Abstract in English:Abstract Mollusks are considered a nutritious source of food and their consumption has increased worldwide. However, their consumption, mainly of bivalves, has been considered responsible for numerous cases of foodborne diseases. This is related to their food intake, as they are filter-feeders and, consequently, bioaccumulate toxic compounds. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is recognized as an efficient technology to control pathogenic and deteriorating microorganisms, with low damage to the sensorial and nutritional properties of foodstuffs. This review addresses the use of HHP on bivalve mollusks, based on recent relevant studies in this field.
Abstract in English:Abstract The cheese whey shows an organic nutrient charge that can be used to obtain metabolites of interest by biotechnology of microorganisms. Thus, fermentative processes for enzyme production, in particular beta-galactosidase becomes feasible. The enzyme plays an important role in the biotech food industry to obtain milk and dairy products with low lactose content for consumption by intolerant individuals. The objective of this work was to determine the enzyme activity of the concentrated beta-galactosidase (CBG) and the permeabilized cells (PC) both obtained from Saccharomyces fragilis IZ 275. The enzyme beta-galactosidase obtained from the fermentation of Saccharomyces fragilis IZ 275 in cheese whey was used to determine the optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of lactose solution at 1% (w/v). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to determine beta-galactosidase activity for such factors pH, temperature and enzyme concentration suitable for the lactose hydrolysis. Based on the statistical analysis, the optimum operational conditions for maximizing lactose hydrolysis thus optimizing the enzyme activity for CBG were, temperature 30 °C, pH 6.0 and enzyme concentration 3% (v/v) and for PC was temperature 44 °C, pH 7.0 and enzyme concentration 4% (v/v).
Abstract in English:Abstract Pineapple slices were treated with three antioxidants and stored under passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to evaluate the effect of these treatments on tissue browning (percentage of dark area) and the accumulation of ascorbic acid and total phenolics. Pineapple slices were immersed in ascorbic acid (AA), isoascorbic acid (IAA), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) solutions for 2 min, and then were packed and stored at 5 °C under air (AIR) or MAP for 15 days. Water was used as control. The application of IAA and NAC under passive MAP reduced better the tissue browning index and maintained a good quality of the slices. The use of AA and IAA increased the contents of ascorbic acid and total phenolics. The application of IAA followed by storage under MAP conditions was effective in reducing tissue browning, which was associated with a higher retention of ascorbic acid and total phenolics contents of the pineapple slices.
Abstract in English:Abstract We aimed to evaluate the effects of paternal genotypes (Piau, Duroc-based, and Pietrain) and nutritional plans with different digestible lysine contents (Low, Medium, and High) on performance, carcass, and meat quality traits of pigs. Pietrain and Duroc crossbred barrows and gilts were similar in performance and carcass traits and had the greatest values when compared to Piau crossbred pigs. Regarding meat quality, drip loss was greater in pork from Pietrain crossbred barrows and gilts compared to Duroc and Piau crossbred pigs. The High nutritional plan had the greatest daily digestible lysine intake value, followed by the Medium and Low nutritional plans. Most of the performance, carcass, and meat quality traits that were evaluated in barrows and gilts were not affected by the nutritional plans. In general, Duroc and Pietrain crossbred pigs had a greater performance and carcass yield when compared to Piau crossbred pigs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Erechtites valerianifolia (Wolf) DC is an unconventional vegetable found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Is consumed in high proportions by the population living in this biome. The objective of this study was to investigate the general chemical composition, occurrence and content of carotenoids, vitamins (C and E) and minerals in this vegetable. By the micro-Kjeldhal method it was determined proteins. It was determined total dietary fiber (TDF) by non-enzymatic gravimetric method. Carotenoids and vitamins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) it was determined minerals. E. valerianifolia presented concentrations of TDF (3.7 g 100 g-1), ash (0.9 g 100-1), lipids (1.4 g 100-1), carbohydrates (2.9 g 100-1), proteins (1.3 g 100-1), caloric density (29.2 kcal 100-1), Vit. A (373.9 µg 100-1 RAE), K (561.2 mg 100-1), Ca (79.5 mg 100-1) and Fe (21.6 mg 100-1). It is considered that this vegetable is source of Ca, good source of fiber and K, and an excellent source of pro-vitamin A, Mn, Se, Fe, Mo and Cu, which may reduce food and nutritional insecurity in the population, mainly in the region where this species is found.
Abstract in English:Abstract Food-type soybean, considered a functional and nutritious food, becomes an new alternative food in human nutrition, and its preserve is an option to the consumer market. The present study aims to verify the effect of maceration time of the grains and the acetic acid concentration in brine on the physical and chemical characteristics of a edible soybean preserves, and to evaluate the proximal composition, microbiological risk and sensory acceptance of the selected preserve. The methodology used was the response surface and the central composite rotational design. The presence of acetic acid in the brine was prejudicial to the quality of the edible soybean preserve - BRSMG 790A cultivar. The soybean preserve with the best characteristics was obtained with a maceration time of 100 minutes and without the addition of acetic acid. The product was microbiological safe, showed sensory acceptance and high nutritional value (15.5 g 100 g-1 of protein and 7.0 g 100 g-1 of lipid), free of trypsin inhibitor. The essential amino acids represented 17.2% of those in the dry grain, more than 50% the standard values proposed for the essential amino acids for children and adults. The selected preserve maintained 31.25% of the antioxidant activity of the grains and could be used as a viable technological option.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Baixada Cuiabana region contains the confluence of the Brazilian Savannah, Amazon and wetlands biomes. This region brings together small producers of cassava who prepare dry flour by hand, maintaining a bank of active ethno-varieties of this crop and that are of cultural, social, economic and genetic importance. This study aimed to establish a standard for the flour currently being processed and marketed. Thus, 26 samples were collected from seven municipalities of the region. At the time of this sampling, the predominant standard of the handmade cassava flour produced in Baixada Cuiabana was Dry group, Medium class, yellow-colour, of Types 1, 2 and 3. Using the Hunter Lab colour system, the predominant colour was found to be yellow with red or green tonality, with one sample artificial colorant. Consumers recognize granule size and colour as the main parameters that determine purchase of the product. Seven samples from four municipalities were classified as Out of Type, because they presented values in disagreement with legislation that could result in difficulties in valorisation and sale in the legal market.
Abstract in English:Abstract Empirical models can be used to represent the recrystallization process in frozen food as a simple strategy (limited by the complexity of the process). Anyway, the empirical model has a better fit when used within the range of experimental values from which they were generated. In this work, an empirical mathematical model derived from the Arrhenius equation was proposed, since in previous publications it was shown that there is a direct relation between the growth of ice crystals and the temperature oscillations that occur during the storage of frozen products. Equivalent diameter data of ice crystals obtained from the storage of frozen Tilapia analyzed in the optical microscope was used as a database for the formulation of the empirical model. The developed model was acceptable to predict ice crystal growth during recrystallization in frozen Tilapia samples and had the advantage of being simple and robust enough to estimate this growth in the flotation range from -18 to -11 °C After the first 30 days of storage. The average equivalent diameter (Deq) values predicted by the model indicated that the model provides a satisfactory description of the growth of the crystals with R2 equal to 0.930.
Abstract in English:Abstract Colombian berry (agraz) has demonstrated a high antioxidant content in vitro. In the present study, it was elaborated and characterized an agraz nectar, designed a placebo with similar physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the agraz nectar, but without polyphenols; and evaluated their antioxidant capacity both in vitro and in vivo in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. The polyphenolic concentration of the agraz nectar and its antioxidant capacity was superior than other reported for this fruit. A high content of total cyanidins was observed in the freeze-dried agraz, but not delphinin was detected by HPLC. For the intervention study, sixty-six subjects, with at least three cardiometabolic risk factors, consumed agraz nectar or placebo daily during 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Total phenol concentration and antioxidant capacity in the participants’ serum were not statistically different after consuming agraz nectar and placebo. However, women increased significantly their serum DPPH scavenging capacity after consuming agraz nectar, compared to placebo. This is one of the first studies showing data about the effects of this colombian berry on the antioxidant capacity in people with metabolic syndrome.
Abstract in English:Abstract An analytical method applying ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was validated for the determination of aflatoxins M2, M1, G2, G1, B2, B1, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B1 and B2, hydrolyzed fumonisins B1 and B2, zearalenone and sterigmatocystin in crackers. The obtained recoveries (70 to 110%) and relative standard deviations (< 13%) were considered satisfactory. Method limits of quantification ranged from 0.20 µg kg-1 (sterigmatocystin) to 12.27 µg kg-1 (deoxynivalenol). The validated method was then applied for mycotoxin determination in 60 cracker samples (cream crackers and water and salt crackers) obtained from the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 were found, respectively, in 100, 50 and 28% of the analyzed samples. The maximum permissible limits established by Brazilian legislation for deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were not exceeded in the analyzed samples.
Abstract in English:Abstract Non-diary probiotic drinks are of interest to the consumers who suffer from lactose intolerance and allergenicity when consuming milk and its derivatives. Its production requires substrates that favor the viability of probiotics in the process and storage. This research assessed the use of the liquid fraction obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of kiwicha grain including the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of probiotic drinks of tarwi juice during fermentation and storage using: Lactobacillus paracasei , B. bacterium longum and a culture of both microorganisms. The viability of probiotics in drinks improved with the increase of hydrolyzed kiwicha in the composition of the drink during fermentation and post fermentation, and showed good tolerance to pH. The viability of the Bifid bacterium longum was reduced with the decrease in the pH, but improved in the co-culture with lactobacillus paracasei . The sensory characteristics of the obtained drinks were favorable.
Abstract in English:Abstract Carotenoids have a low solubility in water, and therefore their incorporation in foods is impaired. The nanoemulsions are able to protect these compounds and enhance bioavailability. The objective of this study was to develop nanoemulsions with added beta-carotene, evaluating the influence of process variables and the stability at a long storage period. To assess the effects of these variables a Box-Behnken design was performed. The best condition to form a stable emulsion was 7% (w.w-1) of surfactant and 40 °C. All formulations subjected to a thermal stress test remained stable after the test. The use of a higher concentration of soy lecithin (7%, w.w-1) in the development of emulsions conferred greater stability after a freeze-defrost cycle. Furthermore, with this concentration of surfactant, and using a high-speed homogenizer under conditions of 10,000 rpm, 30 °C, and 20 min of shaking time, it was possible to develop stable nanoemulsion with an average diameter of 429 nm. Moreover, the zeta potential indicated system stability. Thus, it was possible to obtain stable nanoemulsion without the use of subsequent equipment, which makes the process less expensive.
Abstract in English:Abstract This work is directed towards developing biodegradable films from biopolymer that is sustainable and environmentally friendly particularly tapioca starch (TPS) films. However, the usage of TPS films for food packaging application has been limited due to the poor mechanical, barrier and thermal properties. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at different concentrations (0 to 10 wt.%) was incorporated as the filler into the films to form TPS/MCC composite films via solvent casting method in order to improve the limited properties of the films. The TPS/MCC films were characterized in terms of physical, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. It was found that 3 wt.% MCC was the ideal concentration of filler that resulted to the highest performance of the films in terms of mechanical and barrier properties. Thermal properties of the films were also improved with the addition of MCC into the films. In conclusion, TPS/MCC films produced in this study exhibit improved properties and have the potential to be used for food packaging application.
Abstract in English:Abstract Peach palm flours prepared from the landraces microcarpa (MIF), mesocarpa (MEF), and macrocarpa (MAF) were assessed for their functional and morphological characteristics. The flours had moisture contents in accordance with the current legislation, considerable lipid (≥3.95%) and carbohydrate (≥66.68%) contents, and potential as an energy source (≥300 kcal/100 g). MEF and MAF can be considered rich in dietary fibers since their fiber contents were above 6 g/100 g, which contributes to the nutritional enrichment of products prepared with those flours. The assessment of the technological properties, WAC (≥255%) and OAC (≥65%) showed the peach palm flours can be used as raw material in different products such as breads, cakes, meat products, and breaded foods, thus adding energy, nutritional, and economic value. It is worth pointing out that peach palm is gluten free, hence it is an option for the development of new products targeted at consumers with celiac disease.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Studies have shown that drinks containing Ilex paraguariensis extract can promote many benefits in animals and in humans. The present study aimed to evaluate in vivo effects of Ilex paraguariensis extract on metabolic profile, obesity prevention and expression of genes related with adipogenesis and lipogenesis in Wistar female rats fed a high-fat diet. For this experiment 32 Wistar female rats with normal weight were used and randomly separated into four groups: diet (standard or high-fat) and treatment (water or Ilex paraguariensis extract) for 34 days. The rats receiving Ilex paraguariensis extract had lower body weight compared to the control group in both diets. Likewise, there was a reduction in triglycerides in the groups fed high-fat diet and treated with Ilex paraguariensis extract. The creatinine levels were lower in the groups treated with Ilex paraguariensis and in high-fat diet. It was observed an increased liver gene expression for Fas and Scd1 in the group treated with hyperlipid diet + Ilex paraguariensis. It can be concluded that Ilex paraguariensis extract decreased body weight gain in both control and high-fat diets, reduced plasma triglycerides and creatinine levels and increased liver expression of genes related to lipogenesis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Effect of extrusion cooking using different corn starch contents on the physicochemical properties (expansion ratio, bulk density, color, hardness, protein in vitro digestibility, crude protein content, thermal properties and microstructure) of tuna meat-based extrudates was investigated. The results showed that the increased corn starch content led to darker, greener, yellower and lower crude protein content of extrudates, but no significant difference was observed in expansion ratio, bulk density and hardness. The lowest protein in vitro digestibility of 82.83±0.39% appeared when the corn starch content was 20 wt%. The results of DSC revealed that tuna meat with corn starch content of 30 wt% and 20 wt% had the highest and lowest denaturation temperature of 99.4oC and 81.9 oC, respectively. The results of SEM indicated that the extrudate with 30 wt% corn starch content possessed the more integrated and distinct muscle fibers. Besides, the acceptability of the extrudate with 30 wt% corn starch content was significant better than others (p˂0.05). These results revealed that the tuna meat-based extrudates using 30 wt% of corn starch exhibited desirable physicochemical properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract Individuals not only have a set of personal resources to carry out their activities, they also have a perception with respect to the availability of these resources. As people age, personal food-related perceived resources (FPR) become increasingly important, and these influence their quality of life (QOL). Since men and women differ in aspects like education, consumption and pensions, this study seeks to identify the gender role in the relationship between FPR and QOL among Ecuadorian elderly. The sample included elderly people of both sexes in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, with the application of stratified random sampling. The instrument included: FPR scale, satisfaction with food-related life scale (SWFLS) and the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). The results indicated that those men and women who have a better perceived satisfaction with their economic situation are in physically and mentally good health, assign greater importance to family, are more satisfied with their food-related life, and have a higher number of FPR and therefore a better QOL. A relevant conclusion is that SWFLS and FPR are predictors of QOL among Ecuadorian elderly and that gender helps to explain the sign and magnitude of the relationship between these variables.
Abstract in English:Abstract The industrial by-product of blueberry juice, a source of fibre with antioxidant capacity was used to develop cookies. Once dried and ground the blueberries by-product, its composition and functional properties were analyzed and used to develop fibre enriched cookies. A central composite design was used to optimize the cookie formulation maximizing antioxidant and total polyphenol content varying fibre content (3-9 g/100 g), baking temperature (160-180 °C) and dough thickness (0.5-1.0 cm). Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content showed both a similar behaviour, increasing when fibre content increases. The increasing of dough thickness and baking temperature decreases the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content. Cookie with 9% fibre, 180 °C baking temperature and 0.50 cm dough thickness and cookie with 9% of fibre, 170°C baking temperature and 0.75 cm dough thickness showed maximum antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content with no significant differences between them; both cookies can be labelled using a fibre claim.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this research, the effects of convective drying method (60, 70 and 80 °C) and microwave drying method (160 and 350 W) on the drying characteristics, color, rehydration and microstructure properties of ginger has been examined. For the purpose of choosing the most appropriate thin-layer drying models in terms of the drying applications, nine mathematical models have been applied on the experimental data. Pursuant to the assessment of the statistical tests, models of Diffusion Approach, Midilli et al. and Page that represent drying characteristics are found to be better than other models. Drying applications have affected the color values of all fresh ginger samples. Results indicated that browning degree increases as drying temperature and microwave power rise. The samples dried at 60 °C has the maximum rehydration ratio while the samples dried at 80 °C has the minimum rehydration ratio. Scanning electron microscopy visuals have ascertained that the deterioration of the ginger samples remarkably surged due to the rise in either drying temperature or microwave power. Applying the convective and microwave techniques as an alternative drying method for ginger samples is possible.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hot melt extrusion technology using a twin-screw extruder was employed to obtain maltodextrin, maltodextrin-gum arabic and maltodextrin-trehalose based glassy extrudates containing ascorbic acid (dispersed phase). Ascorbic acid payload of all three formulations was more than 15.67 g/100 g extrudates while the ascorbic acid yield was above 97%. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of all extrudates was above 40 °C. The expansion ratio of the extrudates and Tg reduced due to the incorporation of trehalose and gum arabic to maltodextrins, respectively. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed that the formulated feed material turned into a glassy state, whereas, ascorbic acid was uniformly dispersed throughout the glassy matrix. Extruded formulations showed a steady dissolution rate, therefore, having a role in controlling the dissolution rate of ascorbic acid.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three paste formulations were developed for four fruits: caja, murici with mango and pitanga, with differentiated percentages of fruit pulp, organic honey and gellan gum. Pulps, honey and fruit paste formulations were analyzed by antioxidant capacity, vitamin C and in vitro bioaccessibility. All formulations showed a high content of vitamin C, antioxidant action and the bioaccessibility. All the formulations were accepted regarding the overall impression, except MM3 (murici pulp:mango pulp:honey 50:50:00 and 0.25% gellan gum) and PI1 (pitanga pulp: honey 90:10 and 0.6% gellan gum). Therefore, fruit pastes are options to encourage consumption of tropical fruits of agro-biodiversity in the Brazilian Northeast.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study was focused on the determination of the chemical composition and experimentally obtaining the sorption isotherms for four samples of commercial cooked ham subjected to simulated commercial storage conditions. The isotherms were determined using the gravimetric method. The mathematical models of Guggenhein, Anderson and de Boer; Brunauer, Emmett and Teller; Halsey; Henderson; and Peleg were fitted to the experimental data. The Guggenhein, Anderson and de Boer model was chosen to best describe the isotherms as it had a very good fit. The increase in temperature reduced the equilibrium moisture content of the product. Increased relative humidity resulted in an increase in equilibrium moisture content of the product regardless of storage temperature. The differences in chemical composition between the samples affect the desorption isotherms. The higher the content and availability of the protein or the lower the fat content, the higher the equilibrium moisture content of the product.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tucupi, which is widely enjoyed in the North region of Brazil, is a fermented liquid derived from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and has been taken abroad for its exotic characteristics. This study aimed to assess the rheological behavior of tucupi with 30, 35, and 40% solids and concentrated at 50, 70, and 90 °C. The rheological data were obtained at 25, 40, 60, and 80 °C with increasing and decreasing shear rates. Rheology at 25 °C indicated that the partial gelification of starch during concentration causes a decrease in the product’s viscosity and, if the concentration is carried out at a temperature that favors total starch gelification, the product’s viscosity increases. Concentrated tucupi behaved as a pseudoplastic fluid, but at 60 and 80 °C with increasing shear rates, the product behaved as a dilatant fluid. Hysteresis were observed in flow curves starting at 40 °C, which characterizes concentrated tucupi as a rheopectic fluid. The Ostwald-de Waele model predicted the product’s flow curves and an Arrhenius-like equation described the dependence of temperature on apparent viscosity for the rheological data obtained with increasing shear rates. The product’s activation energy (E a) values ranged from 16.86 to 25.23 kJ/mol as a function of concentration.
Abstract in English:Abstract Rhizopus oryzae is a filamentous fungi reported as a postharvest pathogen in recent years. Ethanol treatment (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and UVC irradiation (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 minutes) were used both individually and in combination for the inactivation of Rhizopus oryzae spores. Survival ratio of the spores and LD50 values for ethanol and UVC irradiation were determined to quantify the germicidal effect. UVC exposure is found to be significantly more effective than ethanol treatment on the reduction of R. oryzae spore survivability. The combination of UVC exposure and ethanol treatment enhanced the lethality of applying each treatment separately and the enhancement increased as the UVC exposure time and ethanol concentrations increased. The lowest spore survival ratio was 0.015%, obtained after 30% ethanol treatment followed by 10 minute of UVC exposure. These observations suggest that ethanol treatment and UVC exposure can effectively be used as a possible strategy to inactivate R. oryzae spores.
Abstract in English:Abstract Overall objective of the study was assessment for freshness parameters of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). The freshness was determined by two conventional method (i.e. Minolta color measurement method) was compared with a novel machine vision technology (i.e image color analysis method). The quality characteristics related to the freshness of the fresh fish are traditionally based on the color measurements of the whole fish by using Minolta color measurement method. This study aimed to compare the use of the image analysis method to see whether the freshness of seafood can be measured more accurately. Our analysis proved more exact and reliable results in the freshness evaluation of the Sparus aurata based on the color changes in the eyes, gill and skin of the fish. This study revealed that image analysis can be successfully used for the assessment of fish freshness by measuring the color parameters of images captured from skin, gill and eye of the fish during cold storage. It is easy and practical to use image color analysis method in the quality control evaluation of fish freshness measurement. This analysis method can be suitable for use in continuous process at the seafood processing factories (e.g. before packaging to sort out fresh vs old fish automatically).
Abstract in English:Abstract Many people base their food consumption on corn flour tortillas (tortillas), which has deficiencies in protein. For that reason, the aim in this work was to incorporate Lupinus flour, a legume that is high in protein, into maize tortillas, and to evaluate the texture profile analysis (TPA) and adhesiveness in the doughs at various percentages of Lupinus flour addition, including 2.5%, 5% and 7.5%. Doughs treated with 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% Lupinus flour had higher adhesiveness values of 2.84, 2.38 and 4.62 N, respectively. The same effect was observed for the hardness measurements of the same treatments (2.38, 2.56 and 2.84 N, respectively). Based on the adhesiveness results, the doughs were subsequently used to make tortillas. The lowest tensile strength was found in the 7.5% treatment, with a value of 3.35 N, and the highest tensile strength was 6.61 N, corresponding to the 2.5% treatment. Rollability and inflation were good in the samples from the 2.5% and 7.5% treatments, without breaks and with full blister formation, while in the 5.0% treatment, 25% rupture was observed, and inflation was only medium. The color was light yellow in the 5.0, 7.5, and 2.5% treatments, which was equal to the control.
Abstract in English:Abstract During cheese ripening the hydrolytic activities of proteases and lipases are essential to develop typical flavours; usually these activities come from lactic bacteria. A way to increase cheese flavour and/or to reduce the time of ripening is the addition of exogenous enzymes during cheese making. Actually some commercial lipases are used in cheese making, here we have evaluated the effect of the addition of the thermophilic esterase EST2, from Alyciclobacillus acidocaldarius, on the lipolysis and volatile compounds profiles of semi-hard cheeses. The addition of EST2 produced an increase of the degree of lipolysis up to 30% and the relative proportion of short- and medium- chain fatty acids, with respect to the control cheese. By SPME-GC-FID/MS were identified 27 and 31 volatile compounds in control and EST2-added cheeses, respectively; showing higher values than control for almost all compounds studied. EST2 addition during cheese making intensified the production of flavour compounds, suggesting a preferential release of short chain fatty acids. Considering that esterases have a different mechanism of action respect to lipases and EST2 is much more stable respect to all the commercial lipases, it could be an interesting technological tool to improve the sensory quality or to accelerate cheese ripening.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed evaluate the effects of the associated supplementation of: chromium more iron (CrFe), magnesium more selenium (MgSe) and the four minerals (CrFeMgSe) on the parameters related to the pork quality. Supplementation with MgSe reduced the ether extract of the meat and changed the fatty acids profile, increasing the poly-unsaturated, n-3, n-6, the polyunsaturated: saturated rate and the activity of the enzyme Thioesterase index, besides reducing the total number of saturated fatty acids and the Atherogenicity index. It promoted a reduction in a*, b* and C* indices and increased h* of the chilled meat stored. Over the storage days under refrigeration, there was linear drop for L* and a* and an increase to C*. The associated use of magnesium and selenium promotes changes in lipid profile without changing the meat quality, and they may be used in order to obtain meat with more appropriate nutritional aspects.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens isolated from many different type of food and environmental samples and may cause serious health problems and even death in newborns, children and elders. The purpose of the study was to determine occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal originated food, ready-to-eat food, fruits and vegetables, sold in Istanbul and its vicinity and to perform molecular typing of the isolated agents by multiplex PCR. Analyses were conducted on a total of 219 food samples including 11 confectionary, 50 fruits and vegetables, 52 dairy products, 50 meat and meat products and 56 ready-to-eat food. Suspected isolates were validated by PCR targeted to gyrB gene and multiplex PCR was performed for identification. Overall analyses revealed a prevalence of 5.48% for Cronobacter spp. in all food products assessed. Prevalence of the bacteria was 9%, 1.9% and 17.8% in confectionary, dairy products and ready-to-eat food, respectively whereas no bacteria were detected in fruits and vegetables, meat and meat products. Out of a total of 12 isolates determined, 8 (66%), 3 (25%) and 1 (8%) were identified as C.sakazakii, C.muytjensii and C.malonaticus , respectively and nine isolates belonged to cereal-based balls (meatless cig kofte).
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of terroir on the polyphenolic compounds, total antioxidant and aroma components of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines from five different wine-producing regions in China. The results obtained showed that the phenols concentrations and total antioxidant capacities from new wine 1 (NW1) were significantly the highest among five regional wines, the latter were new wine 3 (NW3), old wine 1 (OW1) and new wine 2 (NW2), these parameters in old wine 2 (OW2) were the lowest. But the contents of total anthocyanins in the NW2 was higher than both OW1 and NW3. All 58 and 51 volatile components were separately detected in three “new regions” and two “old regions” wines, the volatile fraction was constituted mainly alcohols, esters and acids. According to odor descriptor of these compounds, cheese, floral and fruity aroma was conferred the three new regional wines. The phenol, total antioxidant capacity and aroma components of Cabernet Sauvignon wines can be affected by environmental factors of terroirs in the different extent; three “new regions” have a big potential for producing high quality Cabernet Sauvignon wines.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study deals with the ability of probiotic bacteria to ferment prebiotics in vitro to estimate the prebiotic activity score and prebiotic index based on specific substrates and strains. Five probiotic bacteria were isolated from commercial products and their fermentation capability of three commercial prebiotics was assessed. Growth kinetics of probiotics showed that all of them were able to use the prebiotics as carbon sources. Mostly bacteria grew faster on Frutafit and Oligomate 55 than on lactulose. The prebiotic activity score and prebiotic index concepts were introduced to evaluate the performance of every probiotic with each prebiotic; accordingly, the highest values were for L. rhamnosus on Oligomate 55, while the worst according to these parameters was L. casei Shirota on Frutafit. Prebiotic index and prebiotic activity score describe well the selective growth of probiotics supported by prebiotics; therefore, they could be useful tools to define adequate combinations in colonic foods development.
Abstract in English:Abstract This work presents the results of a supercritical transesterification process of soybean oil using methanol, performed in a laboratory high pressure semi-batch reactor. A full description of the equipment and a standard operating procedure are also provided. Since fossil fuels are not renewable, biofuels such biodiesel, have gained attention over the past decades. Biodiesel is the result of the transesterification of triacylglycerols in vegetable oils or animal fats and it works as an alternative fuel for compression-ignition engines. Methanol was chosen to perform the reaction, at molar ratios of 1:24 (oil: alcohol) and 0.1 (CO 2:methanol), temperature of 280 °C and pressure of 130 bar. In order to decrease the reaction time, CO2 in the supercritical state was used as cosolvent. The yield of biodiesel produced was equal to 95.19% in only ten minutes of reaction. A high yield of methyl esters (84.41%) was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, 10 compounds were identified. The component in higher concentration was linoleate, followed by methyl hexadecanoate, oleic acid methyl ester and methyl stearate. The ester conversion rate means that the process with supercritical methanol can be successfully applied to produce biodiesel.
Abstract in English:Abstract Shiitake is an important edible and medicinal mushroom cultivated worldwide. Its cultivation involves a complex process of browning that precedes the primordia initiation. The present work through the evaluation of enzymes, lectin and β-glucan during the cultivation cycle of Lentinula edodes, the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, attempted to correlate these with mushroom yield. Strains UFLA-LE1, UFLA-LE2 and UFLA-LE6 consumed significantly more hemicelluloses than the other three strains with strain LE5 consuming significantly the most lignin of all six strains. Strains UFLA-LE4 and UFLA-LE6 were significantly the most productive. The laccase activity increased continuously until the end of the cultivation for all strains. Manganese peroxidase activities, except for UFLA-LE3, remained relatively stable. On the other hand, lignin peroxidase was the main lignin-modifying enzyme with much higher activity compared to laccase and manganese peroxidase. Tyrosinase activity was stable at an elevated level during the cultivation cycle, dramatically reaching the highest activity at the end of the cultivation period. The amounts of lectin and β-glucan varied greatly depending on the strain and the time of cultivation. Despite the many differences between strains in all evaluated parameters no direct association to the browning process was observed.
Abstract in English:Abstract White cheese, kashar cheese, yogurt, and ayran are among the most common products produced by the dairy industry in Turkey. The present study determined the production cost of 1 kg of these packaged products as well as the financial implications on their distribution and the total cost. The study also estimated the cost factors affecting the profitability of the products by identifying the cost differences between production regions and scales, using a mean regression model for each product. The study used the data collected through a survey involving 15 dairy plants of three different sizes located in five different regions and involved in raw milk production. The study found a 2-year average capacity utilization rate of the businesses to be 68.80%. The R2 of the analyzed products using the backward multiple regression model was 0.874 and above (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the regression analysis demonstrated that the major factors affecting profitability were the quantity of raw milk contained in the product, the sale price of the product, and the purchase price of raw milk.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to carry out a diagnosis of the cheese whey exploitation by the Brazilian dairy industry using a questionnaire survey. The dairy industries (n=100) were mainly from Southeast (55%) and South (25%) regions and supervised by the Federal Inspection System (80%). Most of them produced (67%) and processed (60%) sweet cheese whey, using it in whey dairy beverages (60%), Ricotta (20%), whey concentrate (15%), and milk blends (5%), which were resold for supermarkets (53%) or industries (20%). However, 27% of the industries discard whey in the effluent treatment system or use as animal feed, suggesting a market for using this by-product.