Abstract in English:Abstract Consumer food safety concerns are continually increasing in Turkey, with consumer demand for safer foods becoming an important challenge for the industry. Most traditional foods in Turkey are produced under different requirements, and food safety risk management and risk assessment are conducted primarily by the government. Based on risk assessment, safety regulations and standards for traditional foods (e.g. Turkish white cheese, doner, helva) have been established. In this paper, safety concerns surrounding the commercialization of traditional Turkish foods and related studies to identify and minimize potential hazards are discussed along with pathogen contamination in raw meat balls and aflatoxin in helva and white cheese. Based on this review, additional national risk analysis experts and related databases are urgently needed. In addition, the manufacturing processes for traditional foods need to be standardized and harmonized with international standards, such as CODEX.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the present study, the software Aspen Plus® was used to analyse two different systems for CO2 recycle in a SFE process for extraction of more polar compounds using ethanol as co-solvent, the most common co-solvent used due to its environment-friendly nature. The extraction process of β-ecdysone from Brazilian ginseng roots was considered as example in the computational simulations. The first CO2 recycle system, named Recycle A, considered the compression of the CO2 separated in the second flash to the recycle pressure assumed at the first flash tank, its cooling to 25 °C and recirculation, while the second recycle system, named Recycle B, considered the cooling and pumping of the CO2 separated in the second flash, its heating to 25 °C and recirculation. The best techno-economic condition to operate the recycling step would be using Recycle A at 40 bar and 30 °C considering a stand-alone SFE process; and using Recycle B at 40 bar and 40 °C, considering this process in close proximity of a hypothetical sugarcane biorefinery. Therefore, these results suggest that the selection where would be located the SFE plant should be taken into account during the first steps of the process design.
Abstract in English:Abstract Transglutaminases are enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking between peptides or proteins. They play an important role in heat stability, gel-formation capability, water-holding capacity, emulsification and nutritional properties of proteins. They are preferred in the use of a variety of meat products due to the binding properties. In this study the effect of transglutaminase on the quality characteristics of chicken burgers were investigated. The enzyme was added at 5 different concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1%) and the other treatments applied in burger production were followed. After the product was formed, it was left in the cold for a while and then analyses were carried out. According to the results, the enzyme contribution did not cause changes in the nutritional items (ash, fat, protein) of the product groups. However, there was a significant decrease in the cooking loss and a significant increase in the texture values in the groups in which the enzyme amount was increased. Although the texture of the products have been increased, the transglutaminase treatment did not effect sensory parameters of burgers compared to the control samples. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images also supported to the texture values of samples with the increase of cross-linking in microstructure.
Abstract in English:Abstract Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is fruit with very short shelf life due to associated with the loss of firmness in the pulp and information on the activity of enzymes that degrade pectic substances, as well as the amount of pectin, is very contradictory and not clearly defined. This work showed that the firmness of the fruit decreased sharply on the first four days of ripening. The identified phenolic compounds had their content increased with fruit maturation. The addition of the enzymes cellulase and hemicellulase in the pectin extraction in fruits of Psidium guajava revealed higher contents of this polyssacaride that the ones reported in literature, highlighting pectin as the responsible for the firmness of these fruits at more adequate contents. β-D-glucosidase was identified as one of the responsible enzymes for the maturation of P. guajava fruits. Thus, studies about possible inhibitory effects of this enzyme in P. guajava fruits may reveal an important tool to reduce pectin release and early maturation of these fruits.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tucupi is a fermented liquid obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), very much appreciated by the traditional cuisine of Northern Brazil. However, there are no scientific reports on its use in the formulation of products. Thus, the present study aimed to elaborate a powdered condiment with tucupi, as well as to assess the product’s sensory acceptability and its hygroscopic behavior. The powdered tucupi used in the formulation of the condiment was obtained by drying in a spray dryer. The product underwent sensory evaluation for its acceptability regarding the attributes of color, aroma, flavor, and overall impression and a purchase intention test was applied by hedonic scale. The acceptability index was 80% for overall impression and the purchase intention test indicated that 94% of the judges would be willing to buy the product. The product’s moisture sorption isotherms presented type-II behavior for adsorption and type-III for desorption, at 25 °C. The hygroscopic behavior indicated that the product is more susceptible to spoilage changes when stored in an environment with relative humidity above 60% and the Peleg model showed an excellent performance on predicting the product’s moisture sorption isotherms.
Abstract in English:Abstract Melanin pigments have great application value and development potential in food industry to use as nature functional food colorants. In initial study, twenty-two Auricularia auricula strains were screened for stronger production ability of melanin pigments by solid culture. Three A. auricula strains (RF201, QD2 and QD6) with higher pigment production capacity were selected for further study through submerged culture supplementing 1 g/L l-tyrosine. The maximal pigment yields of A. auricula RF201, QD2 and QD6 were 493.9, 367.6 and 318.5 mg/L, respectively. Among three strains, A. auricula RF201 possessed the strongest production ability of melanin pigments. The present study indicated that A. auricula RF201 could be used as potential excellent producer of melanin pigments.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study was aimed at optimizing the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from jussara and blueberry fruits using the response surface methodology (RSM). UAE was found to be more efficient to extract phenolic compounds from both fruits than the conventional extraction. The optimum extraction conditions for the jussara fruits were: extraction time between 30 and 62 min for total anthocyanins and total phenolics, fruit:solvent ratio of 10% and 6% (w/v) for total anthocyanins and total phenolics, respectively. The ethanol concentration was non-significant (p> 0.05). Acidified water was found to be an extracting solvent as efficient as ethanol in the extraction of phenolic compounds from jussara fruits. The optimum extraction conditions for blueberry anthocyanins were: ethanol concentration between 20-70% vol, and fruit: solvent ratio greater than 20% (w/v) within the range studied. The extraction time was not significant (p> 0.05). For total phenolic content: the concentration of ethanol was between 40-80%, and fruit: solvent ratio greater than 20% (w/v) and extraction time over 50 minutes. It was possible to adjust the mathematical model for the coordinates a* (verde vs vermelho) and C* (color saturation) of the jussara extracts.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the investigate, we objectived to assess the effect of coating with chitosan film on the shelf life. To this end, skinless sea bream fillets were separated as control group (C), vacuum packed (VP) and coated with chitosan film and vacuum packed (CF+VP). Samples of each group were periodically analyzed for microbiological [Total mesophilic aerobic count (TMAc) and Total psychrophilic aerobic count (TPAc)] and physicochemical [pH, Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and Trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N)] in storage time. It was determined that CF+VP had the highest shelf life among the sample groups. The findings of the study showed that covering sea bream fillets with chitosan film and vacuum packaging significantly prolongs the consumption of the sea bream fillets.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study investigated the presence of generic and verotoxin-producing E. coli as well as enumerated faecal coliforms in 30 beef carcasses in different parts of the slaughter process (after skinning, washing and cooling) at each of three slaughterhouses of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Among the total number of carcasses examined (n = 90), 39 (43.3%) had generic E. coli. Among the 270 samples analysed, 25 (9.3%) were positive after skinning, 14 (5.2%) were positive after washing and nine (3.3%) were positive after cooling. The majority of isolates of E. coli was collected from samples after skinning, which is considered a critical point of the microbial contamination of carcasses. However, the highest concentration of faecal coliforms was found after the washing step. The cooling step proved to be important to reducing the amount of hygiene-indicator microorganisms. The E. coli isolates had no stx1 or stx2 genes associated with virulence.
Abstract in English:Abstract Our objective in this work was to evaluate the contents of the major bioactive compounds in the peel of three genotypes of camu camu at different maturity stages. The genotypes had high concentration of ascorbic acid in the peel ranging from 13.73% to 24.02%. In the ripe maturity stage the genotypes 17 and 44 presented the highest concentration of phenolics (3,299.97 mg GAE.100 g-1) and anthocyanins (165.91 g.100 g-1). Flavonols and carotenoids showed a distinct and statistically different behavior in each genotype. Genotype 44 in the ripe stage had the highest content of carotenoids (105.88 mg.100 g-1). The high contents of vitamin C and phenolic compounds make the residue of camu camu fruit processing a rich source of antioxidants to the food and/or pharmaceutical industries.
Abstract in English:Abstract Red beets is rich in phenolic acids and has high antioxidant capacity, and can be used to produce a natural dye. This study evaluated the effect of pH (3 to 6) on the stability of red beet extract microcapsules, dried by freeze drying and spray drying and stored at room temperature. The microcapsules were produced using a combination of maltodextrin and xanthan gum as encapsulating agents and stored for 7 days. For all evaluated microcapsules, a degradation of betanin was observed, however, that degradation was independent of pH, with the exception of the sample with maltodextrin and dried by spray drying. The freeze dried products showed lower degradation constants and higher half-life (t1/2) when comparing with the spray dried samples. The microcapsules containing maltodextrin and xanthan gum, dried by spray drying, showed the highest change in the content of phenolic compounds after storage for 7 days. The color parameters showed a reduction for a*, and increase in b* and L*, for all samples during the storage time. In general, the microcapsules produced using maltodextrin and xanthan gum, and dried by freeze dryer, showed higher stability in terms of betanin content, phenolic compounds and color parameters during storage at different pHs.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOPA) on human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901 xenografts in nude mice. The nude mice with SGC-7901 xenografts were randomly divided into model, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), low-dose DOPA, middle-dose DOPA and high-dose DOPA group. The later four groups were intragastrically administrated with 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg–1·day–1 DOPA, 400 mg·kg–1·day–1 5-Fu and normal saline, respectively. After treatment for 20 days, the tumor inhibition rate of in high-dose DOPA group was basically equivalent to 5-Fu group. Compared with 5-Fu, DOPA had no obvious toxic side effect on spleen or thymus indexes, routine blood indexes or liver and kidney functions of nude mice. Compared with model group, the serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2 levels in middle- and high-dose DOPA group were significantly increased (P < 0.05), Bax protein expression was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). DOPA can inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cell xenografts in nude mice. The mechanism may be related to its increase of serum TNF-α and IL-2 levels, up-regulation of Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression.
Abstract in English:Abstract Rice starches with different amylose contents were treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to deplete surface proteins and lipids, and the changes in molecular structure, thermal properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. SDS treatment did not significantly change the molecular weight distribution, crystalline structure, short-range ordered degree, and gelatinization properties of starch, but significantly altered the pasting properties and increased the swelling power of starch. The removal of surface proteins and lipids increased the enzymatic hydrolysis and in vitro digestion of starch. The influences of removing surface proteins and lipids from starch on swelling power, pasting properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis were different among the various starches because of the differences in molecular structures of different starch styles. The aforementioned results indicated that removing the surface proteins and lipids from starch did not change the molecular structure but had significant effects on some functional properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract Flotation sludge (FS) is produced in huge amounts at slaughterhouses in western Santa Catarina, Brazil. This waste is rich in plant nutrients and a valuable resource for soil amendments. Five FS composts were tested as a replacement for chemical fertilizers (QF), namely T1 (75% poultry manure (PM) and 25% sawdust (SD)); T2 (50% PM and 50% SD); T3 (25% PM and 75% SD); T4 (100% PM and 0% SD); and T5 (0% PM x 100% SD). For lettuce plants, treatments containing composted FS resulted in an increased number of leaves, leaf area and leaf fresh weight (LFW). T1 presented the best results with increases of 1.4 fold in LFW compared to plants supplemented with QF. T2 was the most effective treatment for radish with the best results of root fresh weight and root diameter. Although T4 had the highest nitrogen content, it did not present the best results in growth performance for lettuce or radish. The presence of higher proportions of SD in composts (25% for lettuce and 50% for radish) improved the physical characteristics of the soil and proved to be a more balanced compost.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper provides a simplified life cycle based assessment for a local branded pure milk product, to measure its related carbon footprint, including production of raw milk, dairy processing, transportation of milk product and disposal of packaging waste. The results show that the total carbon footprint of the pure milk is 1120g CO2/L. The production of raw milk is identified as the major contributor to the carbon footprint. This contribution has amounted to 843 g of CO2 per liter of pure milk, accounted for 75.27% of the total carbon footprint. The carbon footprint of product transportation is 38 g of CO2 per liter, which accounts for 3.39% of the total. The carbon footprint related to the dairy processing and disposal of waste packaging is 173 g of CO2 per liter and 66 g of CO2 per liter, accounting for 15.45% and 5.89% of the total, respectively. The carbon footprint assessment intends to help dairy enterprises identify the intensive sectors of carbon emissions, and provides insight into improvement of product environmental performances.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study investigated the effects of curcumin (Cur) on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism. The nude mice modeled with human cervical cancer HeLa cell xenograft were treated with normal saline (control), 3 mg/kg Cisplatin, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur, respectively. The animal body weight and growth of tumor were measured. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, p21, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue were determined. Results showed that, after treatment for 20 days, the tumor mass and tumor volume in 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). The expressions of Bax, p53 and p21 protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05), and the expressions of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). Cur can inhibit the growth of HeLa cell xenograft in nude mice. The possible mechanism may be related to its up-regulation of Bax, p53 and p21 protein expression in tumor tissue, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein expression.
Abstract in English:Abstract Faced with the need for greater knowledge of the different physalis species, the aim of this study was to characterize different Native American physalis species (Physalis peruviana L., Physalis pubescens L., Physalis angulata L., Physalis mínimos L. and Physalis ixocarpa Brot) as to their physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Besides that, in order to increase their use and add even more value to this fruit, we also evaluate the influence of these different species on the physicochemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of physalis jelly. In addition, this study evaluated the sensory acceptance of the combination of physalis jellies obtained from different species with brie-type cheese. The Peruviana, Pubences and Angulata, are highlighted for being the nutritionally richest species, with the highest levels of phenolic compounds, vitamin C and antioxidant. Moreover, they stand out for originating the most widely sensory accepted jellies, either in pure form or in combination with brie-type cheese.
Abstract in English:Abstract Flatulence and fullness of stomach is one of the most common problem associated with chickpea primary due to presence of some oligosaccharides and phenols. In this investigation Desi and Kabuli varieties were compared for these oligosaccharides and phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the effect of different processing and cooking methods such as soaking, cooking and germination in the reduction of these antiphysiological factors were are also studies. Maximum tannic acid (0.90 ± 0.20%) was observed in Parbat and C-44 while minimum (0.60 ± 0.04%) in Karak-2. Stachyose contents ranged between 1.10 ± 0.05 (Karak-3) to 1.42 ± 0.02% (Parbat) while raffinose was 0.63 ± 0.05(Karak-3) to 0.81 ± 0.02% (Dasht). The highest tannic acid content was reduced up to 50% in C-44 by cooking of 72 hours germinated seeds. Stachyose and raffinose contents were completely removed after 72 hours germination. Present studies revealed that cooking after germination is the most effective method to reduce the anti-nutritional factors of chickpea. Individually, soaking and cooking also contributed to the loss of the same factors but to a lesser extent.
Abstract in English:Abstract Morchella esculenta (L) Pers. is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus that remains underutilized. For this study, the effects of glycation treatment on antioxidant activity and characteristics of the M. esculenta protein isolate (MPI) were investigated via the Maillard reaction. Conjugation between MPI and xylose was proven via UV-vis, FT-IR, intrinsic fluorescence analysis, and SDS-PAGE. Amino acid analysis revealed involvement of lysine, arginine and tyrosine in MPI, forming a covalent cross-link with xylose. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that glycated MPI (MPIG) possesses a more favorable thermal stability compared to native MPI (MPIN), heated MPI (MPIH) and an unheated mixture of MPI and xylose (MPI-XM). MPIG exhibited significantly enhanced antioxidant activity compared to MPIN, MPIH, and MPI-XM. These results indicate MPIG can serve as a promising novel source of nutraceutical and functional ingredients that exert antioxidant activity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Training in Good Manufacturing Practices enhances quality during food processing. This paper evaluates GMP training aimed at improving the chemical, sensory and microbiological quality of goat milk cheese. We worked with 26 families that produce cheese as their main source of income. Semi-structured interviews and observation were conducted to select relevant topics. The manufacturing processes were compared and samples were analyzed before and after GMP training. We trained 80% of the producers. Before receiving training, they used to make cheese from raw milk in unhygienic conditions and with little equipment. The products obtained had bad sensory characteristics, cracks, eyes on the pasta, a high number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and total coliforms. After training, the producers pasteurized the milk and standardized processing procedures, resulting in final products that contained higher protein and calcium content, suitable sensory characteristics, and a significant reduction in microorganisms, with total coliforms falling to ≤ 5.103 UFC/g. Therefore, this study shows that the manufacturing process and the chemical, sensory and microbiological parameters of goat milk cheese improved after GMP training.
Abstract in English:Abstract For this study 47 samples of crude palm oil (CPO) were collected, consisted of what had been used for 4 hours around the city of Salvador-Bahia. To evaluate the quality of CPO were analyzed: Total Polar Compound (TPC; %) by Adsorption Chromatography (AC), Testo 270 and Fricheck; Free fatty acids (FFA; % oleic acid), Color (CIELab); Total Carotenoids (TC; ppm), induction time (IT, h) and fatty acids composition (g 100 g-1). The TPC analysis by Testo 270 and Fricheck showed a poor linear correlation with AC (0.69 and 0.60 respectively). Otherwise 44.70% and 36.95% of samples were completely oxidized, according to CA and IT methods. All samples presented TC (11.01-331.45 ppm) and yellow color predominance. Trans fatty acids, C18:1t in 17.02% and C18:3t in 65.65% of the samples were identified. The results demonstrate the need in the deep frying control, respect to techniques used during process. As well the improvement of the quality of palm oil fresh, can minimize the degradation process during th deep frying.
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop maize flat bread supplemented with asparagus bean flour (ABF). Preliminary study was conducted for maximum supplementation of ABF on the basis of sensory attributes and it was found that 15% ABF can be supplemented. Further a composite flour containing 85% maize flour (MF) and 15% ABF was used for the preparation of flat bread. The effect of baking temperature (200 to 235 °C) and baking time [time 1 (surface 1) and time 2 (surface 2)] (70 to 120 sec) on product responses such as sensory characteristics (overall color, appearance, flavor, taste, mouth feel, overall acceptability), texture (shear value) and moisture content were studied. Results indicated that baking temperature and baking time had significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on sensory characteristics and shear value, while significant (p < 0.05) negative effect on moisture content. Numerical optimization resulted in baking temperature 225 °C, baking time 1 (120 sec) for surface 1 and time 2 (116 sec) for surface 2 to develop a flat bread with best quality.
Abstract in English:Abstract A 32 factorial design was employed to develop an in vitro digestion method for estimation of Fe bioaccessible fractions in cooked chicken meat. The effects of sample size and the in vitro bioaccessible fractions of this essential element were evaluated. A sample preparation method employing a microwave assisted digestion with dilute nitric acid was used prior to total Fe determination. For the bioacessibility studies, the optimized procedure employed 7.5 g of sample and 6% w/v of an acid pepsin solution. This procedure was applied to two kinds of chicken meat samples: breast and liver. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to determine total and bioaccessible (chyme or soluble portion) levels of iron in the samples. With respect to total Fe content, the bioaccessible fractions of Fe found in these samples were around 23% and 56 %, for breast and chicken liver, respectively. The chicken liver sample showed the highest total (400 ± 10 mg kg-1) and bioaccessible Fe contents (223 ± 18 mg kg-1) and stands out as a good source of this micronutrient.
Abstract in English:Abstract Grape seed oil (GSO) is an important by-product of the wine-making industry which has received attention as an alternative source of vegetable oils; its chemical compounds can be influenced by agricultural practices and industrial processing. Knowledge of the composition of Brazilian GSO is scarce; thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical characteristics, as well as the antioxidant activity of these oils. GSO samples were obtained from Brazilian markets and showed significantly high amounts of phenolic, γ-tocotrienol and phytosterols as well as, the presence of several volatile compounds. Based on these results, is possible to show that oils exhibited good antioxidant activity. Therefore, it can be inferred that Brazilian GSO had a considerable content of phytochemical compounds with biological activity, which allows its association with other vegetable oils.
Abstract in English:Abstract These researches aimed determine the quality parameters, the nutritional profile, and the thermogravimetric and oxidative behavior of Muruci (Byrsonima crassifolia L .) oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction. The results showed an average oil yield of 5.50%. The acidity and peroxide values show good quality and conservation standards, according to the Brazilian legislation. The fatty acid profile indicates a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids with levels above 60%, highlighting the presence of fatty acids omega-6 and omega-9. The thermogravimetric curves showed oil stability at temperatures around 200 °C and exothermic peaks characteristic of mass loss close to 250 °C. The data of oxidative induction time determined by the Rancimat method showed thermal oxidative stability of 20.85 h for the oil obtained. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic profile evidenced chemical compounds with predominantly unsaturated structures, confirming its fatty acid profile. Based on the results of the oil analysis, it is possible to recognize the potential of this species in terms of nutritional, functional, and thermo-oxidative stability aspects.