Abstract in English:Abstract The 5º Simpósio de Segurança Alimentar (5th Food Safety and Security Symposium) was held in May, 2015, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil with the objective of discussing the interrelation between food and health, in various perspectives. This paper reviews the state of the art regarding all the issues discussed during the Symposium, connecting them with the lectures presented at the conference. As final remarks, it was perceived that the interrelation between food and health is growing stronger and cannot be discussed without involving the different areas involved.
Abstract in English:Abstract Considering the microbial safety of consumption of raw foods (Asian food), this study aimed to explore the inactivation S. aureus in raw salmon by supercritical CO2 treatment (SC-CO2). For this purpose, experimental design methodology was employed as a tool to evaluate the effects of pressure (120-220 bar), the depressurization rate (10 to 100 bar.min–1) and the salmon:CO2 mass relation (1:0.2 to 1:1.0). It was observed that the pressure and the depressurization rate was statistically significant, i.e. the higher the system pressure and depressurization rate, the greater the microbial inactivation. The salmon: CO2 mass relation did not influence the S. aureus inactivation in raw salmon. There was a total reduction in S. aureus with 225 bar, a depressurizing rate of 100 bar.min–1, a salmon: CO2 mass relation of 1:0.6, for 2 hours at 33 °C.
Abstract in English:Abstract Food production within the context of solidarity economy is an alternative way to offer employment and income for a significant part of the Brazilian population. The purpose of this study was to carry out a business diagnosis in order to evaluate the facilities, the production process and hygiene practices of seven solidarity economy enterprises located in the city of Novo Hamburgo, Southern Brazil, that work with food production and sales. Visits took place at the enterprises and a check-list was used to record data. Although food production happens in places with space and setting restrictions, it guarantees distinctive foods with aggregate value, where handlers follow the whole process, from raw materials selection to sales. Basic hygiene principles are followed, as they guarantee the production of food with quality, which contributes towards income generation for participating families. Specific laws that apply to the characteristics and needs of small-scale food production must be written in order to regulate solidarity economy enterprises.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical quality and sensory acceptance of gluten-free breads with different percentages of chia flour (Salvia Hispanica L .). The chia flour was used to substitute rice flour and soy flour in order to replace the gum required in this type of bread. Four formulations were developed; a standard made with gum, and three formulations with 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% of chia flour. Analyses of specific volume, cooking losses and the rise in dough of the breads were performed. Sensory analysis included tests for affective acceptability and purchase intent. The results showed that the bread with 2.5% chia flour had specific volume and cooking losses similar to the standard. In terms of the rise in dough, the standard showed the highest values, followed by the bread made with 5.0% chia flour. The substitution of soy and rice flour with 2.5% of chia flour produced bread with sensory characteristics similar to the standard in all of the analyzed attributes; it also received higher purchase intent. Using chia flour at a concentration of 2.5%, compared to rice flour and soy flour, proved that it was possible to replace gum in the bread formulation.
Abstract in English:Abstract The study aimed to assess the food accessibility and consumption among families in the Cupiúba rural settlement, in the city of Castanhal, Pará, Brazil. It was found that the access to food is worrying and indicated that most families are in food insecurity conditions. Moreover, income and food safety level were associated. The consumption of the settler families comprises mainly high-energy, low-nutrient content foods, characterized by the low intake of fruits and vegetables and the introduction of processed foods with high energy density and sugar-added beverages, although the traditional dietary habits (rice and beans) are still present. This configures a diet at risk for important nutritional deficits, obesity, and many non-communicable chronic diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of meals served in nursing homes in the city of Ponta Grossa, Paraná, before and after the training of food handlers. The first stage was to perform a checklist conforming with current legislation. The second consisted of the collection of 4 food samples from each location and a microbiological investigation in accordance with the relevant legislation. The third was the training of food handlers in relation to good food handling practices. The fourth was a further microbiological analysis of new samples. The application of a checklist showed that the locations met the requirements of current legislation. Of the 40 samples analyzed, 17.5% (7 samples) were unfit for consumption. Among the unfit samples 15% (6 samples) had coliforms at 45 °C, 2.5% (1 sample) had coagulase-positive staphylococci, 2.5% (1 sample) had Bacillus cereus and 2.5% (1 sample) had Salmonella sp. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the quality of food served to an age group that is prone to health risks.
Abstract in English:Abstract Biodegradable films blends made of safflower oil nutraceutical capsules waste corn starch (20:4, 30:4, 40:4 and 50:4) were prepared. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of different concentrations of safflower oil nutraceutical capsule waste in the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, Young’s modulus) and thickness of corn starch films. A decrease in tensile strength and Young’s modulus and an increase in elongation at break were observed with the increase in the content of the nutraceutical capsule waste. The results showed that the blends of safflower oil capsules waste-corn starch films demonstrated promising characteristics to form biodegradable films with different mechanical characteristics.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to obtain hydroethanolic extract of propolis by extraction, assisted by focused microwave, and to apply it in Tuscan-style sausage. The extract was used at concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% (w/v) in the manufacture of the sausage, which was then analyzed in cold storage at 4 °C for 56 days. The following analyses were performed: mesophilic and psychotrophic organisms; coliforms at 35 and 45 °C; positive and negative-coagulase Staphylococcus, sulfite-reducing Clostridium, and Salmonella spp. The results were below the limits established by the Brazilian legislation, with some changes at the end of the study. Consequently, propolis extract prolonged the shelf life of the Tuscan-style sausage for 56 days and it is therefore an ingredient that can be potentially used in the preparation of this product.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pecan nutshell is a residue from food industry that has potential to be used as biopreservative in foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of pecan nutshell aqueous extract in vitro and its effectiveness to inhibit spoilage microorganisms on lettuce leaves. The results indicate that the aqueous extract presents inhibitory activity against important foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial activity was not observed against Corynebacterium fimi, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and the phytopathogenic fungi tested. When applied onto lettuce leaves, pecan nutshell extract reduced the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria in 2 and 4 log CFU/g, respectively, during storage of leafy for 5 days at refrigeration temperature (5 °C). The extract was not effective to inhibit yeast on lettuce leaves. Thus, the aqueous extract of pecan shell showed great potential to be used as a natural preservative in foods, acting mainly in the inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.