Food Science and Technology, Volume: 40, Issue: 3, Published: 2020
  • Alternative source of probiotics for lactose intolerance and vegan individuals: sugary kefir Review Article

    AÇIK, Murat; ÇAKIROĞLU, Funda Pınar; ALTAN, Murat; BAYBO, Tuğçe

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this review, we aimed to explain general information about sugary kefir, microbial diversity, production process and potential health effects. Although sugary kefir has been known for many years, it has not been studied much. Studies have shown that sugary kefir has a similar microbial diversity compared to traditional milk kefir and therefore may be an alternative source of probiotics. However, sugary kefir has been shown to contain probiotic properties such as adhesion to the mucosa by reaching the lumen of the mucosa, colonization of the pathogens to the mucosa. In this way, potential health effects such as antimicrobial activity, suppression of inflammation agents, reduction of oxidative stress, immunomodulation, anticancer, and anti-obesity have been demonstrated by clinical studies. However, studies on whether or not these effects are present on humans are very limited. Therefore, randomized double blind placebo controlled studies are needed to investigate potential health effects on humans.
  • Simultaneous determination and difference evaluation of volatile components generated from ginseng fruit by HS-SPME Coupled with GC-MS according to fruit color Original Article

    CUI, Lili; XU, Jingying; FENG, Zhiwei; YAN, Meixia; PIAO, Xiangmin; YU, Ying; HOU, Wei; JIN, Yinping; Ying-Ping, WANG

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The volatile components of fruits of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer analyzed to interpret whether fruits color affect volatile components. The volatile components in ginseng fruits cultured with 3 different clolors such as red fruits, yellow fruits and orange fruits were isolated by head-space solid-phase microextraction fiber (polydimethylsiloxane 100 μm) and identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then, the volatile components compared by principal component analvsis (PCA). As the results, the 23 voltile components were identified from 3 colors samples and consisted mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The differences among the different colors of the samples were obvious from the PC1 and PC2 scatter point plot. As the conclusion, The volatile components of ginseng fruits are different from those of ginseng roots. the fruits colors can affect to produce the volatile components of ginseng fruits.
  • Contamination of corn grain for human consumption with transgenic sequences in Paraguay Original Article

    DAMÚS MELGAREJO, María Elena; PÉREZ ESTIGARRIBIA, Pastor Enmanuel; MASARU IEHISA, Julio; ARRUA, Juliana Moura Mendes; CAZAL MARTÍNEZ, Cinthia Carolina; ARRUA, Andrea Alejandra

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Corn is one of the most important economic, social and cultural agricultural products in Paraguay, being the main ingredient of several typical foods. Due to the cross-pollination of this plant, it can be contaminated with transgenic maize pollen found in nearby fields. The general objective of this research was to evaluate the presence of transgenic sequences in corn grains marketed in the Departments of Itapúa, Alto Paraná and Canindeyú for the preparation of flour for human consumption. We studied 18 samples of corn kernels marketed for the preparation of flour from the Departments of Itapúa, Alto Paraná and Canindeyú. The DNA was extracted using the Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) protocol. For the detection of the transgenic sequences, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used. The bands were analyzed visually and using the ImageJ program. The results showed the presence of 5 positive samples for the P-35S-CaMv promoter and 5 samples for the T-nos terminator, none of them presented both sequences sought in the same construction; this indicates that 10 of 18 samples were contaminated with transgenic sequences. These findings show that transgenic products are available in Paraguayan local markets without consumers being aware of this situation.
  • Functional product enriched with the microencapsulated extract of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum.) seed by-product Original Article

    COSTA, Russany Silva da; SANTOS, Orquídea Vasconcelos dos; RODRIGUES, Antônio Manoel da Cruz; RIBEIRO-COSTA, Roseane Maria; CONVERTI, Attilio; SILVA JÚNIOR, José Otávio Carréra

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This work deals with the application of microencapsulated extract of cupuassu seed by-product to functionally enrich a food multimixture. The methodological bases applied were those of the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC. Multimixture enrichment with the extract led to 54 and 19% increases in total dietary fiber and total fat contents, to slight decreases in carbohydrate and protein contents, while the total energy value was reduced by 6.4% due to the increase in unsaturated fatty acids content. The enriched multimixture showed a significant antioxidant activity and high levels of Ca2+, Fe2+, Zn2+ and ω-9 and ω-6 unsaturated fatty acids. Nutritional and functional qualities of this multimixture, as well as its excellent stability against progressive temperature increases frequently occurring in food preparations, suggest its use as a basic ingredient for food supplementation. The results also indicate excellent technological properties of the multimixture to formulate new food products.
  • The effect of sonication and heat treatment on the physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological properties of different sugarcane variants Original Article

    JASMI, Nazariah; MANSOR, Nusrah; LIM, Elicia Jitming; YUSOF, Noor Liyana; HAJAR-AZHARI, Siti; RAHIM, Muhamad Hafiz Abd

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Red sugarcane (RS) is a lesser bred of sugarcane variant in Malaysia compared to yellow sugarcane (YS), thus less data is available regarding this species. In this study, the physicochemical and microbiological properties of RS was determined and compared with YS under different conditions. Both sugarcane variants were subjected to heat and sonication treatments for 5 and 15 minutes as a method for preservation. RS contains a higher °Brix (15) compared to YS (14), and was unchanged while YS demonstrated a significant reduction. Furthermore, RS displayed a superior fructose (+802%), glucose (+119%) and sucrose (+17.91%) levels in all samples and they were largely preserved during both treatments. However, RS was sensitive to colour changes, as darker juice (decrease in lightness and increase in redness) was produced after treatments. RS possessed lower phenolic content (-31.15%) and antioxidant activity (-11.51%) than YS, and was significantly affected by both treatments. Sonication was more effective in reducing the microbial content than heat in both treatments. These findings indicated that RS is better at retaining its physicochemical properties under preservation treatment, but less resistant in preserving its appearance and nutritional values.
  • Comparative analysis of enzymatic activity of tannase in non-conventional yeasts to produce ellagic acid Original Article

    Márquez-López, Anahí; Ramírez-Conejo, Juan David; Chávez-Parga, Ma. Del Carmen; Flores, Dora Cecilia Valencia; Jaramillo, Miguel Angel Zamudio; Rodríguez, Horacio González; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Non-conventional yeasts represent an alternative for microorganisms that are capable to produce the enzyme Tannase (EC 3.1.1.20), which has many applications is the food and pharmaceutical industry as it stands out for its ability to produce ellagic acid out of the enzymatic hydrolysis of ellagitannins. Ellagic acid has been studied in the medical area for its action against various diseases, as is the case of cancer or heart problems. The investigation was conducted to evaluate seven non-conventional yeasts - Debaryomyces hansenii PYC ISA 1510, Debaryomyces hansenii PYC 2968, Candida parapsilosis, Candida utilis, Pichia pastoris, Pichia kluyveri, Issatchenkia terricola - as producers of the enzyme tannase. This was done in mediums of fermentation with tannic acid (1-3%) and YPD without tannic acid, to determine the activity of the enzyme by two spectrophotometric methods, the first being with rhodamine and the second with methyl gallate, to detect the presence of gallic acid as a product of the hydrolysis of tannic acid. The main results showed that the evaluated non-conventional yeasts all presented activity with the Tannase enzyme, obtaining better detection results with the rhodamine technique for the stability of the formed complex, which gives more precision of the obtained data.
  • Physical-chemical characterization, microbiological and biocompounds of cashew pulp in industrial and freezing processing Original Article

    CARRENHO, Paulo Rafael Bobbo; SILVA, Ana Carolina da; UEBEL, Josemar Rodrigo; AGOSTINI, Juliana da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional characteristics, bioactive compounds and microbiological quality during the processing and frozen storage of cashew pulps. Cashew pulps from 4 batches and 3 different sequential stages of industrial processing and storage (after pulping, after pulp thawing that was stored for 3 months in a drum, and 90 days after packaging in bugs and frozen storage at –20 °C) were obtained and submitted to the following analyses: pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color (L*, c* and H°), acidity, ascorbic acid, glucose reducing sugars, total phenols, antioxidant potential by reducing DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and microbiological parameters (Fungi, psychrotrophic bacteria and coliforms). There was interaction between batches and processing steps for all evaluated parameters, except phenols in acetone extract. The acidity of all batches verified was below of the minimum value recommended by current legislation. Sugars, acidity, ascorbic acid and color were negatively affected during processing. The phenolic compounds presented slight modifications, with a slight increase between the first two stages. Although the antioxidant potential presented variations, there was no single response profile for all batches. High microbial counts were observed after pulping, however there were considerable reductions throughout the processing/storage.
  • Screening and identification of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances producing lactic acid bacteria from fermented products Original Article

    CHOEISOONGNERN, Thiwanya; SIVAMARUTHI, Bhagavathi Sundaram; SIRILUN, Sasithorn; PEERAJAN, Sartjin; CHOISET, Yvan; RABESONA, Hanitra; HAERTLÉ, Thomas; CHAIYASUT, Chaiyavat

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A total of 544 isolates of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented products: 451 isolates from fermented products from Thailand and 93 isolated from French fermented products were screened for bacteriocin production. 10 isolates showed antimicrobial activities. Identification of the selected strains by random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase change reaction using the primers E1, E2 and M13 showed three different RAPD patterns. One of the isolates from each product was chosen and good antimicrobial activity were displayed by 3 strains including MP6/2, PKS2-1 and OV1-1 producing in MRS broth bacteriocin-like substance (BLIS) inhibiting Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Carnobacterium maltraromaticum NCDO 2760, Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei JCM 1157, Listeria innocula CIP 80.11, Listeria ivanovii SLCC 2379, Pseudomonasc aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus CIP 76.25 and Streptococcus mutans used as indicator strains. However, inhibitory activities of MP6/2 and PKS2-1 were related to the production of either organic acid, while OV2-1 was not affected by heating. The inhibitory activities of these three isolates were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes. 16S rDNA gene sequencing allowed to identify the MP6/2 as Pediococcus pentosaceus while PKS2-1 and OV1-1 were identified as Enterococcus faecium. It was concluded that the obtained isolates may be used as bio-preservative cultures to produce fermented foods.
  • Pasteurization effects on yield and physicochemical parameters of cheese in cow and goat milk Original Article

    TADJINE, Dahmane; BOUDALIA, Sofiane; BOUSBIA, Aissam; KHELIFA, Rassim; MEBIROUK BOUDECHICHE, Lamia; TADJINE, Aicha; CHEMMAM, Mabrouk

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cheese production is one of the most common forms of valorization of dairy production, adding value and preserving milk. Various types of cheese produced from raw and pasteurized milk are known worldwide. In the present work, we are interested in studying the effect of the type of milk (raw and pasteurized) of two species (cow and goat) on the yield and physicochemical characteristics of the fresh cheese. In the northeastern Algeria, on 5 cow farms and 3 goat farms; 5 raw and 5 pasteurized milk cheese manufacturing trials were conducted. The analysis of the results of the 80 samples of milk and cheese of both cow and goat species showed that the latter contained significantly more fat and protein than cow's milk and that pasteurized milk contained more protein than raw milk. As a result, actual cheese yield of goat cheese was higher than that of cows in pasteurized and raw milk. For higher yield, our result supported the use of pasteurized milk as a raw material in the manufacture of farmhouse cheese.
  • Effects of citrox treatment on the survival of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in chicken fillets packed under vacuum Original Article

    YEHIA, Hany Mohamed; AL-MASOUD, Abdulrahman Hamad; ALSAWMAHI, Omer Nasser; ALJAHANI, Amani Hamzah; EL-DIN, Mohamed Ferkry Serag

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Citrox has natural antibacterial effect against many foodborne pathogens and contaminated bacteria. It mainly contains citric acid, ascorbic acid, and malic acid. We studied the antimicrobial effects of citrox solution (1% and 2%) on the total viable count of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on chicken meat fillet. The samples were treated with 106 CFU/g of meat, vacuum-packed (VP), and 4 °C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 days. We have also studied the effect of citrox on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content and pH changes during the storage periods. The results revealed that citrox inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), in the chicken fillet. The total viable count of MRSA gradually decreased in all treated samples that were stored at 4 °C about 2 log cycle than Chicken-Staph groups after 3, 6, 9, and 12 days and about 1 log cycle than Chicken-Salt group after 3, 6, and 9 days of storage. Total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) were observed to be reduced in Chicken- Citrox-treated samples stored at 4 °C than Chicken-Staph, and Chicken-Salt treated samples. The results indicated that citrox is effective to reduce the total count of S. aureus (MRSA) in the first three days of storage by a reduction in the number of bacteria 1 log cycle.
  • Properties of wheat and rice breads added with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) protein hydrolyzate Original Article

    MADRUGA, Karina; ROCHA, Meritaine da; FERNANDES, Sibele Santos; SALAS-MELLADO, Myriam de las Mercedes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bioactive, technological and sensory properties of wheat and rice breads added of chia (Salvia hispânica L.) protein hydrolyzate were evaluated. The hydrolyzate was added to breads at concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mg of hydrolyzate/g of flour. The specific volume, total score, bread crumb firmness, color, sensory analysis and antioxidant activity of breads were evaluated. The results showed that the protein content of the protein concentrate (79.56%) increased significantly compared with the defatted chia flour (32.52%). The results of antioxidant activity of chia protein hydrolyzate showed that at 0.50 and 1.0 mg of hydrolyzate/mL showed the highest values of activity by the DPPH method (66.09 and 65.43%). However, the chia protein hydrolyzate at 0.5 mg/mL presented the highest activity with a value of 83.74% by ABTS method. The reducing power results indicated that the hydrolyzate showed a dose-dependent relation since an increase from 0.50 to 2.00 mg/mL resulted in a significant increasing from 0.380 to 0.881 in absorbance. The addition of chia hydrolyzate resulted in good technological characteristics and antioxidant properties, in both breads. The breads with 3 mg of chia hydrolyzate/g flour had good sensory characteristics, which were not lower than those of the control breads.
  • Non-dairy cashew nut milk as a matrix to deliver probiotic bacteria Original Article

    BRUNO, Laura Maria; LIMA, Janice Ribeiro; WURLITZER, Nédio Jair; RODRIGUES, Thalita Cavalcante

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cashew nut milk was evaluated as a matrix to deliver commercial probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum) in order to develop a non-dairy probiotic beverage. The first step was to evaluate the viability of the probiotic strains. All evaluated bacteria were able to survive in this food matrix under 4 °C for 30 days. So, B. animalis was the selected strain to perform a stability test of the beverage by monitoring the pH, color, sensory and microbiological quality during refrigerated storage for 30 days. During storage, B. animalis counts were above 107 CFU.mL-1, the microbiological quality was maintained and there was no significant difference in whiteness. A significant pH decrease was observed, but it did not affect the beverage’s sensory acceptance, indicating that cashew nut milk is an adequate vehicle for delivering probiotics.
  • Optimization and characterization of vinegar produced from rice bran Original Article

    PAZUCH, Catiussa Maiara; KALSCHNE, Daneysa Lahis; SIEPMANN, Francieli Begnini; MARX, Itala Maria Gouveia; OLIVEIRA, Tatiane Cristina Gonçalves de; SPINOSA, Wilma Aparecida; CANAN, Cristiane; COLLA, Eliane

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The vinegar is a millenary food, appreciated by consumers worldwide. The rice bran is a rice-processing by-product produced in a large scale, mainly employed in feed. This study describes a method for defatted rice bran (DRB) vinegar production by submerged fermentation, with optimized aeration and stirring conditions, evaluating its physico-chemical properties and acceptance. A 22 Full Factorial Design (FFD) was applied to evaluate the aeration (0.25-1.00 VVM) and stirring (100-500 rpm) effect on the stoichiometric yield (SY), total concentration of ethanol and acetic acid yield (TCY), and acetic acid productivity (AAP). SY ranged from 26.26 to 79.97%, TCY ranged from 78.04 to 100.50%, and AAP varied from 0.056 to 0.473 g L-1 h-1. The stirring had a positive effect in the SY and TCY, while both aeration and stirring had a positive effect in the AAP (p ≤ 0.05). The FFD allowed an acetic acid increase of ≅ 750 times under aeration of 1.00 VVM and stirring of 500 rpm, which made it possible to develop an industrially compatible method for vinegar production using DRB as substrate. Furthermore, DRB presents potential for vinegar production, with functional characteristics - including antioxidant activity - and sensorially accepted.
  • Development of isotonic beverage with functional attributes based on extract of Myrciaria jabuticaba (Vell) Berg Original Article

    PORFÍRIO, Márjorie Castro Pinto; GONÇALVES, Márcia Soares; BORGES, Marília Viana; LEITE, Cristina Xavier dos Santos; SANTOS, Mariana Romana Correia; SILVA, Andréa Gomes da; FONTAN, Gabrielle Cardoso Reis; LEÃO, Danilo Junqueira; JESUS, Raildo Mota de; GUALBERTO, Simone Andrade; LANNES, Suzana Caetano da Silva; SILVA, Marcondes Viana da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Isotonic repositories are specially designed to promote rehydration during or after physical exercise. These beverages are processed for commercialization from synthetic flavorings and dyes with sensorial characteristics similar to those of fruits, in order to attenuate their natural acidity. The aim of the present study was to develop two formulations of isotonic drinks without synthetic dyes and with functional attributes based on concentrated hydroethanolic extracts of peel and pulp of Myrciaria jaboticaba. Determination of chemical (sodium, potassium and calcium, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total flavonoids, total condensed tannins), physical (objective color analysis), and physical-chemical characteristics (pH, acidity, total soluble solids), as well as sensory evaluation through preference testing was carried out. In addition, the drinks presented dark red coloration, according to the chromaticity diagram. The sensory evaluation results revealed that the beverage formulated with 12% pulp extract stood out as the preferred beverage among the judges.
  • The influence of pasteurization and starter culture on methanol content and bio-profile of fermented Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Noni) fruit juice Original Article

    SAELEE, Manee; SIVAMARUTHI, Bhagavathi Sundaram; SIRILUN, Sasithorn; SIRITHUNYALUG, Jakkapan; PEERAJAN, Sartjin; CHAIYASUT, Chaiyavat

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Morinda citrifolia L., generally known as noni, is commonly used in Thai medicines and cuisine. Several bioactive phytochemicals have been isolated and identified from the noni plant, and their compositions differ based on the cultivars and harvesting period. Different types of fermented noni fruit juices (FNJ) were used as health supplement in several southeastern countries. The formation of a large amount of alcohol, especially methanol, in FNJ is one of the major hindrances to FNJ production. The current study explains the impact of starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum SK15), pasteurization and addition of EGCG on alcohol content, bioactivity, and the physiochemical property of FNJ. The pH and sugar content of the samples were reduced during fermentation, while the organic acid content increased. The samples with EGCG obviously exhibited high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The level of pectin was high, and pectin methylesterase (PME) activity was low in EGCG-added samples compared with other samples. The alcohol content of the samples was under the permissible level of Thai standard; specifically, the methanol level was low in EGCG-added samples. Pasteurization and addition of starter culture did not influence any of the studied parameters. About 70% of acceptability index was observed for FNJ samples in the sensory evaluation. The study concluded that the addition of EGCG effectively reduced the alcohol content and improved the quality of FNJ. Also, further studies are required to reveal the role of starter culture in noni fruit fermentation.
  • Effect of heat treatment for liquefaction and pasteurization on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of Astragalus and sunflower-cornflower honeys Original Article

    AYDOGAN-COSKUN, Burcu; COKLAR, Hacer; AKBULUT, Mehmet

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, effect of heat treatments (liquefaction at 55 °C for 12 h and pasteurisation at 90 °C 15 sec) on total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of astragalus and sunflower-cornflower honeys was investigated. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of honeys were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS methods, respectively. Phenolic profile was determined by HPLC-DAD system. Only pasteurisation process had a significant impact on sunflower-cornflower honey with regard to total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids, rutin, kaempferol were detected in astragalus honey, while 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids, apigenin, rutin, kaempferol-3-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-glucoside, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol were detected in sunflower-cornflower honey. Pasteurisation significantly decreased caffeic acid in astragalus honey and other detected phenolics showed no significant difference after heat treatments. The impact of liquefaction process is lower than the pasteurisation process in terms of quantitatively phenolic compounds changes.
  • Performance evaluation of GSA, SOS, ABC and ANN algorithms on linear and quadratic modelling of eggplant drying kinetic Original Article

    ÖZDEN, Semih; KILIÇ, Faruk

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, kinetics of eggplant drying was modeled in the laboratory-scaled Food Drying Oven (FDO) with resistance heater was designed and manufactured. The temperature, energy consumption and drying time of FDO were recorded by keeping the temperature of at different temperatures as 40, 50 and 60 °C. These saved values were chosen as the input parameters of the model. The weight value of the eggplant was taken as the output parameter. Linear and quadratic equations were developed for modeling and constant coefficients of these equations were estimated with Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), symbiotic organisms search (SOS) algorithms. In addition, the performances of these models were compared with the model developed with ANN in terms of performance and time. The results show that the lowest error of the developed linear and quadratic equations was obtained with SOS algorithm. The MSE metric results of ANN were fifty times higher than the performance of SOS algorithm, and the SOS algorithm reached best value three times faster than the ANN.
  • A multivariate approach to differentiate yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) commercialized in the southern Brazil on the basis of phenolics, methylxanthines and in vitro antioxidant activity Original Article

    ZIELINSKI, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; ALBERTI, Aline; BONA, Evandro; BORTOLINI, Débora Gonçalves; BENVENUTTI, Laís; BACH, Fabiane; Demiate, Ivo Mottin; NOGUEIRA, Alessandro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The consumption of yerba mate beverages is related to several health benefits. These desirable properties are mainly due to the bioactive compounds. However, the levels of those compounds are directly affected by factors such as geographical origin. This study aimed to use chemometrics to evaluate the antioxidant compounds of yerba mate (consumed as chimarrão) marketed in southern Brazil. Neochlorogenic acid and caffeine were the main bioactive compounds found in this type of yerba mate beverage (chimarrão). The dataset was analyzed by chemometrics, and principal component analysis using the first three principal components explained 61.30% of the total variance. Hierarchical cluster analysis suggested three clusters, with cluster 1 containing the majority of the samples from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná, with higher levels of phenolics, methylxanthines, and antioxidant activity. The supervised methods, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), had similar predictability (≥75% of accuracy) in terms of classifying yerba mate according to different Brazilian regions. Therefore, the chemometric tools used in the current study was suitable to monitor and assess a large variation of the antioxidant composition of yerba mate from different southern Brazilian states.
  • Sensory quality of meat from Santa Inês lambs fed with guava (Psidium guajava L.) agroindustrial by-product Original Article

    COSTA, Roberto Germano; CAVALCANTI, Maria Caroline de Almeida; NOBRE, Priscila Torres; QUEIROGA, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egito; MEDEIROS, Geovergue Rodrigues de; SILVA, Nelson Vieira da; BATISTA, Ana Sancha Malveira; ARAÚJO FILHO, José Teodórico de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this work was to determine the sensory quality (flavour, odour, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability) and physicochemical characteristics of meat from Santa Inês lambs fed with diets containing guava agroindustrial by-product (GAB). Was used samples of the longissimus lumborum of 40 entire males with an average slaughter weight of 32.0 kg, after approximately 105 days in a feedlot. Animals were randomly placed into four treatments (10 replicates per treatment) and fed with different levels of GAB (0, 20, 40 and 60%). Among the attributes examined, only odour was not influenced by the GAB. Inclusion of 40% GAB in diets (in place of corn) produced meat which satisfied consumer demands in terms of fresh colour, although with less intense flavour and tenderness. Although the factors juiciness and overall acceptability did not differ among the highest levels of GAB, we recommend to use GAB addition of up to 40% to avoid compromising on animal performance and consumer sensory characteristics.
  • Bromatological aspects of Lentinus crinitus mushroom (Basidiomycota: Polyporaceae) in agroforestry in the Cerrado Original Article

    SILVA NETO, Carlos de Melo e; PINTO, Diogo de Souza; SANTOS, Leovigildo Aparecido Costa; CALAÇA, Francisco J. Simões

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Much of the diversity of mushrooms is still unknown to science. In the search for new edible mushrooms, we began to look at the traditions of Amazonian forest peoples in order to learn about the potential for edible mushrooms among other species. In particular, the Yanomami people launched the encyclopedia of food (Sanoma) in 2016 to preserve their knowledge of their own food. They demonstrated how food production can be balanced with the forest and present dozens of mushrooms that are consumed by their communities. In view of the above information, the objective of this work is to present bromatological aspects of the Lentinus crinitus mushroom from an agroforestry homegarden in the Cerrado. The specimen was collected from an agroforestry homegarden with biome forest species and agronomic species, located in the Brazilian Cerrado, in the city of Goiânia, Goiás. L. crinitus mushrooms presented 61% humidity, containing 14% crude protein, 1.5% ether extract, 26% crude fiber, and 3.4% mineral matter. Its bromatological characteristics are similar to others of commercial fungi. There is great potential for the use of the Lentinus crinitus mushroom in agroforestry yards in the Brazilian Cerrado, reconciling environmental conservation with the diversification of the production of agroextractive products.
  • Influence of the addition of KCl and CaCl2 blends on the physicochemical parameters of salted meat products throughout the processing steps Original Article

    VIDAL, Vitor Andre Silva; PAGLARINI, Camila de Souza; FERREIRA, Alef; SANTOS, José Roberto dos; POLLONIO, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different chloride salts (NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2) on the characteristics of salted meat products through the determination of moisture, pH, aw, chloride, ash levels, cooking loss, and instrumental color during the processing steps. Four salted meat treatments were elaborate using the following salts in the wet and dry salting steps: FC1: 100% NaCl; F1: 50% NaCl + 50% KCl; F2: 50% NaCl + 25% CaCl2; F3: 50% NaCl + 25% KCl + 25% CaCl2. The addition of CaCl2 led to the lowest pH and changes in aw, moisture, ash levels, and instrumental color when compared to the other treatments, which was different from the control (100% NaCl) and F1 (50% NaCl + 50% KCl), thus evidencing the great effect of CaCl2 on the characteristics of salted meat products during the whole processing. The partial replacement of NaCl by KCl and/or CaCl2 greatly increased the cooking loss of salted meat products. The replacement of NaCl by KCl promoted similar quality parameters.
  • ACHPA: A sensor based system for automatic environmental control in hydroponics Original Article

    SIDDIQ, Asif; TARIQ, Muhammad Owais; ZEHRA, Anum; MALIK, Salman

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The trend towards tunnel farming and hydroponic systems is increasing owing to the climatic changes as well as the need to increase crop yield. Hydroponic is a technique of growing plants without soil. Tunnel farming and hydroponic system requires controlled environmental parameters like temperature, humidity and soil moisture for better production of crops. This paper presents an effective method, named, ACHPA (Automatically Controlled Hydro-Ponic Agriculture) scheme that monitor and controls environmental parameters using sensors and controller. ACHPA provides better environmental control over traditional manual monitoring and controlling, thus yield high-quality crops. Sensor based monitoring and control system regulates the temperature and humidity of the tunnel to yield better. For the sake of saving water, an efficient method of drip irrigation is implemented which delivers water directly to the plants rather than being sprayed on as in conventional farming method. The proposed system here is tested for controlled environment and observations recorded for crop analysis purpose. This makes an effective solution to growing highly efficient, good quality and disease free crop production.
  • In vitro potential activity of some seaweeds as antioxidants and inhibitors of diabetic enzymes Original Article

    ISMAIL, Gehan Ahmed; GHEDA, Saly Farouk; ABO-SHADY, Atef Mohamed; ABDEL-KARIM, Omnia Hamdy

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study crude extracts of Turbinaria decurrens, Padina pavonica, Sargassum muticum and Sargassum acinarium (Phaeophyta); Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Pterocladia capillacea (Rhodophyta) seaweeds were tested to evaluate their antioxidant properties and antidiabetic potential on α-amylase and α-glucosidase starch hydrolyzing enzymes. The results showed that all analyzed seaweeds exhibited antioxidant effects using DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), reducing power and total antioxidant capacity assays in addition to antidiabetic activity that all depended on the species and the extract solvent. Among the tested extracts, acetone extract of Turbinaria decurrens showed the highest antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects for α-amylase (96.1%) and α-glucosidase (97.4%), respectively which was related with its total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In vitro, the extract showed no toxicity against fibroblast normal cell lines at lower concentration of 250 µg/ml. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrum analysis (GC-MS) of this acetone extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds mainly cyclotrisiloxane, hexamethyl which could be responsible for its antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The study results suggest that brown seaweeds especially T. decurrens can be used as antioxidant ingredients and as potent reducing drug for postprandial hyperglycemia.
  • Optimizing the supercritical fluid extraction process of bioactive compounds from processed tomato skin by-products Original Article

    PELLICANÒ, Teresa Maria; SICARI, Vincenzo; LOIZZO, Monica Rosa; LEPORINI, Mariarosaria; FALCO, Tiziana; POIANA, Marco

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A supercritical fluid extraction (SC-CO2) was used to extract high-quality oil from tomato skin by-products. The effects of pressure and extraction time on oil yield was investigated in the study. Lycopene and β-carotene content as well as p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, epicatechin, naringenin, catechin, quercetin and luteolin were estimated. The highest oil yield of 79.00% was obtained after 80 min with a pressure of 550 bar. The resulting oleoresin in carotenoids with lycopene and β-carotene content respectively of 0.86 and 1.5 mg/100 g, this oleoresin was found to be the richest. Naringenin was the most abundant flavonoid identified with a maximum content in oleoresin extracted at 550 bar (84.04 mg/kg DW) followed by caffeic acid (26.60 mg/kg DW). A moderate radical scavenging potential was further observed. Overall, results highlight that pressure is a key parameter for the extraction bioactive oleoresin from tomato skin by-products.
  • Food allergen labeling: compliance with the mandatory legislation in Brazil Original Article

    CUNHA, Maria Luísa; VIEIRA, Valéria Regina Martins; SANTANA, Aline Rezende; ANASTÁCIO, Lucilene Rezende

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Food allergies are reproducible adverse reactions mediated by specific immunological mechanisms that occur in sensitive individuals after consumption of a certain food. It is recommended that the allergic person excludes from the diet the food that triggers the allergic reactions. In Brazil, the Collegiate Board Resolution nº 26 of July 2, 2015, establishes the requirements for mandatory labeling of the main foods that cause food allergies, by implementing the use of alerts. The objective of this work was to verify if food labels in Brazil comply with this resolution. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the Ezequiel Dias Foundation from July/2018 to September/2018. The compliance of food labels was investigated according to the requirements for mandatory labeling of the main foods that cause allergies, regulated by CBR 26/2015. The results showed that 12.13% of the analyzed foods did not contain the allergy alert. In addition, 31% of the samples used precautionary allergen labeling, due to possible cross-contamination by an allergenic food. People who have food allergies benefit from advances in food labeling. However, much still needs to be done to ensure that legislation is duly complied, in order to improve the quality of life of allergic people.
  • Calcium oxalate content from two Amazonian amilaceous roots and the functional properties of their isolated starches Original Article

    RAMOS, Amanda da Silva; VERÇOSA, Rachel de Melo; TEIXEIRA, Sheylla Maria Luz; TEIXEIRA-COSTA, Bárbara Elisabeth

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The calcium oxalate content from two Amazonian amilaceous roots, Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Pachyrhizus tuberosus, before and after cooking were studied in the present work. Calcium oxalate raphides were observed by light microscopy in longitudinal sections from fresh tubers. The functional properties and physicochemical characteristics of isolated starches from both species were also investigated. Starches granules were observed with scanning electronic microscopy and presented a typical oval-circular shape, smooth surfaces and size ranging from 3.6 μm to 14 μm. Lower gel clarity, slightly high water-binding capacity, A-type starch structure and low values of crystallinity degree were determined in the isolated starches. High intensity bands related to vibrations of glucosidic bonds of polysaccharides were observed by infrared spectroscopy in both starches. Thermal degradation behavior data of the isolated starches reveled high initial decomposition temperatures. Thus, the studied cooked tubers presented low levels of calcium oxalates and are safe to be consumed as a boiled vegetable. Their isolated starches possess good functional characteristics to be applied as an ingredient to products in food industry.
  • Amino acids and antioxidant activities of extracts from wild edible mushrooms from a community forest in the Nasrinual District, Maha Sarakham, Thailand Original Article

    YUWA-AMORNPITAK, Thalisa; BUTKHUP, Luchai; YEUNYAW, Pa-Nag

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Twenty two species of wild edible mushrooms were collected from Nasrinual community forest. The levels of 15 amino acids, antioxidant activity, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined. The 8 essential amino acids were arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine, that they were found in all the mushrooms at concentration ranges of 0.28-2.14, 0.11-0.8, 0.19-1.33, 0.33-2.22, 0.22-1.73, 0.18-1.09, 0.31-1.83, and 0.23-1.66 g/100 g dw, respectively. The greatest and smallest amount of total amino acids, 28.41 and 5.76 g/100 g dw, were found in Hed-Peung-No5 and Hed-Klum-Ma, respectively. The antioxidants from the mushroom extracts obtained by water and 60% methanol and their activities were evaluated. It was found that flavonoids content and DPPH in methanol extracts were higher than in water extracts. In contrast, the phenolic content and FRAP activity in water extracts were higher than those in methanol extracts. Total phenolic, FRAP, and flavonoids content were highest in the extracts of Hed-Peung-No2, but the DPPH activity was highest in the extracts from Hed-Peung-No3. The GABA content was higher in the extracts obtained by hot water than it was in the extracts obtained by methanol. The highest GABA content was from water extract of Hed-Sai-duan (23.304 ± 0.027 mg/g dw).
  • On the possibility of obtaining high-quality lyophilized collagen hydrolysate and its applicability in the sausage production Original Article

    LUKIN, Aleksandr

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The paper discusses the issues of rational use of secondary collagen-containing raw material in the food industry, namely cattle by-products. The technology of obtaining collagen hydrolysate from this type of raw material with the subsequent freeze-drying is proposed, which maximizes the level of preservation of native properties and the expands the scope of its application. The paper presents the stages of obtaining lyophilized collagen hydrolysate by biomodification of frozen cattle lips and ears. The preparation of lyophilized collagen hydrolysate was carried out as follows: the lips and ears were preliminary washed in running tap water for 20 minutes in order to remove mucus and impurities, muscle and adipose tissue was also removed; after draining (15-20 minutes), the raw material was ground on a top with a grid diameter of 2-3 mm. At the next stage, the crushed lips and ears were treated with a solution of Protepsin enzyme preparation in the ratio of the raw material to solution 1:2 and kept for 0.5-1.5 hours at a concentration of the enzyme preparation of 0.06% by weight of the raw material, while stirring periodically (at 17-22 °C). The filtrate from the product was separated on a sieve. Processed as described above, the raw material was subjected to freeze-drying. Evaluation of the temperature and duration of freeze-drying of collagen hydrolysate was carried out at a drying layer thickness of 5.0 mm and different drying temperatures: 20 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C.
  • Effect on Merlot red wine of fining agents mixture: application of the simplex centroid design Original Article

    FICAGNA, Evandro; GAVA, Angelo; ROSSATO, Simone Bertazzo; ROMBALDI, César Valmor; BORSATO, Dionísio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the elaboration of young red wine, it is necessary to obtain a clear product with stable color. The clarity and stability can be obtained using fining agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of fining with pea protein isolate (PPI), bentonite, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP) on a red wine, using the experimental design of mixtures. Merlot wine was used to evaluate the changes on monomeric flavan-3-ol, turbidity and anthocyanin levels promoted by the fining compounds. For all the parameters, the adjusted models showed influence of the combination of the three fining agents. Together, bentonite and PVPP have synergistic effect on the reduction in monomeric flavanol levels. Such synergistic effect was also observed with PPI and PVPP combination for the reduction in turbidity. However, for this same characteristic (turbidity), the combination of PPI and bentonite has antagonistic effect. To achieve broader wine fining objectives, the simultaneous optimization of the three response variables demonstrated the importance of the presence of the three refining agents in the following proportions: 25% PPI, 43% PVPP and 32% Bentonite. The isolated use of these additives would not result in the same effect on the three studied variables.
  • Evaluation of autolysis induced histologic alterations in skeletal muscle tissue of non-traditional meat animals Original Article

    KAIMBAYEVA, Leila; KENENBAY, Shynar; ZHANTLEUOV, Daniyar; TAYEVA, Aigul; AKHMETOVA, Nursulu; MEDEUBAYEVA, Zhanar

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Raw meat is characterized by various natural cellular processes that lead to its chemical content alteration. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate autolysis induced histologic alterations in skeletal muscle tissue of cow elk. In this study the authors used skeletal muscle tissue of 2-year-old cow elk. The tissue was sampled from m. quadriceps femoris. The study results showed that in 48 hours post mortem linear striation in muscle tissues was expressed. But 72 hours post mortem the integrity of muscle fibers degraded and they became inconsistently stained. The obtained data showed that post mortem alterations were characterized by significant degradation and separation of muscle fibers and nuclei and nuclear structures lysis.
  • Influence of drying methods on the physicochemical properties and nutritional composition of instant Tremella fuciformis Original Article

    LI, Yibin; CHEN, Junchen; LAI, Pufu; TANG, Baosha; WU, Li

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Instant Tremella fuciformis is ready to eat after adding hot water and is a delicious edible mushroom food. However, the drying method affects the quality of product. The present work evaluated the effects of freeze drying (FD), microwave drying (MD), and hot air drying (HAD) on shrinkage ratio, rehydration ratio, microstructure, polysaccharide and free amino acids of instant Tremella fuciformis. These three drying methods significantly changed the color and reduced the total amount of amino acids of dried products. FD sample possessed a three-dimensional network with porous, loose and large voids, so it had a slighter shrinkage and a better rehydration effect compared with the MD and HAD one. The polysaccharide content, uronic acid content and soup’s viscosity of FD products were significantly higher than MD and HAD. Therefore, FD was more suitable for obtaining high-quality instant Tremella fuciformis products than MD and HAD.
  • Physicochemical characterization, antioxidant activity, and sensory analysis of beers brewed with cashew peduncle (Anacardium occidentale) and orange peel (Citrus sinensis) Original Article

    PEREIRA, Iana Maria Cristino; MATOS NETO, José Duarte; FIGUEIREDO, Raimundo Wilane; CARVALHO, Juliane Döering Gasparin; FIGUEIREDO, Evânia Altina Teixeira de; MENEZES, Natália Viviane Santos de; GABAN, Socorro Vanesca Frota

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed at brewing wheat beer with cashew peduncle (CP) and orange peel (OP). Six formulations (F) were assessed for their physicochemical characteristics and total amount of polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The flavors of F1 and F6 were evaluated via sensory analysis. The results showed that the evaluated beers were in accordance with the parameters required by the Brazilian legislation. Moreover, the addition of CP and OP improved total amounts of polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and flavor. We conclude that the use of by-products from the food industry brings new possibilities of innovation into the beverage sector.
  • Analysis of bioactive compounds in umbu (Spondias tuberosa) by application of edible coating based on Chlorella sp during storage Original Article

    TEODOSIO, Albert Einstein Mathias de Medeiros; ARAÚJO, Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha; SANTOS, Bárbara Genilze Figueiredo Lima; LINNÉ, Jéssica Aline; SILVA, Katia Gomes da; GOMES, Fernando Antônio Lima; SOUZA, Gleyse Lopes Fernandes de; LIMA, José Franciraldo de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The use of edible coating has been an alternative to maintain the quality of vegetables and prolong their post-harvest life. This study aims to evaluate bioactive compounds in Spondias tuberosa submitted to different coating formulations based on Chlorella sp. associated with the pomegranate seed oil, to establish the one that best maintains post-harvest quality. The experiment was set in a completely randomized design, in a 5 × 6 factorial scheme, represented by five coating techniques (T1 = control; T2 = 0.5% Chlorella sp.; T3 = 1% Chlorella sp.; T4 = 1.5% Chlorella sp.; T5 = 2% Chlorella sp.), using 0.3% of pomegranate seed oil in coatings, during five evaluation periods (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days), stored in BOD incubator at 24 ± 2 °C and 85 ± 5% RH, with three replicates of ten fruits per plot. Chlorella sp. associated with pomegranate seed oil produced a modified atmosphere around the fruit, retarding the ripening process. Coatings preserved the content of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. The treatment containing 2.0% of Chlorella sp. associated with pomegranate seed oil provided the best maintenance for fruit quality.
  • Fraud with the addition of cow's milk alters the lipid fraction of buffalo mozzarella Original Article

    VIANA, Mirelle Pignata; FERNANDES, Sergio Augusto de Albuquerque; SILVA, Andréa Gomes da; PEDREIRA, Márcio dos Santos; VIANA, Pablo Teixeira; RODRIGUES, Valdirene Santana; LACERDA, Ellen Cristina Quirino

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The shortage of milk at certain times of the year leads to adulteration of buffalo mozzarella, and these frauds alter the composition of milk and buffalo derivatives. This study describes the dynamics of the adulteration on the nutritional quality of mozzarella. Mozzarella was produced from buffalo milk incorporated with cow milk at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (v/v). The chemical composition, fatty acids profile and cholesterol content of the cheeses were evaluated. The results showed that the fat and protein contents of buffalo cheeses decreased with the addition of cow milk. Furthermore, C4:0, C16:0, C22:0 and C16:1 fatty acids decreased while C8:0 and C10:0 acids fatty acids increased. The most dramatic observation was the elevation of the cholesterol content when cow milk was added. The altered content of short-chain saturated fatty acids and cholesterol content, due to the addition of cow milk to buffalo milk for mozzarella production, modified the nutritional indices. The addition of cow milk to buffalo milk for mozzarella production altered the content of short-chain SFA and the cholesterol content, thereby modifying the nutritional indices.
  • Effect of pumpkin seed oil on cholesterol fractions and systolic/diastolic blood pressure Original Article

    MAJID, Azmat Khalid; AHMED, Zaheer; KHAN, Rezzan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) is high in unsaturated fatty acids and plant sterols, which have numerous cardiovascular benefits. The study explores the hypothesis by investigating effects of consumption of 1000 mg of PSO on total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure ((BP). PSO has high oxidative stability and contains favorable essential fatty acids profile along with sterols and tocopherols. One hundred and twenty-seven participants 39 to 63 years old, with varying degree of one or multiple medical conditions including dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and obesity were randomly selected and assigned among case and control groups. Both groups were biochemically, anthropometrically and clinically assessed pre and post intervention. Group 1 (cases) (n=63) was administered 1000 mg of PSO along with recommendations for healthy diet and lifestyle whereas Group 2 (controls) (n=64), was only provided with dietary and lifestyle changes. Analysis of cases baseline and endpoint data revealed advantageous effect of intervention. Cases data showed a significant reduction in endpoint LDL and DBP values along with a likewise significant increase in HDL cholesterol. Experiment results revealed PSO possessed hypolipidemic and anti-hypertensive activity as it lowered DBP and LDL and increased HDL levels.
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