Food Science and Technology, Volume: 41, Issue: 1, Published: 2021
  • Sugar derived from genetically modified sugarcane Review Article

    LAJOLO, Franco Maria; YOKOYAMA, Silvia Mine; CHEAVEGATTI GIANOTTO, Adriana

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sugar is an ancient food and currently one of the most used ingredients in human nutrition and in the food industry. In tropical regions, sugar is produced mainly from sugarcane, while temperate countries produce sugar preferably from sugar beets. Due to its widespread use, the forthcoming adoption of genetically modified (GM) sugarcane varieties may raise questions about the quality and classification of the sugar produced. Here, we describe the several varieties of sugar and their specific uses and legal classifications. Regardless of whether they are produced from beet or from sugarcane and their final use, sugar consists of highly purified substances composed almost entirely from a disaccharide (sucrose) whose molecules consist of two monosaccharide residues: glucose and fructose. The differences between commercial sugar types are primarily in sucrose content (> 99.00 to 99.80 °Z), moisture content, ICUMSA color, conductivity ashes and reducing sugar. Neither DNA nor proteins can be detected at relevant levels in the different types of sugar. Therefore, sugar from genetically modified sugarcane varieties is virtually identical to sugar produced from conventional sugarcane, and the adoption of GM sugarcane varieties should not cause any change to the current use of sugar in human nutrition and in the food industry.
  • Candida tropicalis sp. Nov., a novel, zinc-enriched yeast species found in China Original Article

    SU, Yu; ZHU, Jian-Ning; LI, Xiao-Ru; ZHANG, Xin-Guo; FENG, Ming; WANG, Nan; LIU, Wen-Jie

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Zinc is one of the most important trace elements and deficiency can lead to significant clinical complications. Microbial transformation is one of the most important methods used to supplement organic zinc and there may be some naturally occurring microorganisms that have both higher zinc tolerances and transformation capabilities. In this study, microorganisms which displayed such characteristics were widely screened, and a strain designated T-A was found. Morphological and molecular determination demonstrated that T-A is closely related to Candida tropicalis with 87% of 18S rDNA homology, with a G+C content measured by RP-HPLC of 88.42%. Candida tropicalis sp. T-A strains were shown to grow and transform zinc best at pH5 in medium with a zinc ion concentration of 8000 μg/mL at 28 °C for 121 hours. Our results showed C. tropicalis sp. T-A’s zinc content was 19.153 mg/g dry weight, with a relative bioavailability in rats of 173% when compared with traditional zinc supplements. Our study suggests that C. tropicalis sp. T-A could be exploited for use as a potential zinc supplement.
  • Gluten-free cookies from sorghum and Turkish beans; effect of some non-conventional and commercial hydrocolloids on their technological and sensory attributes Original Article

    SHAHZAD, Syed Ali; HUSSAIN, Shahzad; Mohamed, Abdellatif Abdelhakim; ALAMRI, Mohamed Saleh; QASEM, Akram Ahmed Abdo; IBRAHEEM, Mohamed Abdrabo; Almaiman, Salah Abdulaziz Mohamed; EL-DIN, Mohamed Fikri Serag

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Consumption of gluten-free products is the best possible option for patients with celiac disease. The development of gluten-free cookies may provide a suitable alternative for individuals who are gluten-intolerant. The purpose of this research was to assess the use of hydrocolloids as gluten substitutes in cookies. Commercially available (gum Arabic and xanthan gum) and freshly extracted (cress seed, fenugreek, flaxseed, okra) hydrocolloids were added at a substitution level of 5% in gluten-free flour prepared from sorghum and Turkish beans. Pasting temperature of flour blends decreased significantly as a function of the type of hydrocolloid, except for gum Arabic, whereas the inclusion of gum resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture, ash, and fiber content of cookies. The hardness of cookies was higher in the presence of gum, while lightness and diameter were reduced with gum addition. Okra- and gum Arabic-substituted cookies had similar sensory acceptability as the control, and the presence of cress seed gum resulted in higher antioxidant activity. The cookies produced were acceptable from the technological and sensory standpoint and this may help the baking industry to provide gluten-free options for consumers who cannot tolerate gluten.
  • Physical-chemical and microbiological quality of milk and cheese of goats fed with bidestilated glycerin Original Article

    LIMA, Aécio Melo de; CRUZ, George Rodrigo Beltrão da; COSTA, Roberto Germano da; RIBEIRO, Neila Lidiany; BELTRÃO, Edvaldo Mesquita; SOUSA, Solange de; JUSTINO, Evandra da Silva; SANTOS, Daiane Gonçalves dos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing corn with bidistilled glycerin from the biodiesel industry on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory quality of milk and goat cheese. Twelve Saanen multiparous goats weighing 40 ± 6 kg and 30 ± 5 days of lactation were used. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: fat (%), non-fat solids (%), protein (%), lactose (%), salts (%), relative density at 15/15 °C (gmL-1), index cryoscopic (°C), electrical conductivity (mScm-1), pH and acidity. The milk from each treatment was used to make the rennet cheese. The physicochemical variables: pH, lipids, ESD, and cheese yield had a significant effect (P < 0.05) for the increasing use of bidistilled glycerin in the goat feeding. The pH, acidity, EST, ESD, and yield variables presented linear regressive effect and lipids quadratic regressive effect. The softness sensory attribute had a significant effect (P < 0.05) for the increasing levels of bidistilled glycerin in the goat diet; the softness decreased as the glycerin level increased. Bi-distilled glycerin, when inserted in the diets of dairy goats at increasing levels, promotes a reduction in the lipid content of milk, consequently affecting the cheese yield and the sensory softness parameter.
  • Quality of potato CV. innovator submitted refrigeration and recondition Original Article

    PEREIRA, Ariana Mota; PETRUCCI, Kharen Priscilla de Oliveira Salomão; GOMES, Mateus de Paula; GONÇALVES, Dreice Nascimento; CRUZ, Renata Ranielly Pedroza; RIBEIRO, Fernanda Cristina Silva; FINGER, Fernando Luiz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the storage efficiency and reconditioning of potato cv. Innovator for processing. Tubers were stored at 6, 7 and 8 °C in the dark for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days and reconditioned at 15 °C for 15 days. TRS and RS were reduced as storage temperature increased from 6 + 15 °C to 8 + 15 °C. Regardless of temperature and storage time, sugar contents were suitable for industry; however non-enzymatic browning remained in category 2 for up to 60, 90 and 150 days in tubers stored at 6 + 15 °C, 7 + 15 °C and 8 + 15 °C, respectively. Starch was influenced by storage time, despite the absence of temperature effect. Regardless of the temperature, sprouting started at 90 days, but the growth of shoots was directly proportional to the increase in temperature. The PPO and POD increased at the beginning of storage but did not cause darkening before the frying. Reduction in storage temperature followed by reconditioning did not delay the onset of sprouting, but reduced the size of sprouts, maintained adequate sugar levels, however it promoted non-enzymatic browning.
  • Optimization of hot-air drying conditions on functional properties of flour from dried South African sweet potato cultivars (Impilo and Bophelo) using the response surface methodology Original Article

    MOLOTO, Phuti Itumeleng; MOSALA, Mmathaha; OMOLOLA, Adewale Olusegun; JIDEANI, Afam Israel Obiefuna; LAURIE, Sunette Marlize

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The response surface method (RSM) has an important application in formulation of new products. This study determined the effect of electric hot-air drying on the functional properties of flour made from orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP). Flour from the cultivars Bophelo (B) and Impilo (IM) were treated with 13 temperature-time combinations designed by STAT EASE software version 8.01.0. Bophelo flour dried at 70 °C for 8.6 hrs and Impilo at 70 °C for 14.4 hrs showed the lowest gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH), indicating ease of cooking. The highest swelling power of 12.45 g/g for Bophelo and 8.16 g/g for Impilo were significantly higher than the remaining samples. Flours for Bophelo and Impilo at drying temperatures and times at 70 °C for 4.4 hrs, 56 °C for 6.5 hrs and 60 °C for 6.5 hrs indicated favourable gelling properties and cost of drying, implying that these can be used at household level and in food industries as thickeners from both cultivars.
  • Physico-chemical and Nutraceutical Characterization of Selected Indigenous Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Cultivars Original Article

    YOUSAF, Ali Asad; ABBASI, Kashif Sarfraz; AHMAD, Asif; HASSAN, Imran; SOHAIL, Asma; QAYYUM, Abdul; AKRAM, Muhammad Aaqib

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to ascertain physicochemical and nutraceutical attributes, indigenous guava (Psidium guajava L.) cultivars were comprehensively characterized. Eight cultivars namely Gola, Chota Gola, Surahi, Choti Surahi, Sufaida, Sdabahar, Lal Badshah and Karela were selected due to their climatic adaptability and commercial suitability. All the cultivars showed significant variations in terms of their studied quality attributes. Amongst physical characteristics, Gola exhibited highest (79.9 mm3) GMD with lowest (50.3 mm3) was estimated in Choti Surahi. Insignificant varietal differences were observed in most of the proximate parameters as well as in mineral contents. Nutraceutical estimations showed significant variation in ascorbic acid (222.26-289.43 mg/100 g), total phenolic contents (94.06-190.64 mg GAE/100 g), total flavonoid contents (81.30-154.19 mg QE/100 g) and radical scavenging activity (27.70-78.15%) in the selected cultivars. A highly significant correlation (R2 = 0.9970 p < 0.05) was observed between ascorbic acid and radical scavenging activity. In sensory evaluation, Gola received over all maximum scores (8.8) amongst its counterparts. Processed data were then analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). The combination of PCA and HCA yielded in a sufficient discrimination of the examined guava cultivars. In PCA analysis, first two PCA components explained 65.98% of the total variation. Dendrogram successfully classified the tested cultivars into three major groups featuring dissimilarities amongst the cultivars. Research outcome will provide baseline for the farmers, researchers, exporters and other stalk holders to realize the ultimate potential of indigenous guava cultivars for their appropriate commercial utilization.
  • Mitigating the impact of organochlorine and pyrethroid residues in fresh and chemically washed spinach Original Article

    HUSSNAIN, Ali; AMIR, Rai Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Azam; AHMAD, Asif; ALI, Shinawar Waseem; NADEEM, Muhammad; AMEER, Kashif; KHAN, Muhammad Asif; MAHMOOD, Shahid; Hayat, Imran

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Spinach is highly contaminated with different pesticide residues. This study was designed to evaluate organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticide residues present in various washing treatments (T0-T13) of fresh and chemically washed spinach with respect to maximum residues limits. Efficiency of washing solutions (citric acid, acetic acid, garlic extract and ginger extract) of different concentrations (w/v %) along with tap water in spinach was investigated for residues dissolution. Results showed that the highest reductions in endosulfan, deltamethrin and cypermethrin residues were 0.008 ± 0.008 mg.kg-1 (53%), 0.023 ± 0.024 mg.kg-1 (76%) and 0.017 ± 0.014 mgkg-1 (83%) in treatment of T5 (10% acetic acid) followed by 0.035 ± 0.029 mg.kg-1 (50%), 0.051 ± 0.029 mg.kg-1 (73%) and 0.037 ± 0.048 mg kg-1 (81%) in treatment T11 (10% ginger extract) while the lowest reductions in residues were 0.304 ± 0.004 mg.kg-1 (23%), 0.432 ± 0.030 mg.kg-1 (35%) and 0.468 ± 0.016 mg kg-1 (38%) in treatment T2 (5% citric acid), respectively. In conclusion, 10% acetic acid, ginger extract and mixture of acetic and citric acids can effectively minimize pesticide residues in treated spinach.
  • Effects of passion fruit peel flour as a dietary fibre resource on biscuit quality Original Article

    WENG, Minjie; LI, Yibin; WU, Li; ZHENG, Hengguang; LAI, Pufu; TANG, Baosha; LUO, Xuhui

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of the addition of passion fruit peel flour (PFPF) from two different species to biscuits. Each PFPF was added to biscuit flour in different amounts (wheat flour replacement rate: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). The colour and textural properties of the doughs and biscuits were evaluated. The physical characteristics, sensory characteristics and dietary fibre content of the biscuits were tested. Both types of PFPF show a higher fat absorption capacity (2.44 g/g (yellow) and 2.38 g/g (purple)). The results showed that the PFPF could significantly improve the texture of the prepared biscuits but showed an adverse effect on the colour. This study has shown that incorporation of PFPF (5%) can produce fibre-rich (TDF, 2.05% and 2.08%) biscuits with low water content (2.20% and 2.28%), excellent texture characteristics (Firmness, 13.18 N and 15.68 N) and good sensory quality.
  • Technological and sensory feasibility of enrichment of low-sugar mango jams with curcumin encapsulated in lipid microparticles Original Article

    MARTINS, Matheus Pontes; GEREMIAS-ANDRADE, Ivana Morais; FERREIRA, Letícia dos Santos; BRITO-OLIVEIRA, Thais Carvalho; PINHO, Samantha Cristina de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of producing low-sugar mango jams enriched with curcumin-loaded lipid microparticles (CLM). The jams were incorporated with babacu oil and tristearin lipid microparticles encapsulating curcumin, using tween 80 and span 60 as surfactants. The jams were characterized by physicochemical and sensory tests along 30 days of storage, and the results revealed CLM incorporation had only a small influence on the macroscopic homogeneity and pH of the jams. Up to 4 g/100 g of incorporation of CLM, the color intensity and colorimetric stability of the jams were enhanced. The incorporation of CLM led to the jams to be classified, rheologically, as emulsion filled gels, and the small deformation rheology tests revealed the CLM acted as active fillers. However, the incorporation of 10 g CLM/100 g jam led to a non-reproducibility of the data obtained for frequency sweep experiments. Sensory evaluation (affective tests) indicated a high acceptation of the curcumin enriched mango jams, in terms of flavor, odor, spreadability, texture and color, both at the beginning and end of the storage period of 30 days.
  • Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) and jambolan (Syzygium cumini) juice blend: sensory analysis and bioactive compounds stability Original Article

    CAMPOS, Ana Paula Rocha; CHISTÉ, Renan Campos; PENA, Rosinelson da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, the stability of the bioactive compounds from camu-camu and jambolan mixture was evaluated, and a juice blend formulation based on its sensorial properties was established. The stability of three juice formulations with camu-camu/jambolan/water (w:w:w), 37.5:12.5:50 (JB); 37.5:0:62.5 (CJ) and 0:12.5:87.5 (JJ) was evaluated. Additionally, the bioactive compounds and sensory acceptance were performed in six juice formulations with camu-camu/jambolan: 12.5:37.5 (F1); 17.5:32.5 (F2); 22.5:27.5 (F3); 27.5:22.5 (F4); 32.5:17.5 (F5) and 37.5:12.5 (F6). The stability of the anthocyanins in the JB formulation was ensured for 5 days of storage at 25 °C. First-order reaction kinetics described the degradation of anthocyanins during 10 days of storage. The internal preference map analysis evidenced two groups: one formed by the formulations F1 and F2 and the other by F3, F4, F5 and F6. Sensory analysis showed that the formulation with the lowest concentration of camu-camu (F1) presented the highest sensory acceptance rate (80.4%), high bioactive compounds contents: 23.04 mg anthocyanins.100 mL-1, 353.32 mg ascorbic acid.100 mL-1, 892.06 mg phenolic compounds.100 mL-1, and high antioxidant capacity (3667.78 mM ET.100 mL-1). The results shows that juice blend with camu-camu/jambolan 12.5:37.5 (F1) have a good acceptance and high bioactive compounds content.
  • A new polysaccharide isolated from Dendrobium offcinale, stimulates aquaporin-3 expression in human keratinocytes Original Article

    LI, Li; XUE, Yan; ZHANG, Huina; LIU, Yuhong; YI, Fan; DONG, Yinmao

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Polysaccharides are the major components of the water extract from Dendrobium officinale, which have been thoroughly studied and found to have favorable moisturizing properties on mammalian skin. However, the structures of polysaccharides on skin moisturizing properties remains unknown. The aim of this study was to extract and characterize D. officinale polysaccharides, which have anti-oxidant activity and the role of promoting effects of aquaporin-3 (AQP3). Two crude polysaccharide fractions were extracted using water and biological fermentation, respectively. The crude polysaccharides were further purified by graded alcohol precipitation, and finally purified polysaccharides DOP-S and DOP-F were obtained by Sephacryl S-300 column chromatography. The average molecular weights of DOP-S and DOP-F were 3.604 × 105 and 1.027 × 105 Da, respectively. Monosaccharide units and structures of DOP-S and DOP-F were further elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). At the same time, DOP-S and DOP-F induced aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression was evaluated by immuno-fluorescence analysis. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging capacities, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The results showed that biological fermentation effectively achieved the hydrolysis of the polysaccharides and stimulated antioxidant activity and AQP3 expression.
  • Effects of processing and packaging on bioactive compounds of curriola jelly [Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk.] during storage Original Article

    CUNHA, Mariana Crivelari da; SILVA, Jéssyca Santos; ELIAS, Heloísa Helena de Siqueira; CARVALHO, Elisângela Elena Nunes; VILAS BOAS, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective herein was to evaluate the effect of processing, packaging type (with and without exposure to light) and storage time on the quality of functional attributes of jelly prepared from curriola pulp. The experimental design was a completely randomized 2 × 5 factorial design, with two levels of packaging (transparent and amber) and five storage periods (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months). In general, the processing of curriola pulp determined a slight increase in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and a reduction in vitamin C content of freshly prepared jelly. The amber package and storage time promoted higher retention of bioactive compounds, mainly gallic acid, besides reducing the percentage of jelly oxidation, determined by the β-carotene / linoleic acid antioxidant method. A reduction in phenolic compounds and vitamin C was observed, which caused a reduction in the antioxidant capacity of curriola jelly. Of the five phenolic compounds identified in freshly prepared curriola jelly, gallic acid was identified as the major compound. In addition, the use of amber packaging, which prevents the incidence of light, may favor the maintenance of bioactive compounds during storage period of curriola jelly under environmental conditions.
  • Characterization of oat bran β-glucan with special reference to efficacy study to elucidate its health claims for diabetic patients Original Article

    KHAN, Muhammad Asif; AMIR, Rai Muhammad; AMEER, Kashif; RAKHA, Allah; FAIZ, Farrukh; HAYAT, Imran; NADEEM, Muhammad; AHMED, Zaheer; RIAZ, Aayesha; ASHRAF, Ijaz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present study was designed to characterize oat bran for their biological attributes. The results showed that bran of Avon variety contained high TDF, SDF, β-glucan and extractability of β-glucan than bran of oat variety Sargodha-81. The extrusion process exhibited the highest extractability of β-glucan (45.37%) followed by cooking (37.28%) and baking methods (32.45%). Moreover, the glucose level reduction was found significantly different when raw and processed oat bran diets fed to normal, hypercholesterolemic and diabetic rats. The highest reduction was recorded when fed on diet containing 30% processed oat bran. The processed oat bran exhibited more reduction as compared to raw oat bran. Furthermore, addition of 20% oat bran in wheat grits porridge was found to have significant effect (p < 0.05) on appearance, mouth feel and overall acceptability. Convincingly, it is recommended that processed oat bran may be introduced in diet-based remedy to rheostat lifestyle-related disorders.
  • Ameliorating effects of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seed oil on hypercholesterolemia Original Article

    KHAN, Moazzam Rafiq; BATOOL, Maria; AMIR, Rai Muhammad; SHABBIR, Asim; SIDDIQUE, Farzana; ADIL, Rana Muhammad; AMEER, Kashif; DIN, Ahmad; RAKHA, Allah; RIAZ, Aayesha; FAIZ, Farrukh

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Lifestyle associated disorders have always been a hazard for the advancement of chronic diseases. Therefore, use of natural dietary sources is proved to be safe for reducing the occurrence and management of chronic diseases. Okra along with its various parts has been used for the treatment of several diseases. The present study was done to examine the ameliorating effect of okra seed oil on hypercholesterolemic rats. Spargue Dawley Rats were randomly divided into five groups fed with selected experimental diets for a period of 30 days. After inducing hypercholesterolemia, the rats in treatment groups were fed with 6%, 12% and 18% okra seed oil respectively mixed with their normal diet. Decrease in cholesterol and LDL were observed in group 2, 3 and 4. Increase in HDL was also observed in group 2, 3 and 4 from 24.33 ± 1.29 to 25.33 ± 1.29, 23 ± 2.94 to 25 ± 2.94 and from 23.67 ± 1.29 to 26.67 ± 1.29 at day 28. A decrease pattern was also observed in triglycerides in group 2, 3 and 4 from 74 ± 2.22 to 72 ± 2.22, 72 ± 1.63 to 68 ± 1.63 and from 74 ± 3.11 to 66.67 ± 2.45 at day 28. Okra seed oil has the potential to ameliorate hypercholesterolemia. This vegetable can be a part of medical nutrition therapy.
  • Mucuna pruriens fiber: nutritional, functional and biological properties Original Article

    VÁZQUEZ ENCALADA, Stephanie; SEGURA CAMPOS, Maira Rubi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract An evaluation was done of the nutritional, functional and antioxidant properties of fiber residues from Mucuna pruriens bean. Nutritional value was quantified in terms of proximate composition, total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and the Van Soest fiber components. Functional value was assayed by measuring water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), water absorption capacity (WAbC), water adsorption capacity (WAdC) and organic molecule absorption capacity (OMAC). Emulsifying capacity was also studied. Biological potential was identified by measuring antioxidant properties, as well as phenols and flavonoids content. Nutritionally, M. pruriens fiber registered 26% of raw fiber, 77.65% TDF, 69.40% IDF and 8.25% SDF. Van Soest fiber components were 61.35% acid detergent fiber (ADF), 66.86% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 13.62% acid detergent lignin (ADL). Cellulose and hemicellulose content were 47.73 and 5.51%, respectively. Fiber functional potential values were 3.24 g/g sample for WHC, 1.65 for OHC, 3.61 for WAbC, 0.24 for WAdC and 1.19 for OMAC. The highest emulsifying capacity was registered at pH 4. Antioxidant activity was observed in assays as reducing power, DPPH and ABTS•+, being possibly attributed to components as phenols (2624.80 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg), and flavonoids (232.71 μg catechin equivalents/mg), quantified at 20mg/mL.
  • Optimization of extraction time and temperature for natural antioxidants of öküzgözü grape pomace using various solvent ratios Original Article

    YELER, Hatice Betül; NAS, Sebahattin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Grape pomace, a press residue of winemaking process, has great usage potential in many fields because of its phenolic components such as anthocyanins, antioxidants and dietary fiber. In this study, it was aimed to determine most suitable parameters for production of food colorant from grape pomace (variety of öküzgözü) under different extraction conditions, thus utilising waste of wine production. The dried grape pomace was extracted at 3 various temperatures, 4 different periods and 5 different solvent ratios. 12 different anthocyanins, the free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and total monomeric anthocyanin of the extracts were determined and values of the samples ranged between 5.2-676.1 (mg/kg), 1.99-3.65 (IC50 mg/mL), 83.68-1598.57 (mg gallic acid/100 g) and 730.7-1850.3 (mg/100 g as mv-3-glc equivalents), respectively. The most suitable temperature, time and solvent ratio for the highest extraction of anthocyanins were obtained at 50 °C and 50:50, 180 min, respectively.
  • Milk heat treatment affects microbial characteristics of cows’ and goats’ “Jben” traditional fresh cheeses Original Article

    TADJINE, Dahmane; BOUDALIA, Sofiane; BOUSBIA, Aissam; GUEROUI, Yassine; SYMEON, George; MEBIROUK BOUDECHICHE, Lamia; TADJINE, Aicha; CHEMMAM, Mabrouk

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract “Jben” is an Algerian traditional fresh cheese produced from raw or pasteurized milk of cows, goats and sheep, on a small scale during the period of milk abundance in a restricted area of the North-east and -West of Algeria. In this study, four Jben-type cheeses were produced: cheeses made from cow’s milk subjected to 82 °C/10 sec treatment or without heat treatment, and its analogue goat’s milk cheeses. We investigated the effects of “Heat treatment: raw or pasteurized” and “Species: cow or goat” on microbiological characteristics, pH and acidity of “Jben” cheese. Milk samples were collected across five breeding of cows and three breeding of goats in the northeastern Algeria and “Jben” cheeses were made. Results showed that more than 40% of raw and pasteurized milk have poor hygienic quality. However, in both species, “Jben” produced from pasteurized milk has better sanitary quality than “Jben” produced from raw milk. All cheese samples were safe according to the criteria of the regulation (EC) 1441/2007. Pasteurization did not affect acidity in both species. Data from this study may contribute to improve the cheese-making process in small scale, using milk from different species (cow and goat).
  • Effect of water activity and storage of tahini on the viability of stressed Salmonella serovars Original Article

    OSAILI, Tareq; AL-NABULSI, Anas; NAZZAL, Dima; AL-HOLY, Murad; OLAIMAT, Amin; OBAID, Reyad; HOLLEY, Richard

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Tahini (sesame seed paste) is a low water activity product that has been involved in several salmonellosis outbreaks. The objectives of the study were to examine over a year the impact of aw and storage temperature of tahini on the viability of Salmonella serovars previously stressed by drying or heat exposure. Tahini samples adjusted to aw values of 0.17, 0.35 and 0.50 were inoculated with a mixed culture containing 106-107 CFU/g of 4 serovars of unstressed, desiccation-or heat-stressed Salmonella and stored for up to 12 months at 10 and 25 °C. Generally, viability of stressed or unstressed Salmonella decreased as the storage temperature and time increased or the aw of tahini decreased. The survival of stressed or unstressed Salmonella in all samples decreased during storage for up to 12 months by ca. 6.0 and 3.3log10 CFU/g, respectively. Exposing Salmonella to heat stress had no significant effect on survival in tahini, while desiccation stress significantly decreased survival during storage, especially at 25 °C in low aw tahini.
  • Evaluation of a rapid detection method of Salmonella in comparison with the culture method and microbiological quality in fish from the Brazilian Amazon Original Article

    SANTOS, Paula Hellayne Costa dos; FIGUEIREDO, Hamilton M.; SILVA, Luiza Helena Meller da; SILVA, Rafaela Santos Oliveira da; CARDOSO, Gabrielle Virginia Ferreira; MORAES, Carina Martins; RODRIGUES, Antonio Manoel da Cruz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Microbiological safety of fish is a concern of consumers, industries and regulatory agencies worldwide. Among the pathogenic microorganisms, Salmonella spp. is one of the main agents of foodborne diseases and should be absent in animal products. Rapid and accurate identification of pathogens in the supply chain is important for both quality assurance and tracking infectious agents within the chain. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the equivalence of two rapid detection tests, as alternative methods to the conventional Salmonella detection method, as well as to verify the microbiological quality parameters of two commercially important fish species in the Amazon biome. The plate count of aerobic bacteria ranged from 7.76 x 104 to 8.71 x 107 CFU.g-1 for mesophiles and 1.70 x 106 to 4.27 x 108 CFU.g-1 for psychrotrophic whereas the maximum for this group of microorganisms in fresh fish is 106 CFU.g-1. Regarding the Staphylococcus count, the two species presented variations between 1.35 x 104 to 1.51 x 105 CFU.g-1. This represents unsatisfactory conditions of handling, storage and conservation of fish species. The immunoenzymatic and molecular methods have been shown to be reliable, fast and effective in the detection of Salmonella and for its high index of agreement with the conventional detection method. We also emphasize the convenience of multiplex PCR application due to the high sensitivity, specificity, speed and accuracy of Salmonella detection.
  • Quality properties of doughs and noodles using chayotextle (Sechiem edule) flours Original Article

    VICTORIANO, Lizbeth GONZÁLEZ; VERA, Norma GÜEMES; SIMENTAL, Sergio SOTO; HERNÁNDEZ, Juan Pablo; LIRA, Aurora QUINTERO; MARTINI, Javier PILONI

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The quality and physicochemical properties of dough and noodles made from blends of chayotextle flour and wheat semolina were investigated. The results showed that the inclusion of chayotextle flour increased both the hardness and adhesiveness of the dough, and there was a 10% increase in cohesiveness and elasticity when using this particular flour. Regarding dough extensibility, no significant differences were found (p < 0.05) in the control, while the proximal chemical analysis on dough showed that T1 (16.28%) had a higher protein content compared to the control. These results indicate that the optimum mixture for the preparation of dough was obtained by using 10% chayotextle flour. It is concluded that incorporating appropriate amounts of this flour into wheat semolina during the production of dough maintains technological quality as well as texture and sensory perceptions.
  • Probiotic viability, viscosity, hardness properties and sensorial quality of synbiotic ice creams produced from goat’s milk Original Article

    ACU, Merve; KINIK, Ozer; YERLIKAYA, Oktay

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This research aimed to examine the probiotic viability of bacteria, rheological and sensorial properties in synbiotic ice creams produced from goat’s milk combined with probiotic culture and prebiotics. Tagatose, Litesse ultra and polydextrose (as prebiotics) were used in ice cream production and mixtures and these mixtures were inoculated with Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum combined culture. Frozen raspberry fruits, commercial raspberry and blackberry fruit purees were used as taste flavor enhancers in synbiotic ice cream. Four different ice cream types were produced including control sample. Probiotic bacteria viability, apparent viscosity, hardness and sensory properties were examined during the 120-day- storage. It was determined that frozen fruit and fruit purees addition and using prebiotics significantly affected the Lactobacillus paracasei and Bifidobacterium spp. viability and color, appearance, flavor, taste and overall sensory scores of the synbiotic goat’s milk ice creams (P < 0.05). Synbiotic ice cream samples maintained their probiotic properties during storage and were generally well appreciated in terms of sensory properties.
  • Food safety: relation between pesticides and poisoning Original Article

    LOPES, Vinícius Gonçalves; NASCIMENTO, Guilherme Nobre Lima do

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Brazil has worldwide relevance in agriculture, as well as being one of the largest consumers of pesticides. This reality associated with underreporting of poisonings, food sample data above the permitted limit of current legislation, possible pesticide flexibilities and increasing smuggling of these products. This study aimed to evaluate the marketing situation in the various regions of Brazil, as well as to relate to the reality of poisoning notifications. It was evaluated in the literature, in the notification systems data platform, statistical tables and commercialization of these products from 2013 to 2017. The reality found was the annual gradual growth in most regions, being the Midwest region with the highest index in 2017 with an average of 180 thousand tons of assets. Among the most commercialized we have the 3 main ones: Glyphosate and its 2,4-D and Mancozebe salts, being classified by Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) as dangerous (class III). Regarding poisoning, there are discrepant results among notification systems, with Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) having better information with 37 cases in Brazil, while in National Toxic-Pharmacological Information System (SINITOX) in 2017 there is no notification data. A reality with scarce data regarding food poisoning.
  • Determination of in-vitro phenolics, antioxidant capacity and bio-accessibility of Kombucha tea produced from black carrot varieties grown in Turkey Original Article

    YILDIZ, Elif; GULDAS, Metin; GURBUZ, Ozan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Black carrot, which is an economically important product, is produced extensively in Konya and Hatay regions in Turkey. Kombucha tea is a symbiotic system, comprises of bacteria and yeasts cultures called as SCOBY, and produced by fermentation of sugar and tea leaves. Kombucha samples contained black carrot juice in two concentrations (10 and 20%) and compared with the Kombucha contained green tea leaves. Black carrot varieties were used for enrichment of Kombucha production and investigated in terms of physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacity. Black carrot samples belonging to the Hatay region, have higher anthocyanin content (660.26 mg C3G/100 g-dw), antioxidant capacity (TEACABTS and TEACCUPRAC; 15.33 ± 0.39 and 21.91 ± 0.28 µmole Trolox/g), total phenolic content (67.22 ± 0.24 mg/g GAE) and bioaccessibility (36.48 ± 0.78 mg/g GAE) comparing to Hatay black carrot variety. The highest anthocyanin content (71.05 mg C3G/100 mL), antioxidant capacity (TEACABTS and TEACCUPRAC; 3.67 ± 0.15 and 12.33 ± 0.11 µmole Trolox/g) were obtained from Kombucha tea containing black carrot juice (20%). According to the sensorial evaluation, panelists stated that the Kombucha samples with Hatay Black carrot juice had a fresh and pleasant taste and flavor due to green tea aroma.
  • Response surface optimization of polysaccharide extraction from Galla Chinensis and determination of its antioxidant activity in vitro Original Article

    HU, Jiangxia; GAO, Jiayu; ZHAO, Zijun; YANG, Xiao

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Galla Chinensis was a traditional Chinese medicine used as an ingredient in many prescriptions for the treatment of oxidant damage-associated symptoms in China. The current research on the isolation of polysaccharides from Galla Chinensis and their antioxidant activities still remain as an ongoing challenge. The purpose of this study is to develop an isolation technique for polysaccharides from Galla Chinensis and determine their antioxidant properties in vitro. An ultrasonic-assisted method of polysaccharides extraction from Galla Chinensis were firstly developed and the key parameters were optimized response surface analysis as crushing degree 100 mesh, ultrasonic time 20 min, and materials/liquid ratio 1: 40. The polysaccharides presented dose-dependent antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects in DPPH, ABTS, total antioxidant and Iron ion reduction assays. Moreover, it also demonstrated an effective protective effect for human under H2O2-induced oxidative damage on human embryonic kidneyfibroblast 293 and hepatoma 7721 cells by cell proliferation assay. The study firstly determined the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Galla Chinensis, thus providing a new natural resource for future investigation and development of the polysaccharides-based antioxidant drugs, health products or addictives.
  • Isolation and molecular characterization of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken and human stool samples in Egypt Original Article

    GHONEIM, Nahed Hamed; ABDEL-MOEIN, Khaled Abdel-Aziz; BARAKAT, Ashraf Mohamed Abdel Khalek; HEGAZI, Ahmed Gaffer; ABD EL-RAZIK, Khaled Abd El-Hamid; SADEK, Sabry Atef Sabry

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Two hundred broiler chicken samples, 160 laying chicken samples and 75 human stool samples were collected in Egypt. The samples were microbiologically examined, and the C. jejuni isolates were confirmed biochemically and by PCR targeting the mapA gene of C. jejuni. The prevalence of the cadF virulence gene was then determined using PCR. A total of 17.33%, 17% and 11.87% of human stool, broiler chicken and laying chicken samples, respectively, were positive for C. jejuni, with a total of 66 Campylobacter jejuni isolates (15.17%). Ten C. jejuni isolates (15.15%) carried the cadF virulence gene (7.69%, 20.58% and 10.52% of human stool samples, broiler and laying chicken samples respectively). Phylogenetic investigation demonstrated that two of the isolates from chicken had high homology with other C. jejuni isolates from human stool samples. Moreover, amino acid sequence alignment revealed a mutation in these isolates of zoonotic significance. The present results support the possible risk of transmitting highly virulent C. jejuni as a foodborne pathogen from both broiler and layer chickens to human in Egypt. Active on-farm biosecurity measures on chicken farms and more hygienic efforts in slaughter houses, in local chicken slaughter shops should be made for the effective control of this foodborne disease.
  • Improvement of quality characteristics of turkey pâté through optimization of a protein rich ingredient: physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation Original Article

    KAMBAROVA, Aray; NURGAZEZOVA, Almagul; NURYMKHAN, Gulnur; ATAMBAYEVA, Zhibek; SMOLNIKOVA, Farida; REBEZOV, Мaksim; ISSAYEVA, Kuralay; KAZHIBAEVA, Galiya; ASIRZHANOVA, Zhanna; MOLDABAEVA, Zhanar

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The consumer preference for ready-to-eat foods is growing rapidly, it provides many benefits to health care because it is very rich source of dietary fiber, minerals, and amino acids. The present study was to prepare and evaluate the quality of turkey meat pâté made with a high nutritional value protein-herbal supplement containing cereal flours (oat, rice, corn, and buckwheat). The physicochemical characteristics (pH, aw, color, texture, chemical composition), amino acid profile, sensory and quality analysis for turkey meat pâté were investigated. The use of the protein-herbal supplement decreased lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values but intensified the yellowness (b*) of cooked pâtés. The amount of essential amino acids significantly increased compared to the control sample. The protein-herbal supplement which was developed was proved to be very rich source of unsaturated fatty acids: the content of monounsaturated fatty acids increased by 27.8% and polyunsaturated acids by 0.7% in the final pâté.
  • Trace analysis of environmental endocrine disrupting contaminant bisphenol A in canned, glass and polyethylene terephthalate plastic carbonated beverages of diverse flavors and origin Original Article

    KHAN, Mohammad Rizwan; ALAMMARI, Ahmad Moid; AQEL, Ahmad; AZAM, Mohammad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is a hazardous contaminant demonstrating endocrine disrupting properties, and assumed to be involved in the pathogenesis of various cancer diseases for instance prostate, lung and breast cancer. The objective of the present study was to estimate the BPA amounts in carbonated beverages from the Saudi Arabian market for the first time using an authenticated technique based on solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of thirty-four carbonated beverages of different flavors, origin and packaging materials were studied. The beverage production periods were from February 2018 to July 2018 containing volume (250-1000 mL), packaging materials were of canned, glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic. BPA amounts in canned (0.64-11.41 µg/L), glass bottled (1.92-29.56 µg/L) and PET plastic bottled (0.37-21.83 µg/L) were obtained with recovery (97.64-99.96%). Relatively, glass bottled has offered higher amounts of BPA compared to PET plastic bottled and canned samples. The unforeseen presence of BPA especially in glass bottled emphasizes the ubiquity of such compound beside the food fabrication chain, far off to the food packaging materials. Thus, a further knowledge on BPA amounts in glass bottled samples, in addition to threat assessment studies, is essential to defend human health.
  • Public awareness, knowledge and sensitivity towards celiac disease and gluten-free diet is insufficient: a survey from Turkey Original Article

    TAŞKIN, Bilge; SAVLAK, Nazlı

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract One of the most challenging aspects of celiac disease management is lack of awareness in public. Aim of the study was to evaluate public awareness and sensitivity on celiac disease and gluten-free diet. 501 individuals in Manisa, Turkey were subjected to a survey to obtain information on demographics, awareness of celiac disease, celiac and gluten-free diet relationship, effect on social life quality and social awareness and sensitivity. Results were analyzed by chi-square test. 43.9% of the public had never heard of celiac disease before. Females were more aware of the disease and gluten-free diet dependency. Majority of the postgraduates (79.6%) recognized the disease. 44.9% of the respondents remarked that celiac patients had hesitations on dining out, while 32.3% found those people restricted for travel and holiday activities. Above one-third of subjects indicated that gluten-free product variety in the market was inadequate. However, more than half had no idea on these. Over 50% felt that, social awareness and sensitivity towards disease was unsatisfactory. This study was conducted to mirror the society’s approach towards celiac patients. It was demonstrated that public’s awareness and sensitivity about celiac disease was scarce. Knowledge of ‘celiac’ needs to be raised.
  • UPLC-MS/MS and Dushman reaction based spectrophotometric method for determination of Ceftazidime, an antibiotic, in medicinal formulation Original Article

    SIDDIQUI, Masoom Raza; HAKAMI, Afnan Ali Hussain; WABAIDUR, Saikh Mohammad; ALOTHMAN, Zeid Abdullah; KHAN, Moonis Ali; HUSAIN, Fohad Mabood

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT: Two analytical methods were developed, one utilizing sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method while other being the spectrophotometric method exploiting the Dushman reaction. Both methods were validated based on ICH guidelines and were successfully applied to quantitate the drug in marketed formulation. UPLC-MS/MS method responded linearly in the range of 1.6 µgmL-1-6.4 µgmL-1 while spectrophotometric procedure followed the Beer’s law in the concentration range of 30-100 µgmL-1. UPLC-MS/MS has been found to have a limit of quantitation of 0.97 µgmL-1 while spectrophotometric method was found to quantitate 14.00 µgmL-1 correctly with high precision. Both the methods showed an excellent recovery of 99.36%-100.91% (% RSD 1.05-1.73) and 98.64%-99.73% (%RSD 0.67-1.68) for UPLC-MS/MS and spectrophotometric, respectively.
  • Monitoring environmental microbiological safety in a frozen fruit and vegetable plant Original Article

    CINAR, Aycan; ONBAŞI, Elif

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Ensuring food safety is becoming progressively important in frozen foods due to increased demand and consumption worldwide. The Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP) shall support daily operational activities and monitor the lack of process hygiene & sanitation actions to achieve food safety. The aim of this study was implementation of EMP in the frozen fruit and vegetable factory to identify the place that allows for pathogen/indicator microorganism growth and create preventive actions to reduce or eliminate the risk of cross- contamination. A total of 400 swab samples, Zone 1 (n = 228), Zone 2 (n = 90), Zone 3 (n = 52), Zone 4 (n = 30) were examined for E. coli and Coliform, Total Plate Count (TPC), yeast and mold and environmental Listeria spp. The percentage of satisfying target value before vs after the implementation of EMP was 82% vs. 100% for E. coli, 61% vs. 86% for Coliforms, 48% vs. 77% for TPC and 63% vs. 80% for yeast & mold respectively for Zone 1. Environmental Listeria was not determined in any of the zones. Integration of EMP to food safety management systems is essential to prevent outbreaks, recalls and economic losses. In addition to depending on the developing technologies, EMP should be supported with new corrective actions.
  • Investigation of ultrasound pretreatment time and microwave power level on drying and rehydration kinetics of green olives Original Article

    AYDAR, Alev Yüksel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, the effect of ultrasound (US) combined microwave (MW) drying of green olive slices was studied. Olive samples were exposed to ultrasound (5 and 10 minutes; 32 KHz) at room temperature before dried at microwave at 3 different power level (180W, 450 W and 800 W). The drying and rehydration characteristics and quality parameters of olives were determined by comparing with obtained by non-ultrasound pretreated MW dried samples. Midilli et al and Diffusion models were the most suitable models for US-MW drying with the highest R2, and lowest RMSE and chi square values. Total phenolic compounds (TPC) of olive slices reduced during drying in all treatments, however TPC of ultrasound pretreated samples were relatively higher those non treated samples dried at same microwave. Increasing of microwave level and ultrasound time decreased the total drying time up to %42.5. This study showed that US-MW can be a useful combine drying method for olive slices which decreased the drying time and improved the qualitative properties of olives.
  • Influence of roasted and unroasted terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus) on the functional, chemical and textural properties of wire-cut cookies Original Article

    KÖTEN, Mehmet

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The study aimed to access the effects of roasted and unroasted terebinth (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) added to cookies to improve their physical, chemical, functional, and textural characteristics. The addition of terebinth to the cookie formulation significantly increased the ash, protein, fat, total dietary fiber, total phenolic matter, and antioxidant content and decreased the phytic acid content of the cookie samples. With the addition of roasted and unroasted terebinth, it was determined that L*, b* values of cookies decreased, a* value increased, and all color values were lower than control group. In addition, it was found that the diameter and thickness values of cookies with terebinth addition decreased, and the spread ratio increased. The hardness of cookies produced in the study decreased after terebinth addition. The data obtained in this study showed that using terebinth has potential applications in baked goods without adverse effects on the physical and chemical quality or the functional quality of the product.
  • Increase in conjugated linoleic acid content and improvement in microbial and physicochemical properties of a novel kefir stored at refrigerated temperature using complementary probiotics and prebiotic Original Article

    POURBABA, Hamid; ANVAR, Amir Ali; Pourahmad, Rezvan; AHARI, Hamed

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present study was aimed to determine the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, L. paracasei 431, and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 with lactulose on values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and microbial, physicochemical, and sensory properties of a novel kefir. Thirteen groups were evaluated on days 1, 7, and 14 at 4 oC. The interaction between probiotics and lactulose reduced pH to 4.5 in the first week and slightly decreased on day 14 (4.35). The syneresis value was decreased by increasing the lactulose dose. The interaction could not remarkably increase probiotic survival; the greatest and lowest values were 7.18 and 7.81 log CFU/mL, respectively. The greatest and the lowest lactic acid value was 2.77 and 1.47 g/100 mL, respectively, in kefirs supplemented with L. acidophilus LA-5 and L. acidophilus LA-5+ L. paracasei 431+ B. lactis BB-12. A 4-fold increase in the acetic acid value (0.592 g/100 mL) was observed in kefirs supplemented with B. lactis BB-12 along with L. acidophilus LA-5 and L. paracasei 431 (G12). It is concluded that adding 5% lactulose along with L. acidophilus LA-5+ L. paracasei 431 to kefir could valuably increase the CLA value (3.51-8.07 ppm) and give it more acceptability of flavor, odor, and syneresis.
  • Green biosynthesized Satureja rechingeri Jamzad-Ag/poly vinyl alcohol film: quality improvement of Oncorhynchus mykiss fillet during refrigerated storage Original Article

    KAVAKEBI, Elham; ANVAR, Amir Ali; AHARI, Hamed; MOTALEBI, Abbas Ali

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The nanosilver food packaging films were developed by polyvinyl alcohol activated with Satureja rechingeri extract (S-AgNPs/PVA) using the solvent casting to evaluate the freshness of Oncorhynchus mykiss fillets during 14 days at the refrigerated temperature. The 160 pieces of fish were enfolded in 4 types of films as main group-series. The main components of the extract were carvacrol (83.2%) p-cymene (3.11%), thymol (2.13%) and γ-terpinene (1.63%). The UV-Vis and TEM evaluations of S-AgNPs showed that the size of S-AgNPs was mostly smaller than 55 nm in diameter. Mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria counts were remarkably less than 6.0 log CFU/g about 2.1, 1.3 log CFU/g and 2.0, 1.0 log CFU/g, respectively for fish samples wrapped in S-AgNP/Ult.PVA (Ultrasound method) and S-AgNP/Pho.PVA (Photochemical method) preserved at 4 °C on the 7th day. S-AgNP/Ult.PVA and S-AgNP/Pho.PVA showed strong efficiency in complete eliminating S. aureus and psychrophilic bacteria from coated trout samples than E. coli and mesophiles. It is suggested that AgNP/Ult.PVA and S-AgNP/Pho.PVA films can be used as nanocomposite film for fish preservation at refrigerated temperature to postpone the spoilage up to 7th day.
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