: influence of fermentation Original Papers

    Digbeu, Dogore Yolande; Due, Ahipo Edmond; Dabonne, Soumaila

    Abstract in English:

    The purpose of this study was to introduce yam in the development of two new composite flours containing soy and cassava. Two composite flours were obtained after fermentation of yam, soybean, and cassava in respectively 60, 30, and 10% proportions. Two varieties of yam were used: Dioscorea alata (variety "Bete bete") and Dioscorea cayenensis (variety "Lokpa"). Proximate composition, mineral content, some anti-nutritional factors (oxalates, phenols), microbiological quality, and α-amylase digestibility were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that for the composite flours made of D. alata and D. cayenensis, fermentation increased ash and titrable acidity. Carbohydrates, pH, and energy decreased. Crude fat content was not affected by the fermentation process. Anti-nutritional factors such as oxalates and phenols were found to decrease significantly after the fermentation of the composite flours. Fermentation increased the mineral content (Mg, K, Fe, and Ca) of the composite flours. A decrease in P and Na was observed after fermentation. The microbiological study showed that safety flours contain no potential pathogenic germs. The in vitro α-amylase digestibility of the composite flours was significantly improved after fermentation. The biochemical characteristics and good hygienic quality of the obtained flours suggest that these flours can be considered as a feeding alternative for children in poor areas where yam is produced.
  • Development of effervescent products, in powder and tablet form, supplemented with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii Original Papers

    Nagashima, Agnes Izumi; Pansiera, Paulo Eduardo; Baracat, Marcela Maria; Gómez, Raúl Jorge Hernán Castro

    Abstract in English:

    Probiotics are living microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host through a beneficial influence on the intestinal microbiota related to competition and to antagonistic and immunological effects. Thus, the objective of this study was the development of effervescent products (tablets and powder) supplemented with the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii, and the identification of the best formulation in terms of viability of these microorganisms. The physical properties of the tablets (compressive force applied, mean weight, hardness, and friability) were assessed, and the viability of the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract and their stability during storage were also determined. The results show that the microorganisms remained stable and viable during the 60-day storage period in the effervescent powder. However, the results indicated that the effect of compression force affected the viability of the microorganisms during the production of the effervescent tablets.
  • Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of acerola nectar sweetened with sucrose and different sweeteners Original Papers

    Dutra, Mariana Borges de Lima; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    Abstract in English:

    This paper aims to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, sensory acceptance, and purchase intent of acerola nectar sweetened with sucrose and other sweeteners (neotame, sucralose and stevia extracts with 40%, 60%, 80%, and 95% rebaudioside A). The analyses were carried out for pH, soluble solids, total titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, and colorimetry (L*a*b). The acceptance test was performed by 120 consumers who evaluated the appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall impression of the samples using a 9-cm unstructured hedonic scale. Furthermore, the consumers were asked to rate overall purchase intent along the scale anchored with (1) "would definitely not purchase" to (5) "would definitely purchase." The results were evaluated using analysis of variance/Tukey test and the internal preference mapping technique. The acerola nectar samples did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between themselves in terms of vitamin C content and total titratable acidity. As for appearance and aroma, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the samples, and as for flavor and overall impression, the most accepted samples were those with sucrose and sucralose. The internal preference mapping indicated that the most accepted samples were those with sucrose, sucralose, and neotame were. The highest frequency of positive purchase intent scores was observed for sucrose and sucralose.
  • Effect of treatment with adsorbent resin on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice Original Papers

    Sousa, Adriana Dutra; Brito, Edy Sousa de

    Abstract in English:

    Increased preference for healthy and functional foods could be an opportunity to increase the consumption of clarified cashew apple juice. Given its level of fructose, glucose, and vitamin C, it can be used as a base in blends. However, its characteristic odor can interfere with the acceptance of these formulations, especially by consumers who are not familiar with cashew aroma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with macroporous resins (FPA54, FPX66, XAD761, and XAD4) on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice. After the treatment with the resins, the volatile profile was evaluated using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The physicochemical analyses performed were: pH, soluble solids (ºBrix), total titrable acidity, reducing sugars, and vitamin C. Gas chromatography analyses showed that XAD4 and FPX66 led to a reduction of the initial amount of volatile compounds to 14.05% and 15.72%, respectively. These two resins also did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of the clarified cashew apple juice.
  • Variation of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin: anticancer components in Brassica during processing Original Papers

    Park, Me-Hea; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Park, No-Young; Choi, Yun-Jong; Lee, Sang-Won; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Jung Bong; Kim, Sun-Ju

    Abstract in English:

    Effects of cold storage and three common cooking practices, blanching, sauteing, and microwave cooking at different time intervals, on the content of glucosinolate (GSL) anticancer components in six Brassica vegetables were investigated. Eleven GSLs including progoitrin, glucoraphanin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin were quantified using LC-MS and HPLC. Storage at 4 ºC indicated no significant loss of GSLs in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, and approximately 90-100% of the total concentration of aliphatic and indolyl GSLs were detected. Interestingly, glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, known as a cancer prevention agents, increased approximately above 50% in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, while the amount of glucobrassicin decreased by 5% in cauliflower for 5 days at 4 ºC. Blanching of broccoli at 120 sec significantly (36%) decreased total GSLs; however, sautéing and microwaving decreased by13-26%. Individual GSLs have different response at blanching. These findings suggest that different processing methods for each vegetable would be preferred to preserve the nutritional qualities.
  • Effect of postharvest temperature on the shelf life of gabiroba fruit (Campomanesia pubescens) Original Papers

    Silva, Edson Pablo da; Cardoso, Andre Feres Lopes; Fante, Camila; Rosell, Cristina Molina; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal temperature for storing gabiroba fruit (Campomanesia pubescens) without affecting compounds' quality. The fruits were stored at different temperatures (0 ºC, 6 ºC, 12 ºC, and 20 ºC) and the effect on the pH, total titratable acidity, soluble solids, total sugars, vitamin C, and antioxidant components such as tannins and total phenolic compounds was evaluated. It was observed an increase in the pH and total titratable acidity during storage at all the temperatures tested. Gabiroba fruits were stored for 9 and 3 days at 12 ºC and 20 ºC, respectively, and under both temperatures they showed a reduction in tannins and an increase in vitamin C content. As gabirobas armazenadas a 0º and 6 ºC alcançaram maior tempo de armazenamento After 12 days of storage, the fruits stored at 6 ºC contained higher amounts of water soluble solids, sugars, and antioxidants. In general, for long term storage, it is suggested to store gabiroba fruits at 6 ºC. On the other hand, for short term storage, the temperature of 12 ºC would be the better to keep high levels of vitamin C and phenolic compounds.
  • Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril) processing residues Original Papers

    Barretto, Lília Calheiros de Oliveira; Moreira, Jane de Jesus da Silveira; Santos, João Antônio Belmino dos; Narendra, Narain; Santos, Raquel Anne Ribeiro dos

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry using a polyethylene glycol polar capillary column as stationary phase. The pineapple residues constituted mostly of esters (35%), followed by ketones (26%), alcohols (18%), aldehydes (9%), acids (3%) and other compounds (9%). Odor-active volatile compounds were mainly identified in the distillate obtained using hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, namely decanal, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, 1-hexanol, and ketones such as γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and γ-dodecalactone. This suggests that the use of an inert gas and lower temperatures helped maintain higher amounts of flavor compounds. These data indicate that pineapple processing residue contained important volatile compounds which can be extracted and used as aroma enhancing products and have high potential for the production of value-added natural essences.
  • Profile of establishments in the supermarket sector with respect to good practices in the city of Santa Maria (RS), Brazil Original Papers

    Brasil, Carla Cristina Bauermann; Gressler, Camila Costa; Pelegrini, Susana Berleze de; Moura, Deise Silva de; Medeiros, Laissa Benites; Hecktheuer, Luisa Helena Rychecki

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to verify the compliance of the supermarket sector with respect to the Good Practice Program standards of the city of Santa Maria (RS), Brazil. Sixty nine establishments were verified using a checklist of good practices for the supermarket sector in Santa Maria, RS (Brazil), from April to July 2011. The data were collected by a food safety and quality professional using this checklist. The results showed that the overall adequacy of the establishments surveyed was 29.07%. The highest percentage of compliance was found for storage at ambient temperature (64.13%). The lowest compliance percentage was also found in different sections and areas in the supermarkets such as bakery and confectionery (14.93%), water supply (18.30%), food handling (21.01%), sausage and cold meat (or deli meat) (36.38%), and documentation-related items (4.97%). None of the supermarkets evaluated had the necessary documentation for the implementation of good practices. The results of this study show the importance of effectively implementing a good practice program and quality systems by raising awareness among technicians and professionals of the importance of quality programs used in food companies and the need for more thorough inspection delivered by competent authorities to ensure food safety for consumers.
  • Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotic strains in peach jam during storage at different temperatures Original Papers

    Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Pitino, Iole; Licciardello, Fabio; Muratore, Giuseppe; Caggia, Cinzia

    Abstract in English:

    The survival of six probiotic wild strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was compared with that of a type strain during 78 days of storage at 25 and 5 ºC in peach synthetic medium (PSM) and commercial peach jam (PJ). Changes in viable cell counts, pH values, sugar content, and colour parameters were monitored. All strains exhibited better performances in PJ than in PSM, showing count values higher than 7 Log cfu g-1 up to 78 days of storage at 5 ºC. Almost all wild strains remained above the critical value of 6 Log cfu g-1 in samples stored at 25 ºC up to 45 days, while the Lb. rhamnosus GG type strain, used as control, was not able to survive later than 15 days. In the synthetic medium used, the strains showed better survival in the samples incubated at 25 ºC, remaining viable above the critical level up to 45 days of storage, except for the strain H12. The probiotic cultures added to jam did not significantly change the colour parameters of the product; however the metabolism of lactobacilli did cause changes in the pH and in the composition of sugars.
  • Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition Original Papers

    Cavalheiro, Carlos Pasqualin; Piovesan, Natiéli; Terra, Lisiane de Marsillac; Lovato, Maristela; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus) and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC) and the others containing 19.08 (T1), 38.34 (T2), and 57.60% (T3) of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.
  • Characterization and development of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart.) Original Papers

    Silva, Edson Pablo da; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valerio de Barros; Xisto, Andreia Luiza Pereira Ramos

    Abstract in English:

    The objectives of this study was the physical, chemical, and physiological characterization of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart.) during its development. The fruits were harvested 12 Km off Itumirim, Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, at 20-d intervals from anthesis to fruit maturity. The first fruits were harvested within 60 days. The total development of the fruit took 140 days starting from anthesis. At 140 days after anthesis, the fruit reached its maximum size, with mass of 1.380g, transverse diameter of 13.0 cm, and longitudinal diameter of 11.5 cm. During its development, the fruit showed increase in mass and in traverse and longitudinal diameters. The changes during maturation and ripening, such as: pH reduction and starch degradation, pectic solubilization, and increase in total sugars, soluble solids (ºB), respiratory rate (CO2), titratable acidity, vitamin C, and β-caroteno were observed from the 120th day of marolo development. A decrease in ability to sequester free radicals was observed up the 120th day, followed by an increase. The volatile compounds identified at the end of the development included the esters group only.
  • Ultrafiltration performance of PVDF, PES, and cellulose membranes for the treatment of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) Original Papers

    Debien, Isabel Cristina do Nascimento; Gomes, Maria Thereza de Moraes Santos; Ongaratto, Ricardo Schmitz; Viotto, Luiz Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    Ultrafiltration (UF) inhibits the enzymatic activity which is responsible for color changes of coconut water without the need for heat treatment. In the present study, UF performance in terms of the permeate flux and enzymatic retention of the coconut water was evaluated at laboratory unit (LU) and pilot unit (PU). The membranes studied were polyethersulfone 150 kDa (UP150), polyvinylidene fluoride 150 kDa (UV150) and cellulose 30 kDa (UC030). The UP150 membrane showed the best permeate flux. The UC030 membrane showed the lowest flux, but it resulted in 100% enzymatic retention, while the other membranes showed enzymatic retentions between 71 and 85%. The application of the UC030 in the pilot unit (PU) resulted in a flux value higher than that obtained in the LU due to the tangential velocity effect. The UC030 membrane has proved adequate for industrial applications.
  • Analysis of applicability of Peleg model to the cooking-infusion of mackerel (Scomber japonicus) slices Original Papers

    Checmarev, Gerardo; Casales, María Rosa; Yeannes, María Isabel

    Abstract in English:

    Mass transfer kinetics in osmotic dehydration is usually modeled by Fick's law, empirical models and probabilistic models. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of Peleg model to investigate the mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of mackerel (Scomber japonicus) slices at different temperatures. Osmotic dehydration was performed on mackerel slices by cooking-infusion in solutions with glycerol and salt (a w = 0.64) at different temperatures: 50, 70, and 90 ºC. Peleg rate constant (K1) (h(g/gdm)-1) varied with temperature variation from 0.761 to 0.396 for water loss, from 5.260 to 2.947 for salt gain, and from 0.854 to 0.566 for glycerol intake. In all cases, it followed the Arrhenius relationship (R²>0.86). The Ea (kJ / mol) values obtained were 16.14; 14.21, and 10.12 for water, salt, and glycerol, respectively. The statistical parameters that qualify the goodness of fit (R²>0.91 and RMSE<0.086) indicate promising applicability of Peleg model.
  • Kinetic, thermodynamic properties, and optimization of barley hydration Original Papers

    Montanuci, Flávia Daiana; Jorge, Luiz Mario de Matos; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos

    Abstract in English:

    The hydration kinetics of five barley cultivars was studied at six different temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 ºC for 32 hours applying the Peleg model. Response Surface was used to describe dynamic of the process and identify the hydration time for each cultivar. The activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (ΔH*), entropy (ΔS*), and Gibbs free energy (ΔG*) were estimated from the adjusted parameters and Arrhenius equation. Temperature had significant effect on the hydration of the five cultivars. At low temperatures, the stabilization time for hydration was faster. Peleg constants K1 and K2 decreased with increasing temperature. The cultivar BRS BRAU showed the lowest value of initial absorption rate (R0 = 0.149 kg.h-1) at 10 ºC, while the cultivar BRS BOREMA had the highest value of R0 (0.367 kg.h-1 at 35 ºC). The equilibrium moisture content (Me) increased with increasing temperature. The cultivars BRS CAUE and BRS BRAU showed the lowest values of Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* showed negative values, and ΔG* increased with increasing temperature, confirming the effect of temperature on hydration.
  • Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Brazilian rice cultivars Original Papers

    Palombini, Sylvio Vicentin; Maruyama, Swami Arêa; Claus, Thiago; Carbonera, Fabiana; Souza, Nilson Evelázio de; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Gomes, Sandra Teresinha Marques; Matsushita, Makoto

    Abstract in English:

    This study quantified the fatty acids and evaluated the proximate composition, antioxidant activity (using the Quencher procedure), and total phenolic compound concentrations in Brazilian rice cultivars. The cultivars studied showed high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acid. The ratios of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids obtained were high. Regarding the antioxidant activity, the best results were found using the ABTS method and the worst in the DPPH assay. The results of the DPPH and FRAP assays showed the highest correlation. The antioxidant capacity results obtained were also much higher than those reported for other varieties worldwide. Therefore, the Quencher procedure is highly suitable for application in cereals such as rice, especially when combined with the ABTS radical capture method.
  • Optimization of extrusion variables for the production of snacks from by-products of rice and soybean Original Papers

    Coutinho, Lairy Silva; Batista, Jaqueline Eduarda Rodrigues; Caliari, Márcio; Soares Júnior, Manoel Soares

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed to define the process conditions to obtain snacks from the by-products of rice and soybean with physical characteristics suitable for marketing. Therefore, the effects of moisture and extrusion temperature on the expansion and color of the products obtained experimentally obtained were evaluated, and the proximate composition of the by-products and that of the snack with greater desirability were determined. Response surface methodology and rotational central composite design were used, and desirability test based on the regression models adjusted was applied. The most desirable snack, with the highest expansion index (3.39), specific volume (13.5 mL.g-1), and the chromaticity coordinate a* (2.79), was obtained under 12 g.100 g-1 moisture and 85ºC of temperature in the third zone of the extruder. The snack produced under these conditions attained content of protein and lipid content 41 and 64% higher than that of the traditional corn snack. It can be concluded that producing extruded snack made form a mixture of broken grains, rice bran, and soybean okara (81:9:10) is technologically feasible, enabling the development of a new product with good nutritional value that can improve the diet of children, the main consumers of this type of food.
  • Stability of frozen marolo pulp during storage Original Papers

    Damiani, Clarissa; Silva, Flávio Alves da; Lage, Moacir Evandro; Pereira, Douglas Endrigo Perez; Becker, Fernanda Salamoni; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    Abstract in English:

    Marolo, also known as araticum or head-to-black, is a globular berry, a species native to the Brazilian savannah. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of frozen marolo pulp during 12 months of frozen storage. It was observed that the levels of ash (0.28-0.22%), protein (0.77-0.71%), lipids (1.75-1.73%), carbohydrates (12.1-10.15%), calorie (67.23-59.01 kcal), sucrose (2.50-1.29%), citric acid (435.63-197.5 µg.g-1), tartaric acid (4.38-1.88 µg.g-1) , acetic acid (470.38-279.25 µg.g-1), ascorbic acid (3.00-0.00 µg.g-1), total pectin (0.67-0.39%), pH (3.88-3.83), and b* chromaticity coordinates (24.85-20.53) decreased reduced during storage, whereas the levels of moisture (85.10-87.19%), color parameters (L* 58.89-62.62 and a* 5.37-7.86), reducing sugars (4.53-5.62%), total soluble sugars (7.1-7.36%), soluble solids (7.0-8.4 ºBrix), total acidity (0.9-1.0%), malic acid (514.13-781.25 µg.g-1), soluble pectin (0.16-0.24%), and antioxidant (6.85-37.35% of DPPH discoloration) increased over the one-year of storage period. According to the physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters assessed, the product can be stored for 12 months without loss of quality with addition of citric acid as a preservative.
  • Untitled document Artigos Originais

    Carvalho, Naiara Barbosa; Minim, Valéria Paula Rodrigues; Silva, Rita de Cássia dos Santos Navarro; Della Lucia, Suzana Maria; Minim, Luis Aantonio

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to predict by means of Artificial Neural Network (ANN), multilayer perceptrons, the texture attributes of light cheesecurds perceived by trained judges based on instrumental texture measurements. Inputs to the network were the instrumental texture measurements of light cheesecurd (imitative and fundamental parameters). Output variables were the sensory attributes consistency and spreadability. Nine light cheesecurd formulations composed of different combinations of fat and water were evaluated. The measurements obtained by the instrumental and sensory analyses of these formulations constituted the data set used for training and validation of the network. Network training was performed using a back-propagation algorithm. The network architecture selected was composed of 8-3-9-2 neurons in its layers, which quickly and accurately predicted the sensory texture attributes studied, showing a high correlation between the predicted and experimental values for the validation data set and excellent generalization ability, with a validation RMSE of 0.0506.
  • Oxidative stability of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging Original Papers

    Mendes, Nathalia da Silva Rodrigues; Gomes-Ruffi, Cristiane Rodrigues; Lage, Moacir Evandro; Becker, Fernanda Salamoni; Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado de; Silva, Flávio Alves da; Damiani, Clarissa

    Abstract in English:

    Food industries have been concerned about managing the waste generated by their production processes in order to minimize environmental impacts and also about the development of formulations with different and innovative ingredients such as fruits from the Brazilian savanna. Seeking to meet the expectations of consumers who desire healthy and practical products, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability and the variations in chemical composition and antioxidant potential of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging. The bars formulated were packed in four different types of packaging: laminated without vacuum (LWV), transparent without vacuum (TWV), transparent under vacuum (TV), and laminated under vacuum (LV); they were subsequently analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant activity, and oxidative capacity. The results showed that the cereal bars made with fruit peel and baru are sources of protein, dietary fiber, and fat, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids. The cereal bars exhibited oxidative stability up to 120 days of storage, and the type of packaging was not significant for the variables evaluated; therefore, they can be stored in low cost packaging such as transparent packaging without vacuum for a period of 120 days.
  • Microencapsulation of babassu coconut milk Original Papers

    Santana, Audirene Amorim; Oliveira, Rafael Augustus de; Pinedo, Aroldo Arévalo; Kurozawa, Louise Emy; Park, Kil Jin

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to obtain babassu coconut milk powder microencapsulated by spray drying process using gum Arabic as wall material. Coconut milk was extracted by babassu peeling, grinding (with two parts of water), and vacuum filtration. The milk was pasteurized at 85 ºC for 15 minutes and homogenized to break up the fat globules, rendering the milk a uniform consistency. A central composite rotatable design with a range of independent variables was used: inlet air temperature in the dryer (170-220 ºC) and gum Arabic concentration (10-20%, w/w) on the responses: moisture content (0.52-2.39%), hygroscopicity (6.98-9.86 g adsorbed water/100g solids), water activity (0.14-0.58), lipid oxidation (0.012-0.064 meq peroxide/kg oil), and process yield (20.33-30.19%). All variables influenced significantly the responses evaluated. Microencapsulation was optimized for maximum process yield and minimal lipid oxidation. The coconut milk powder obtained at optimum conditions was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, bulk and absolute density, porosity, and wettability.
  • Effect of Brea Gum on the characteristics of wheat bread at different storage times Original Papers

    López, Estela Patricia; Pérez, Gabriela Teresa; Erramouspe, Patricia Liliana Jiménez de; Cuevas, Carlos Mario

    Abstract in English:

    The effect of Brea Gum (BG) addition on a basic bread formulation is described. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of BG on the characteristics of wheat bread in terms of changes in moisture, texture, retrogradation of amylopectin, and microstructure. Bread quality was assessed by the physical parameters (volume, specific volume index, width/height ratio, crumb moisture, color, and hardness) and crumb grain structure (total cell number, total cell area, average size of cells, and number of cells per unit area). The effect of BG on the characteristics of the crumb during 24, 48, and 72 hours of storage was determined according to changes in moisture, hardness, and amylopectin retrogradation. Furthermore, the microstructure of the crumb was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show the ability of BG to retain moisture in the bread crumb, which was expressed by the lower hardness of the bread crumbs with the addition of the hydrocolloid at 48 and 72 hours of storage. This effect was also evident in the microstructure.
  • Extraction of DNA from honey and its amplification by PCR for botanical identification Original Papers

    Jain, Sona Arun; Jesus, Flávia Thalita de; Marchioro, Giulia Manso; Araújo, Edílson Divino de

    Abstract in English:

    The physiochemical and biological properties of honey are directly associated to its floral origin. Some current commonly used methods for identification of botanical origin of honey involve palynological analysis, chromatographic methods, or direct observation of the bee behavior. However, these methods can be less sensitive and time consuming. DNA-based methods have become popular due to their simplicity, quickness, and reliability. The main objective of this research is to introduce a protocol for the extraction of DNA from honey and demonstrate that the molecular analysis of the extracted DNA can be used for its botanical identification. The original CTAB-based protocol for the extraction of DNA from plants was modified and used in the DNA extraction from honey. DNA extraction was carried out from different honey samples with similar results in each replication. The extracted DNA was amplified by PCR using plant specific primers, confirming that the DNA extracted using the modified protocol is of plant origin and has good quality for analysis of PCR products and that it can be used for botanical identification of honey.
  • Characterization of new sources of derivative starches as wall materials of essential oil by spray drying Original Papers

    Verdalet-Guzmán, Iñigo; Martínez-Ortiz, Laura; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    Starch derivatives of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) and rice were characterized as wall materials of orange oil (d-limonene) by spray drying. Native starches were initially hydrolyzed with HCl and then esterified. Succinylated starches were modified using a conventional method in a slurry and were extruded; whereas, the phosphorylated starches were modified using the extrusion process. Viscosity and solubility of starches reduced after acid hydrolysis, derivatization, and extrusion. The particle size of the wall materials ranged between 20.05 and 31.81 µm. The encapsulation efficiency of the phosphorylated taro, rice, and waxy corn starches was 96.9, 96.8 and 97.1% respectively, and 98.6, 98.1, and 98.8% for succynilated taro, rice, and waxy corn starches, respectively. Starch derivatives of taro and rice could potentially be used as wall materials of orange oil d-limonene.
  • In-house method validation and occurrence of alpha-, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, lambda-cyhalothrin, procymidone and trifluralin residues in strawberry Original Papers

    Soares, Alexandre Augusto; Amaral, Eliane Hooper; Sousa, Leandro Augusto Ferreira de; Souza, Scheilla Vitorino Carvalho de; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    Abstract in English:

    A method for determination of organohalogen pesticides in strawberry by gas chromatography with electron capture detection was validated and applied in a monitoring program. Linearity, matrix effects, and day effect were evaluated for the analytes alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, lambda-cyhalothrin, procymidone, and trifluralin. The linear range varied according to the chromatographic response of the analyte. Significant matrix effects were observed. The mean recoveries ranged from 74.6 to 115.4%, with repeatability standard deviations between 1.6 and 21.0% and intermediate precision between 5.9 and 21.0%. Detection, quantification and decision limit, and detection capacity ranged from 0.003 to 0.007 mg/kg, 0.005 to 0.013 mg/kg; 0.003 to 3.128 mg/kg; and 0.005 to 3.266 mg/kg, respectively. The method was fit for the purpose of monitoring organohalogen residues in strawberries. Residues of these pesticides were detected in 124 of the 186 samples analyzed between 2009 and 2011 in the state of Minas Gerais. Nine of them did not comply with the current legislation requirements; among them, seven (3.8%) had residues of unauthorized pesticide for the culture of strawberry, one (0.5%) had residues above the maximum residue limit, and another one (0.5%) exhibited both non-conformities.
  • Evaluation of quality factors of bovine and chicken meat marinated with reduced sodium content Original Papers

    Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; Corradine, Silvana da Silva; Reche, Péricles Martim; Pozza, Magali Soares dos Santos; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do

    Abstract in English:

    In many industrialized countries, including Brazil, sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations. Excessive consumption is associated with hypertension and premature death by cardiovascular diseases. The industry's challenge is to produce products with reduced sodium that are similar to regular products in texture and flavor and consistent with consumers' dietary habits. The present study aimed at substituting 25 and 50% NaCl for KCl in marinated beef and chicken meat with the addition of aromatic herbs and spices. The following microbiological analyses were carried out: macronutrient, chemical composition, and sensorial analysis. The meats showed a reduction in NaCl contents without any changes in their physical and chemical characteristics, and the products´ quality and microbiological safety were maintained. Beef and chicken tenderness was maintained for both treatments. Furthermore, the use of 50% KCl did not cause any changes in the products' sensory quality, and the overall acceptance of both types of meat was maintained. Results showed that a reduction by 50% in the NaCl contents of marinated meat products with a combination of herbs and spices is possible. Future applications in other meat products and sausages are highly promising.
  • Evaluation of the PetrifilmTM and TEMPO® systems and the conventional method for counting microorganisms in pasteurized milk Original Papers

    Cirolini, Andréia; Baseggio, Andressa Mara; Miotto, Marília; Ramos, Roberta Juliano; Cattani, Cristhiane Stecanella de Oliveira; Vieira, Cleide Rosana Werneck

    Abstract in English:

    New microbiological methods have been developed and commercialized, but their performance must be guaranteed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the PetrifilmTM and TEMPO® systems compared to the conventional method for counting microorganisms in pasteurized milk. A total of 141 samples of pasteurized milk were analyzed by counting mesophilic aerobic, Coliforms at 35 ºC, Coliforms at 45 ºC, and Escherichia coli microorganisms. High correlation was found between the methods for counting Coliforms at 35 ºC, but low correlation was found for counting mesophilic aerobic, Coliforms at 45 ºC, and Escherichia coli. No significant statistical difference was found among the three methods for counting Coliforms at 35 ºC; however, the mean counts of mesophilic aerobic, Coliforms at 45 ºC, and Escherichia coli showed significant statistical difference. PetrifilmTM and TEMPO® systems had satisfactory results for Coliforms at 35 ºC in pasteurized milk but low performance for mesophilic aerobic, Coliforms at 45 ºC and Escherichia coli.
  • Evaluation of the influence of seasonality and landscape on the physicochemical characteristics of propolis Original Papers

    Loureiro, Elaine Maria; Galbiati, Carla

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed at verifying the influence of the seasonality and landscape of the place of apiaries in the production and physicochemical quality of propolis produced in Cáceres-MT. Within August/2006 and July/2007 twenty-three propolis samples were collected monthly. The physicochemical quality of propolis was determined by the characteristic: loss by drying, wax, mechanical mass, oxidation activity, dry extract, flavonoids and total phenolics. The production of propolis was analyzed through correlation with seasonality (dry and wet). The same statistic model was used to correlate the production with the landscape (highland and flood plain). For each physicochemical characteristic were used statistic model of correlation described for the production of propolis. The seasonality did not influence on propolis production and on physicochemical quality. The landscape did not influence on propolis production and physicochemical quality loss by drying and mechanical mass, however, it determined the physicochemical quality for wax (x=22.44%), oxidation activity (x=9.73''), dry extract (x=22.31%), flavonoids (x=1.94%) and total phenolics (x=0.02%) in the highland of the Pantanal of Cáceres. This way it concludes that the production and physicochemical quality of propolis were not influenced by seasonality. The landscape influenced positively on physicochemical quality of propolis in the highland of the Pantanal of Cáceres.
  • Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies Original Papers

    Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Carrão-Panizzi, Mercedes Concórdia; Curti, Jessika Menck; Dias, Isabela Pereira; Seibel, Neusa Fátima

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.
  • Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from uruguayan artisan cheese Original Papers

    Fraga Cotelo, Martín; Perelmuter Schein, Karen; Giacaman Salvo, Sheila Solange; Zunino Abirad, Pablo Miguel; Carro Techera, Silvana Beatriz

    Abstract in English:

    Uruguayan artisan cheese is elaborated with raw milk and non-commercial starters. The associated native microbiota may include lactic acid bacteria and also potentially pathogenic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisan cheese, raw milk, and non-commercial starter cultures, and their potential bacteriocin production was assessed. A culture collection of 509 isolates was obtained, and five isolates were bacteriocin-producers and were identified as Enterococcus durans,Lactobacillus casei, and Lactococcus lactis. No evidence of potential virulence factors were found in E. durans strains. These are promising results in terms of using these native strains for cheese manufacture and to obtain safe products.
  • Phisicochemical, sensory, and microbiological evaluation and development of symbiotic fermented drink Original Papers

    Dias, Mônica de Lucena Lira Aguiar; Salgado, Silvana Magalhães; Guerra, Nonete Barbosa; Livera, Alda Verônica Souza; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Ximenes, Graciliane Nobre da Cruz

    Abstract in English:

    The goal of this study was to develop a symbiotic lacteous drink, evaluate its physicochemical and sensory characteristics, and verify the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the drink. The milk serum-based drink consisted of 50% milk serum containing 10% saccharose, 25% powdered milk, 15% yacon pulp, and cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus-La 5E and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB12. It was stored for up to 21 days under refrigeration. The milk serum-based drink was analyzed for protein, ether extract, total dietary fiber, total frutans, carbohydrate content, color, pH, acidity, and contamination by coliforms, and Salmonella sp. Coliforms and Salmonella sp were not detected, and L. acidophilus and B. bifidum provided satisfactory probiotic counts up to 21 days of storage under refrigeration. Lactobacillus acidophilus resistance to gastric acids and bile salts was detected only up to seven days of storage when evaluated in vitro. Sensory analysis and purchase viability were evaluated by consumers at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Based on the analytical results and consumer evaluation, the drink was acceptable up to seven days of storage.
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