Abstract in English:Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common human intestinal malabsorption diseases. The only effective treatment for patients with CD is to follow a gluten-free (GF) diet strictly. Nowadays, the increasing incidence of CD promotes worldwide interests for various desirable GF products. However, baking without gluten, the key ingredient for bread structure and quality, is a big challenge for all bakers and cereal researchers. Several approaches have been applied to understand and improve gluten-free bread (GFB) elaboration and further studies are still required. The main focus of this review is to discuss the approaches for GFB improvements in recent 5 years, including the use of novel alternative flours, functional ingredients, processing aids, additives, innovative techniques, and their combinations.
Abstract in English:Abstract Non-meat ingredients have been added as extenders to variety of meat products, such as beef burger, to improve some properties. Textured soy protein (TSP), collagen (CL) and maltodextrin (MD); and their combinations (TSPCL, TSPMD, CLMD and TSPCLMD) were added to beef burgers and then the effect on physicochemical and sensory properties was evaluated. MD and TSPMD presented higher yield and TSPMD showed lower value for the shrinkage analysis; these results showed the positive influence of the maltodextrin in reducing water loss. CL and TSPCL were harder than the control treatment. CLMD had higher approval in sensorial acceptance than MD and TSPCL. The addition of these extenders in the beef burgers improved the cooking properties, texture and sensorial acceptance, showing the importance of the addition of these ingredients to the final product.
Abstract in English:Abstract Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is known for their sensory characteristics and antioxidant properties, mainly due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. The aim of this work, was determine the antioxidant activity and apply the Rosemary lyophilized extract (RLE) in chicken burger, for assess their ability to reduce the lipid oxidation. Total antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds profile were analyzed by colorimetric tests and liquid chromatography analysis, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay was used to evaluate the ability of the RLE to prevent lipid peroxidation in chicken burger stored at 4 °C. Three treatments of chicken burgers were prepared (T1 – control, without addition of synthetic antioxidant BHT: butylated hydroxytoluene or RLE), T2 – with addition of BHT, and T3 – experimental, containing RLE). The high contents of total phenolic compounds (40.91 mg GAE g-1: Gallic Acid Equivalent) and total flavonoids (24.26 mg QE g-1: Quercetin Equivalents) were found in RLE. Rutin was the major phenolic compound identified in the RLE. The RLE showed strong antioxidant capacity and inhibited 48.29% of lipid oxidation (21 days of storage) in comparison to the control (T1), with low production of malonaldehyde, which has potential to be used in chicken burgers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a process control system describes the potential hazards during food production flow chart. In contrast to the conventional way of ensuring product safety by end-product testing, HACCP establishes control systems, focuses mainly on preventive measures. Quality of red dried chili pepper (RDCP) should be assured by taking special care from harvesting of the peppers to retailing of the packaged product. RDCP is susceptible to fungi growth and mycotoxin contamination depending on the atmospheric and processing conditions such as humidity, temperature, storage and drying. Mycotoxins, are toxic metabolites to human health and strict control measures are required for preventing their occurrence in RDCP. In this study, HACCP system was implemented during the production of RDCP to ensure the food safety and quality characteristics of products and to expand the market. The most important critical control points (CCPs) during the production of RDCP was determined as sorting and drying. It is evident that development and use of the GMP, GAP, GSP and hygienic rules as well as HACCP during handling and processing of dry chili pepper are a must for processing plants.
Abstract in English:Abstract Honey, produced by honeybees from nectar in flowers and plants, is an aqueous supersaturated sugar solution, mainly composed of fructose and glucose. The quality and biochemical properties of honey are related to honey maturity, production methods, processing and storage conditions, climatic conditions as well as the nectar source of the honey. In this study, 35 honey samples of different sizes and packaging all of which were sold in Istanbul were examined in terms of some physicochemical and microbiological properties. All samples were floral liquid honey. The physicochemical characterizations were as follows: average moisture (16.31±1.40%), ash (0.30±0.29%), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (8.09±7.63 mg/kg), pH (4.32±0.34), acidity (30±9 meq/kg). In addition, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast and mold analyses were performed in these samples. According to the microbiological analyses; the average total number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria was 2.68 log cfu/g. Enterobacteriaceae have not been observed in the samples. However, in three samples, mold-yeasts were detected at the levels between 1.30 and 1.60 log cfu/g.
Abstract in English:Abstract Considering that Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium able to colonize the upper gastrointestinal tract and cause mucosal injury, not always can be effectively eradicated by the traditional approaches, there is an interest in alternative therapies until a vaccine be available. Honey is a food supplement with high carbohydrate content and antioxidant activity, as well as broad antimicrobial spectrum. After analyzing the physicochemical and in vitro antimicrobial properties of an Apis mellifera honey from the Atlantic forest of Alagoas / Brazil, the purpose of the present work was evaluate its in vivo effects against Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats. First, it was verified the success of inoculation/infection of the pathogen in the gastric mucosa of the rats, through the subsequent removal of their stomachs for histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin stain and Giemsa stain). Then, four groups of animals were treated with sterilized distilled deionized water, the Apis mellifera honey, a combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and an association of such medicines and honey (1:1). Except the control, all treatments were effective in combating infection, however, honey reduced the inflammatory process, whilst the antibiotics increase the number of eosinophils.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pereskia aculeata Mill., a species of the family Cactaceous, popularly known in Brazil as ora-pro-nobis, has high protein, vitamin and mineral contents. High essential amino acid concentrations should be underscored, suggesting a better evaluation of the fractions. Current study quantifies amino acid content and the chemical score (CS) of protein amino acids, determining in vivo digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) of P. aculeata. Plant material was collected, washed, placed in an oven at 60 °C, ground and stored in a freezer for chemical analysis. Diets that maintain isoproteic and isocaloric characteristics were prepared for the bioassay, namely: casein (no protein) and Pereskia aculeata leaves-based flour. Eighteen male albino Wistar rats, divided into three experimental groups of 6 animals each, were used to evaluate protein quality and bioavailability of micronutrients. Pereskia aculeata flour provided as a single source is inadequate for growth, although it is relevant for maintaining protein metabolism indicated by net protein ratio (2.87). It is actually a good quality protein source due to few limiting essential amino acids, and it meets the diet requirements for humans.
Abstract in English:Abstract Açai is considered a functional food, and in addition to being a source of energy and fiber, it is a valuable source of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, minerals and fatty acids. In the present work, antioxidant-rich extracts from açai pulp were obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of the independent variables, including solvent type (pure ethanol and ethanol/water (50:50 v/v)), citric acid (0 and 0.3%, w/w), pressure (20 and 80 bar) and temperature (30 and 60 °C) were evaluated using a full factorial design. The extraction was affected primarily by the solvent type and the citric acid percentage. The results indicate that the maximum overall yield (X0) was 64± 9 (%, d.b.) when the process was performed using ethanol (99.5%) and citric acid (0.3% w/w). The maximum total anthocyanin content and anthocyanin recovered from the raw material were 7 ± 1 (mg anthocyanin/g extract, d.b.) and 11 ± 2 (%, d.b.), respectively.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to the replacement of sodium chloride (0.4 to 1.6%) by potassium chloride (0.2 to 0.8%) in French bread formulation and evaluate its effect on physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. For the preparation of bread was used a factorial design 22 with 4 factorial points and 3 central points, totaling 7 experiments. The physical and physicochemical parameters analyzed were: specific volume, moisture, color of the peel and crumb, pH, acidity and texture profile, sodium and potassium. The sensory evaluation of bread was performed using quantitative descriptive analysis, with 12 sensory terminologies. Response variables of salty taste and sensory chewiness generated statistically significant models. The results indicated optimal ranges of 0.2 to 0.5% of potassium chloride, and 1.0 to 1.6% for sodium chloride, and proved the technical feasibility of producing French bread with 50% salt reduction (174.09 mg.50 g–1), compared to a standard formulation of 1.88% (306.5 mg.50g-1) salt, corresponding to the prognosis recommended by the National Health Surveillance Agency.
Abstract in English:Abstract The water sorption and permeability properties of edible film produced from potato peel waste was investigated under different levels of relative humidity (23, 33, 43, 57, 75% RH) and temperatures (5, 30, 50 °C). The water sorption behaviour and isotherms of the film were investigated by fitting water sorption data to the Peleg model and the Guggenheim, Anderson de Boer model (GAB model). The amount of moisture content, time required for the moisture content of the film to reach equilibrium, water sorption rate, and water sorption capacity increased when the relative humidity increased. The effect of temperature on moisture content, water sorption rate, water sorption capacity, and monolayer moisture content is complex and related to the water activity as well as the moisture content. Based on R2 and RMSE values, the Peleg and GAB models were respectively determined as excellent models to predict the water sorption properties of the films, thus supporting the reliability of water sorption behaviour prediction. The water vapour transmission rate and water vapour permeability increased with an increase in relative humidity and temperature. The sorption and permeability properties of the film are worth investigation since the final application of the film as food packaging is ultimately dependent on these behaviours.
Abstract in English:Abstract Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction (UAAEE) conditions for perilla seed oil. Under the optimum conditions—which were a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4.4:1, a hydrolysis time of 2.66 h, a hydrolysis temperature of 50.87 °C and an ultrasound treatment time of 24.74 min—an oil yield of 31.34% was obtained. Comparisons of the physicochemical characteristics of oil obtained using UAAEE with those of oil obtained by solvent extraction (SE oil) and cold pressing extraction (CPE oil) revealed similar refractive indices and saponification values, but UAAEE oil had a higher iodine value and better stability against oxidation, with a low peroxide value. UAAEE oil contained higher levels of beneficial α-linolenic acid and phenolics than SE oil or CPE oil, and it also had superior efficiency in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals.
Abstract in English:Abstract Demand for native fruits has been expanding, due to the increasing interest in foods with possible health benefits. The buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. f.) is a native Brazilian fruit, appreciated by local populations, and its products are already on the market. This study investigated the physical characteristics and nutritional composition of buriti pulp, obtained from typical Cerrado and Amazon regions in Brazil. These regions influenced physical parameters and chemical composition. The fruits originating in the Cerrado were bigger and heavier than the ones from the Amazon. Nevertheless, protein, fatty acid and carbohydrate contents were higher in fruits from the Amazon region. The analyzed buriti fruits presented high monounsaturated fatty acid concentration (73.03 to 79.43 g/100 g), with the predominance of oleic acid (72.21 to 78.57 g/100 g). Buriti fruits may be a promising source of good nutritional quality vegetable oil and dietary fiber.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study estimated the optimum germination conditions to achieve high content of Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and other phytochemicals in Thai black rice cultivar Kum Payao (BR). The Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology was employed to optimize the germination conditions. The changes in the GABA, phytochemical content, impact of salt, and temperature stress variation on phytochemical content, and stability of GABA were studied. The results showed that 12 h of soaking at pH 7, followed by 36 h of germination was the optimum condition to achieve maximum GABA content (0.2029 mg/g of germinated BR (GBR)). The temperature (8 and 30 °C), and salt (50-200 mM NaCl) content affected the phytochemicals of GBR, especially GABA, and anthocyanins. Obviously, the antioxidant capability, and enzyme (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) inhibiting nature of BR was significantly (P < 0.001) increased after germination. The storage of GBR at 4 °C significantly, preserved the GABA content (∼80%) for 45 days. Primarily, the current study revealed the changes in phytochemical content, and bioactivity of Thai black rice cr. Kum Payao during germination. More studies should be carried out on pharmacological benefits of GABA-rich GBR.
Abstract in English:Abstract The regular consumption of fish provides health gains for people, and its introduction in school meals is an important strategy to insert the habit of consuming this food by a population. Thus the objective of this study was to verify the acceptance of fish, presented in the form of hamburger, by children in municipal primary schools in the town of Pato Branco, Brazil, in which the school cooks had been trained to produce fish hamburgers. Acceptance was evaluated using a hedonic scale with 5 facial classifications (1 = disliked extremely to 5 = liked extremely). Students of both genders from 5 to 10 years of age (n = 142) were served the hamburgers for their midday meal, representing the protein portion of the meal. The results were analyzed by logistic regression. No effect of age or gender was observed between the children in the acceptance of the hamburgers, but the interaction between age and gender was significant. The cluster analysis was applied to distinguish this interaction using two-way joining to present the results, which showed the effect between specific age and gender situations. The acceptance index was 87% showing the potential for the consumption of this food by children.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hovenia dulcis pseudofruits have underexplored properties for food purposes, despite their pleasant sensory characteristics and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was the elaboration and chemical characterization of the alcoholic fermented beverage of H. dulcis, using selected strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200). The resulting fermented beverage presented high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity when compared to other fruits and beverages (DPPH and ABTS assay). The alcohol content was 12.9 oGL and total sugars 3.57g/L. By the GC-MS analysis, 39 compounds were identified including metabolites with therapeutic potential such as eugenol, trans-farnesol salicylates. The flavonoid dihidromyricetin was identified and quantified (75.17 mg/L) by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results reinforce the interest on nutraceutical and functional properties of this beverage and opens perspectives for new studies that value this underexplored pseudofruit.
Abstract in English:Abstract Patients who need prolonged domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy may benefit from handmade diets. However, the preparation of such diets might cause insecurity with regard to their nutritional composition and physical-chemical properties. Current study analyzes the osmolality and Hydrogen-Ion concentration (pH) on handmade enteral diets. To this purpose, six formulas and two juices, prescribed on discharge from hospital, were analyzed physically and chemically. Osmolality and pH were respectively determined by cryoscopy and potentiometry. Most formulations were classified as isosmolar (with less than 400 mOsm/kg solvent), and only one was classified as slightly hyperosmolar, with rates ranging from 356.7 to 403.5 mOsm/kg solvent. On average, the standard formula presented higher osmolality than similar ones prepared for hyperglycemia. Among the juices, only one registered hyperosmolar concentration of 595.54 mOsm/kg solvent. All formulas presented pH rates classified as low acidity, ranging between 6.1 and 6.6, while the two juices had the lowest results, 4.73 and 4.66 each. The blend of ingredients used in handmade formulas and juices studied presented acceptable osmolality and pH rates for a safe administration and absence of gastrointestinal complications. Data showed here are consistent with an appropriate and healthy diet and contributed towards success in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tucupi, a fermented product obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is widely employed in the cuisine of the Northern region of Brazil, however, its industrial application is incipient. This study used tucupi to prepare a creamy paste, which underwent sensory and rheological evaluation. Paste formulations with 5 to 20% concentrated tucupi were obtained. An acceptance test was used to assess the product’s acceptability regarding the attributes of color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall impression. A purchase intention test of the product was also applied. The product’s rheology was studied at 25, 40, and 60 °C and the activation energy (Ea) was estimated. The internal preference mapping indicated that the paste formulation with 5% and 10% tucupi were the most accepted by the judge, but only the 10% tucupi paste was characterized. Proportions greater than 15% tucupi influenced negatively in the flavor and texture of the product. Purchase intention test showed that 99% of the judges demonstrated interest in purchasing the product. The product presented 72.7% moisture, 10.4% lipids, 0.5% proteins, 2.1% ashes, 14.3% carbohydrates, and 7.4 μg/g β-carotene. According to the rheological assays, the paste presented characteristics of a pseudoplastic fluid. The Herschel-Bulkley model proved efficient to predict the flow curves for the product in the temperature range tested, for which Ea was estimated at 7.49 kJ/mol.
Abstract in English:Abstract Beta vulgaris L. var. rapa is a variety of beet with edible dark green leaves and stalks, which is a close relative of Swiss chard. It is widely consumed in central Anatolia region in Turkey due to its high nutritional value and desirable sensory attributes. Locally known as ‘pezik’, Beta vulgaris L. var. rapa is a highly perishable vegetable. The stalks of pezik are consumed as pickle, allowing longer consumption of this vegetable. In this study, Weibull hazard analysis was applied to the sensory data to determine the shelf life of pezik pickles. The end of shelf life was indicated by the time when 50% of the panelists found the pickles unacceptable. Pickles blanched for 7 min and stored at 17-18 °C were found to have a shelf life of 167 days with 95% confidence limits of 156-179 days. Prolonged blanching (9 min.) decreased the shelf life of pickles by about 19 days.
Abstract in English:Abstract Maitake (Grifola frondosa) mycelia contain high dietary and medicinal values that have gained great attentions from consumers. Proper drying can preserve their bio-availabilities prior to subsequent processing or consumption. Pure Maitake (Grifola frondosa) strain was cultivated in Mushroom Complete Medium (MCM) using submerged fermentation for 14 days. Maitake mycelia were harvested and treated respectively by vacuum, oven drying treatments while the fresh mycelia were assigned as control. All the samples were tested for Total Phenolic Content, DPPH radical scavenging assays and nutritional contents. Submerged fermentation produced mycelia biomass (1.3 ± 0.1 g/L) within 14 days of fermentation. Both the pH and reduced sugar content had decreased (P < 0.05) throughout fermentation. Vacuum dried mycelia had shown higher (P < 0.05) total phenolic (20.0 ± 0.4 mg GAE/g), DPPH radical scavenging activity (84.7 ± 0.1%), and soluble protein content (283.6 ± 7.1 µg/mL) as compared to other treated samples. The crude protein (39.1 ± 0.2), fat (5.7 ± 0.7), ash (11.1 ± 0.3%) of mycelia were well preserved using vacuum drying as compared to oven dried samples. The study has suggested that vacuum drying at 70 °C, 1000mBar has the advantage to preserve the nutritional and radical scavenging activity of high value maitake mycelia effectively at lower cost.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, mineral element and heavy metal levels in bee pollen produced in various regions of Turkey (20 samples) and imported bee pollen (4 samples), were determined using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) device. Mineral and heavy metal levels of bee pollens produced in Turkey were determined to be within the following ranges (minimum-maximum, µg/gpollen); Cr (chromium): 0.124-1.595, Cu (copper): 3.728-14.994, Fe (iron): 28.603-725.360, Mg (magnesium): 271.107-1278.340, Mn (manganese): 8.151-201.036, Se (selenium): 0.593-5.085, Zn (zinc): 14.832-39.079, B (boron): 0.592-61.33, Ni (nickel): 0.002-1.761, Si (silicon): 0.082-10.500, K (potassium): 992.107-2894.154, Ca (calcium): 491.853-1472.102, P (phosphorus): 795.899-5246.992 and Cd (cadmium): 0.006-0.181, Pb (lead): 0.000-0.479, As (arsenic): 0.006-1.035. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that bee pollens produced in Turkey may be a good source of mineral regarding the trace elements Se, Mn, Fe, Cr and Cu.
Abstract in English:Abstract Development of new food products, taking as raw material the subproducts obtained during industrial process become an economic and nutritious alternative, since these are usually discarded, caning be a significant nutritional source good. This research aimed to develop cheese bread using fermented broken rice instead of sour starch in four different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). After the development of formulations, was performed physics and chemicals characterization of products obtained, performing analysis of: proximate composition, dietary fiber, acidity, pH, ºBrix, total soluble sugars, reducing and sucrose. The increased formulations didn’t present significant differences, highlighting the average values of protein 7%, dietary fiber 9% and ash 1.9%. Broken rice, after fermentation process, becomes a profitable alternative instead of the sour starch on cheese breads, saving all the physical and chemical characteristics and being inexpensive.
Abstract in English:Abstract Enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) play important roles in the processing of fruits and vegetables, since they can produce undesirable changes in color, texture and flavor. Classical methods of activity assessment are based on cuvette spectrophotometric readings. This work aims to propose, to validate and to test microplate spectrophotometric methods. Samples of apple juice and lyophilized enzymes from mushroom and horseradish were analyzed by the cuvette and microplate methods and it was possible to validate the microplate assays with satisfactory results regarding linearity, repeatability, accuracy along with quantitation and detection limits. The proposed microplate methods proved to be reliable and reproducible as the classical methods besides having the advantages of allowing simultaneous analysis and requiring a reduced amount of samples and reactants, which can beneficial to the study of enzyme inactivation in the processing of fruits and vegetables.
Abstract in English:Abstract The current study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of traditional and diet figs canned in syrup, as well as verify their storage stability. Therefore, it was used green figs from the cultivar Roxo de Valinhos. Two treatments were held: standard sucrose syrup and sweetener blends: sodium cyclamate, sucralose and sodium saccharin. The syrups were previously prepared; being 25 °Brix for sucrose syrup; and by dividing the quantity of sucrose potency (100) to the blend of sweeteners potency (125) for sweetener blends. The products were stored at room temperature for 180 days and evaluated once a month through pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, texture, vacuum and sensory evaluation (i.e. affective test); except for the commercial sterility test that was conducted at 0 to 180 days. Both canned figs in syrup showed no significant difference for pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, vacuum and texture; therefore, both were considered commercially sterile and kept their sensory characteristics throughout storage.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study investigated the effects of puerarin (PUE) on blood lipid and inflammatory factor levels in rats with lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). Sixty rats were randomly divided into control, model, simvastatin, low-PUE, middle-PUE and high-dose PUE group. The animals in later 5 groups were with lower limb ASO, and the later 4 groups were given 1 mg/kg simvastatin and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg PUE, respectively. The blood lipid and inflammatory factor levels were determined. Results showed that, the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level in model group were significantly increased (P <0.01), while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly decreased (P <0.01). Compared with model group, TC, TG, LDL-C, IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP in high-dose PUE and simvastatin group were significantly decreased (P <0.01 or P <0.05), and HDL level was significantly increased (P <0.01 or P <0.05). There was no significant difference of each index between simvastatin and high-dose PUE group (P >0.05). PUE can obviously decrease the blood lipid and inflammatory factor levels in rats with lower limb ASO.
Abstract in English:Abstract The goal of this work is to determine the optimal conditions for the obtaining of protein concentrates from rice bran. The effects of defatting processes applied to this product in laboratory and in industrial scales were investigated. Through two experimental designs were performed, and production conditions to obtain the protein concentrates were chosen with values of protein contents average 59.9% and 57.1%, with protein yields of 61.6% and 30.7%. The concentrates produced with industrially defatted rice bran showed higher digestibility and increased thermal stability compared with the product obtained with laboratory defatted rice bran. Both concentrates show molecular weight proteins below 50 kDa. The morphology of the precipitated proteins, analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, there was a great difference in the size of particles, which form the wet precipitates. The differences presented by the concentrates can be due to defatting processes which raw materials were submitted. Thus, studying the protein extraction conditions and knowing its characteristics is very important for the industry, because food processing requires knowing the behavior of each compound during and after processes they will be submitted.