Abstract in English:Abstract In this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extracts. Nowadays the conventional emulsion formulation method is a two-step procedure, i.e. first supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining an extract; secondly emulsion formulation using another device. Other variation of the process was tested and successfully validated originating a new acronymed process: EPFE (Emulsions from Pressurized Fluid Extractions). Both processes exploit the supercritical CO2-essential oils miscibility, in addition, EPFE process exploits the emulsification properties of saponin-rich pressurized aqueous plant extracts. The feasibility of this latter process was demonstrated using Pfaffia glomerata roots as source of saponin-rich extract, water as extracting solvent and clove essential oil, directly extracted using supercritical CO2, as a model dispersed phase. In addition, examples of pressurized fluid-based coupled processes applied for adding value to food bioactive compounds developed in the past five years are reviewed.
Abstract in English:Abstract A novel trypsin inhibitor of protease (CqTI) was purified from Chenopodium quinoa seeds. The optimal extracting solvent was 0.1M NaCl pH 6.8 (p < 0.05). The extraction time of 5h and 90 °C was optimum for the recovery of the trypsin inhibitor from C. quinoa seeds. The purification occurred in gel-filtration and reverse phase chromatography. CqTI presented active against commercial bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin and had a specific activity of 5,033.00 (TIU/mg), which was purified to 333.5-fold. The extent of purification was determined by SDS-PAGE. CqTI had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 12KDa and two bands in reduced conditions as determined by Tricine-SDS-PAGE. MALDI-TOF showed two peaks in 4,246.5 and 7,908.18m/z. CqTI presented high levels of essential amino acids. N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein did not show similarity to any known protease inhibitor. Its activity was stable over a pH range (2-12), temperatures range (20-100 °C) and reducing agents.
Abstract in English:Abstract The changes in flaxseed constituents at different stages of maturity are reported. The physical properties and antioxidant activity of flaxseed oil during flaxseed development have been evaluated. Continuous decrease in total polyphenol content during flaxseed development. All the results showed no significant differences between HPLC-MS and TLC for quantitative determination of phospholipids classes. The fatty acid compositions of individual phospholipids were also reported. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The test demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of the flaxseed oil was found to be harvesting time-dependant.
Abstract in English:Abstract In search for renewable energy sources, the Brazilian residual biomasses stand out due to their favorable physical and chemical properties, low cost, and their being less pollutant. Therefore, they are likely to be used in biorefineries in the production of chemical inputs to substitute fossil fuels. This substitution is possible due to the high contents of carbohydrates (>40%), low contents of extractives (<20%), ashes (<8%) and moisture (<8%) found in these residual biomasses. High calorific values of all residues also offer them the chance to be used in combustion. A principal components analysis (PCA) was performed for better understanding of the samples and their hysic-chemical properties. Thus, this study aimed to characterize biomasses from the north (babassu residues, such as mesocarp and endocarp; pequi and Brazil nut) and northeast (agave and coconut) regions of Brazil, in order to contribute to the preservation of the environment and strengthen the economy of the region.
Abstract in English:Abstract Chopped mussel meat packaged in retort pouches was processed in a laboratory-scale water immersion retort, adapted for processing under overpressure conditions. Retort temperature effects on product yield and on cook value were evaluated by setting the F0 at 7 min. The effects of different pre-treatments (salting and marination) on the characteristics of mussels were evaluated after processing at retort temperature of 118 °C and during a whole year of storage at 25 °C. The salted samples showed better yield during storage, while no differences were found for the other physicochemical parameters.
Abstract in English:Abstract The growing interest in the usage of dietary fiber in food has caused the need to provide precise tools for describing its physical properties. This research examined two dietary fibers from oats and beets, respectively, in variable particle sizes. The application of automated static image analysis for describing the hydration properties and particle size distribution of dietary fiber was analyzed. Conventional tests for water holding capacity (WHC) were conducted. The particles were measured at two points: dry and after water soaking. The most significant water holding capacity (7.00 g water/g solid) was achieved by the smaller sized oat fiber. Conversely, the water holding capacity was highest (4.20 g water/g solid) in larger sized beet fiber. There was evidence for water absorption increasing with a decrease in particle size in regards to the same fiber source. Very strong correlations were drawn between particle shape parameters, such as fiber length, straightness, width and hydration properties measured conventionally. The regression analysis provided the opportunity to estimate whether the automated static image analysis method could be an efficient tool in describing the hydration properties of dietary fiber. The application of the method was validated using mathematical model which was verified in comparison to conventional WHC measurement results.
Abstract in English:Abstract Millets are having superior nutritional qualities and health benefits; hence they can be used for supplementation of pasta. Pasta was prepared using composite flour (CF) of durum wheat semolina (96%) and carrot pomace (4%) supplemented with finger millet flour (FMF, 0-20g), pearl millet flour (PMF, 0-30g) and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC, 2-4g). Second order polynomial described the effect of FMF, PMF and CMC on lightness, firmness, gruel loss and overall acceptability of extruded pasta products. Results indicate that an increasing proportion of finger and pearl millet flour had signed (p≤0.05) negative effect on lightness, firmness, gruel loss and overall acceptability. However, CMC addition showed significant (p≤0. 05) positive effect on firmness, overall acceptability and negative effect on gruel loss of cooked pasta samples. Numeric optimization results showed that optimum values for extruded pasta were 20g FMF, 12g PMF and 4g CMC per 100g of CF and 34ml water with 0.981 desirability. The pasta developed is nutritionally rich as it contains protein (10.16g), fat (6g), dietary fiber (16.71g), calcium (4.23mg), iron (3.99mg) and zinc (1.682mg) per 100g.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three groups of pigs were fed three different diets, namely a diet rich in saturated fatty acids (palm oil-based, PO), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet (corn oil-based, CO), and a PUFA-rich diet (corn oil-based) supplemented with red wine solids (RWS), which was added to the diet (CO+RWS) in order to assess the protective effect on the oxidative status of the pork meat. The addition of corn oil favourably modulates the FAs profile of the backfat, and to a lesser extent of the intramuscular fat of semimembranosus muscle, without causing adverse effects on the meat quality or on its oxidative stability. Moreover, these parameters were not affected by the addition of the RWS in the CO+RWS diet.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, our aim was to consider the production of fish crackers using Carassius gibelio and to investigate the fatty acid profile and sensory quality of the fish crackers. Fish cracker mixture with a ratio 3.5:1.5 (minced fish/wheat starch) was obtained. Based on the total minced fish and starch level, 1.75% salt, 0.25% black pepper, 2% sunflower oil, 1% baking powder and 10% cold water (4 °C) were added and stirred until a homogenous mixture was obtained. The mixture was compressed in an extractor and baked. The moisture content of minced fish (CMF), cracker dough (CD) and crackers (CCr) was 77.73 ± 0.14%, 63.10 ± 2.18% and 7.95 ± 0.67% respectively. The n6/n3 ratio of crackers was 2.61 ± 0.20, PUFA/SFA ratio 2.28 ± 0.06 and DHA/EPA ratio 1.81 ± 0.01. The overall acceptability score obtained by the sensory evaluation of panelists was very high (8.09 ± 0.25).
Abstract in English:Abstract Flavors represent a small but significant segment of food industry. Sensory characteristics play an important role in the process of consumer acceptance and preference. Indocalamus leaf takes on a pleasant odor and indocalamus leaf flavor can be used in many products. However, indocalamus leaf flavor formula has not been reported. Therefore, developing an indocalamus leaf flavor is of significant interests. Note is a distinct flavor or odor characteristic. This paper concentrates on preparation and creation of indocalamus leaf flavor according to the notes of indocalamus leaf. The notes were obtained by smelling indocalamus leaf, and the results showed that the notes of indocalamus leaf flavor can be classified as: green-leafy note, sweet note, beany note, aldehydic note, waxy note, woody note, roast note, creamy note, and nutty note. According to the notes of indocalamus leaf odor, a typical indocalamus leaf flavor formula was obtained. The indocalamus leaf flavor blended is pleasant, harmonious, and has characteristics of indocalamus leaf odor.
Abstract in English:Abstract The camu-camu tree (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) Mc Vaugh) is fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the type of storage temperature and package which allow better conservation of the quality attributes of camu-camu. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3x3x8), constituted of three different storage temperatures (laboratory ambiente or 25 ± 2 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C), three types of packages (no package, PET and PVC) and fourteen days’ storage, the fruits being analyzed every two days. The fruits were evaluated as to fresh mass loss, pH, soluble solids contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls A and B and maturation index (SS/AT). According to the results obtained, the quality attributes and ascorbic acid content were conserved for longer time in the fruits stored on PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene trays at 15 °C. It follows that the best temperature for the storage of camu-camu is 15 °C and the package that best keeps its quality attributes is the PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene tray.
Abstract in English:Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum) grown in Northeast Region of China were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein and total dietary fiber contents were 4.48, 4.94, 23.65, 21.29 and 38.76 g/100 g, respectively. The main amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid (above 2 g/100 g), followed by histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, cysteine, leucine, tryptophan, serine, glycine, methionine, threonine and tyrosine (0.8-2 g/100 g). The contents of proline, alanine, valine and isoleucine were less than 0.8 g/100 g. The fatty acid profile showed that linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid (above 0.55 g/100 g) as the most abundant fatty acids followed lauric acid, arachidic acid, gondoic acid and behenic acid (0.03-0.15 g/100 g). Analyses of mineral content indicated that the most abundant mineral was potassium, followed by magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium and manganese. The nutritional composition of hot pepper seeds suggested that they could be regarded as good sources of food ingredients and as new sources of edible oils.
Abstract in English:Abstract Essential oils (EO) of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L.), thymus (Thymus capitatus L.) pirul (Schinus molle L.) were evaluated for their efficacy to control Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme growth and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Data from kinetics radial growth was used to obtain the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). The IC50 was used to evaluate spore germination kinetic and mycotoxin production. Also, spore viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. All EO had an effect on the radial growth of both species. After 96 h of incubation, thymus EO at concentrations of 1000 and 2500 µL L–1 totally inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus, respectively. Eucalyptus and thymus EO significantly reduced spore germination of A. parasiticus. Inhibition of spore germination of F. moniliforme was 84.6, 34.0, and 30.6% when exposed to eucalyptus, pirul, and thymus EO, respectively. Thymus and eucalyptus EO reduced aflatoxin (4%) and fumonisin (31%) production, respectively. Spore viability was affected when oils concentration increased, being the thymus EO the one that reduced proliferation of both fungi. Our findings suggest that EO affect F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus development and mycotoxin production.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objectives of this study were i) to isolate Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in broiler wing meat samples, ii) to confirm the isolates by PCR, based on prs and hly A gene sequences, iii) to determine the seasonal and monthly distribution of the isolates. A total of 120 broiler wing meat samples (60 packaged pieces wrapped using strech film in styrofoam plates and 60 unpackaged pieces) bought from different markets in Hatay province were analysed. Listeria spp. was isolated from 57 (47.5%) out of 120 samples. Fifty-four, out of 57 Listeria spp. isolates were identified as L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from the samples collected during the spring, winter, summer, and autumn at the levels of 26.6%, 40%, 53.3%, 60%, respectively. In this study, the isolation rates were found to be the highest in autumn, while the isolation rates were found to be the lowest in spring. As a consequence, high prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in poultry wing meat samples may pose a risk for human health. We consider that with obeying the rules of good hygiene practices (GHP), good manufacturing practices (GMP) and HACCP can minimize the contamination with Listeria spp.
Abstract in English:Abstract Brazilian wine production is characterized by Vitis labrusca grape varieties, especially the economically important Isabel cultivar, with over 80% of its production destined for table wine production. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate the conditions for extracting volatile compounds from wine with the solid-phase microextraction technique, using the response surface method. Based on the response surface analysis, it can be concluded that the central point values maximize the process of extracting volatile compounds from wine, i.e., an equilibrium time of 15 minutes, an extraction time of 35 minutes, and an extraction temperature of 30 °C. Esters were the most numerous compounds found under these extraction conditions, indicating that wines made from Isabel cultivar grapes are characterized by compounds that confer a fruity aroma; this finding corroborates the scientific literature.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal) and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07%) and salmon (72.40%). A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.
Abstract in English:Abstract Composite films of chitosan, fish gelatin and microbial transglutaminase (MTgase) were developed. Films were produced by the casting method and dried at room temperature for 30 h, conditioned for 7 days at 30 °C at a relative humidity (RH) from 11 to 90%, and characterized. Chitosan:fish gelatin films in different proportions (100:0, 75:25, 50:50) with MTgase, were subjected to tensile properties and water vapor transmission (WVT) testing. The results showed that tensile strength decreased with an increase in RH and with an increase in gelatin content. Percent of elongation also increased with increasing RH and gelatin concentration. Water vapor transmission showed an increase proportional to an increase in RH with the presence of gelatin being unfavorable for reducing WVT. Results in this work allowed studying the effect of relative humidity on tensile and water vapor properties of chitosan and fish gelatin films.
Abstract in English:Abstract A novel lectin was isolated from the seeds of Chenopodium quinoa. To achieve this end, the crude extract from the quinoa was submitted to two purification steps, Sephadex G50 and Mono Q. The hemagglutinating activity showed that this lectin agglutinates human erythrocytes. Its activity is inhibited by glucose and mannose, and remained stable under a wide range of pH levels and temperatures. The quinoa lectin was found to be a heterodimeric lectin of approximately 60 kDa, consisting of two subunits of approximately 25 kDa and 35 kDa. This lectin had its antimicrobial activity tested against several bacteria strains and effectively inhibited three strains. These strains were all Gram-negative, making this lectin a promising antimicrobial tool.
Abstract in English:Abstract The use of agroindustrial residues is an economical solution to industrial biotechnology. Coffee husk and pulp are abounding residues from coffee industry which can be used as substrates in solid state fermentation process, thus allowing a liberation and increase in the phenolic compound content with high added value. By employing statistical design, initial moisture content, pH value in the medium, and the incubation temperature were evaluated, in order to increase the polyphenol content in a process of solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum. The main phenolic compounds identified through HPLC in fermented coffee residue were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. Data obtained through HPLC with the radical absorbance capacity assay suggest the fermented coffee husk and pulp extracts potential as a source of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Results showed good perspectives when using P. purpurogenum strain to enhance the liberation of phenolic compounds in coffee residues.
Abstract in English:Abstract Peripheral nerves have the unique capability to regenerate after injury. Insights into regeneration of peripheral nerves after injury may have implications for neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system. We investigated the ability of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. In sensory functional recovery test, the time taken for the rats to withdraw its hind limb from contact with the hot plate was measured. The test revealed acceleration of sensory recovery in the polysaccharide group compared to negative controls. Further, peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Akt and p38 MAPK were expressed in DRG and strongly upregulated in polysaccharide group after peripheral nerve injury. The intensity of endothelial cells antigen-1 that recognized endothelial cells in the blood vessels of distal segments in crushed nerves was significantly higher in the treated groups than in the negative control group. Our findings suggest that H. erinaceus is capable of accelerating sensory functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and the effect involves the activation of protein kinase signaling pathways and restoration of blood-nerve barrier.
Abstract in English:Abstract The search for chemopreventive/chemoprotective compounds in marine organism has been extensively reported; however, the presence of these compounds in octopus has been incipiently explored. In this research, the antimutagenic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant potential of three crude extracts (methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic) from Paroctopus limaculatus was investigated. Antimutagenic activity against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was evaluated through the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and 100. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using the standard MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay on M12.C3.F6 murine cell line. Antioxidant activity was assessed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) methods. Hexanic extract showed the highest antimutagenic and antiproliverative activities inhibiting 80 and 43% of mutagenicity induced by AFB1 for TA98 and TA100, respectively, and showing a high antiproliferative activity at 200 and 100 µg/mL. However, when the antioxidant activity was evaluated at a concentration of 50 mg/mL, the methanolic fraction exerted inhibition of 98 and 96 % ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. RP-HPLC and 1H-RMN analyses suggested the presence of double bonds with extended conjugation and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols, esters, ethers or ketones. These results suggested that hexanic and methanolic extract form octopus contained compounds with chemoprotective and antioxidant properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract Postharvest lettuce often lose water, thus affecting both its market value and consumer acceptance. However, the mechanism of the water-loss is still waiting well exploration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a foliar application of ABA on the fresh weight-loss and the chlorophyll content of postharvest lettuce as well as its association with the regulation of stomata. The present data demonstrated that exogenously application of ABA, in a concentration range of 0 to 100 µM, significantly lowered the fresh weight-loss of postharvest lettuce. ABA also delayed chlorophyll reduction during ambient storage, but this protective effect was ABA concentration-dependent. Among the tested ABA concentrations, 50 µM or lower ABA produced an inhibition effect on chlorophyll degradation in postharvest lettuce leaves. The results demonstrated that the exogenous ABA treatment can obviously reduce the transpiration rate of lettuce leaves by promoting the stomatal closure of postharvest lettuce, therefore eventually delay fresh weight-loss. The present study primarily showed that the application of exogenous ABA, which originated from a naturally-produced phytohormone, has a great potential in retaining the freshness of postharvest lettuce that is stored in an ambient condition, although possible practical application still need to be further evaluated.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fish consumption has increased in recent years. However, fish meat is highly perishable, which demonstrates the need for technologies to preserve its quality. Edible coatings (EC) might provide an alternative to extend the shelf life of fish. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of EC of chitosan (C) in combination with carvacrol (CAR) on the physical and microbiological changes of tilapia fillets. Fillets were submerged for two minutes in different treatments (T1: control; T2: C 2%; T3: C 2% + 0.125% CAR; T 4: C 2% + 0.25% CAR). At the end of storage, T1 and T2 showed the lowest values of total volatile bases (TVB). The color parameters L*, a* and b* varied from each treatment. The texture decreased and the different treatments reduced the microbial population in relation to the control; T3 and T4 were the most effective. These results show that the use of C with CAR might be an alternative method to preserve the quality and safety of tilapia fillets.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the postharvest stage, taste and flavor are the key components of the marketability of tomato. Therefore, greater emphasis is now being placed on improving traits such as sugar content. In this study postharvest ultraviolet-B (UV-B) treatments on sugar, total soluble solids, and color of tomatoes harvested at different stages were investigated. Tomatoes harvested at turning, pink, and red stages were treated with two different doses of UV-B irradiation: UVB4 and UVB8. Color L* and hue angle values of tomatoes treated with UV-B were found to be high, which means the red color of tomatoes was improved. UVB4 treatments increased the color a* and saturation index values of tomatoes at pink and red harvest stage, although it did not affect at the turning stage. Additionally, UV-B irradiation treatments had no effect on sucrose content of the tomatoes. Fructose, glucose, and TSS content of tomatoes treated with UVB8 at red harvest stage were found to be high. Hence, the results obtained from this study are of great importance in terms of providing an increase in the amount of sugar without the need for breeding, and also consumer satisfaction.
Abstract in English:Abstract Grape pomace, which is derived from the skin and seeds, is the residue from the production of grape juice and wine. It corresponds to up to 20% of the total volume and it contains a high level of dietary fibers and bioactive compounds. In the Brazilian market, there is no product containing grape pomace as a replacement for conventional wheat flour. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole-wheat flour and organic Bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L.) on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies using response surface methodology (RSM). The regression models indicated that the addition of whole-wheat and organic grape pomace decreased (p < 0.0001) the water activity and significantly increased the content of fibers, hardness, brittleness, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the cookies. The RSM models presented suitable R2 and R2adj values (> 65% of explained data variability), except for brittleness. The sensory evaluation results revealed that no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for the cookie samples, implying that the addition of grape pomace and whole-wheat flour did not negatively affect the preference of cookies.