Food Science and Technology, Volume: 41, Issue: 2, Published: 2021
  • Effect of non-thermal processing techniques on pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms of milk and milk products Review Article

    SHABBIR, Muhmmad Asim; AHMED, Haassan; MAAN, Abid Aslam; REHMAN, Abdur; AFRAZ, Muhammad Talha; IQBAL, Muhammad Waheed; KHAN, Imran Mehmood; AMIR, Rai Muhammad; ASHRAF, Waqas; KHAN, Moazzam Rafiq; AADIL, Rana Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Milk is a nutritious perishable product having a short shelf-life owing to the occurrence of spoilage bacteria in it. This has led to an increasing demand for ensuring safety through milk processing. Conventional techniques (such as heat treatment) increase shelf-life but damage the nutritional and sensory qualities of milk. Hence, there is a need to develop innovative, nonthermal processing techniques that increase the shelf-life while preserving its nutritional quality. This review focuses on the recent advances in assuring microbial safety of milk by using nonthermal techniques such as high-pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, ultraviolet irradiation and membrane microfiltration.
  • Effect of vacuum packaging on artisanal goat cheeses during refrigerated storage Original Article

    FRAU, Florencia; CARATE, Jorge Nelson LEGUIZAMÓN; SALINAS, Florencia; PECE, Nora

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of vacuum packaging and storage time on physicochemical composition, fatty acid content, color, microbiological content and rheological behavior of artisanal fresh goat cheese during refrigerated storage. The results show that both vacuum packaging and storage time had an influence on moisture content, color variation and rind formation, obtaining better visual appearance and higher moisture content in vacuum packed cheeses. The packaging also positively influenced the rheological study, observing that the vacuum packed cheeses at the end of the study exhibited a behavior similar to that of the cheeses at time 0. Vacuum packaging of artisanal goat cheeses represents the possibility of preserving the cheeses for a longer time and thus increasing their shelf life. On the other hand, the decrease in moisture loss also represents an economic benefit for producers.
  • Evaluation of nutritional, color and volatiles properties of currant (Ribes spp.) cultivars in Turkey Original Article

    EKSI KARAAGAC, Hacer; CAVUS, Filiz; KADIOGLU, Burcu; UGUR, Nagihan; TOKAT, Emre; SAHAN, Yasemin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, the properties of nutritional, color and volatile organic compounds of currant varieties (Ribes spp.) in Turkey were investigated. A total of 125 different volatile organic compounds were identified with GC-QTOF/MS. The levels of protein, sugar fractions, dietary fibre, ascorbic acid and minerals of the currant fruits were found to be different between varieties. Ascorbic acid content ranged from 169.33 to 725.52 mg/100 g dry weight. The K, Ca and Mg minerals were found to be in high amount in all varieties. Total dietary fibre levels were found between 7.17 (Red Lake) and 9.90 g/100 g dw (Rosenthal). The common volatiles found in all cultivars were ocimene, carene, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-terpinene, benzaldehyde and piperonal. ‘Rosenthal’ and ‘Goliath’ displayed large differences in the volatile fraction which allow for their discrimination in the PCA (principal component analysis) plot.
  • Antimutagenic bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate isolated from octopus (Paraoctopus vulgaris) Original Article

    CRUZ-RAMÍREZ, Susana-Gabriela; LÓPEZ-SAIZ, Carmen-María; ROSAS-BURGOS, Ema-Carina; CINCO-MOROYOQUI, Francisco-Javier; VELÁZQUEZ, Carlos; HERNÁNDEZ, Javier; BURGOS-HERNÁNDEZ, Armando

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the present study, the antimutagenic activity of methanolic (MP) and hexanic (HP) phase from hexane-soluble extract of Paraoctopus vulgaris was evaluated. The HP showed significant concentration-dependent antimutagenic activity (p < 0.05) in the Ames assay against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 tester strains. Seven fractions (F1-F7) were obtained from HP by silica gel-column chromatography and the antimutagenic activity of F6 and F7 caused significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of AFB1-induced revertants in both strains. However, high antimutagenic activity was exhibited in TA98 strain (85-97% reversion inhibition) and remained at a fraction-concentration of 3 μg/mL. F6 and F7 composition was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array, both fractions shared one peak at 9.42 min suggesting presence of the same compound. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analysis results indicate that the bioactive compound is bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Based on of these results bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exhibit antimutagenic activity, which allows to consider it for further investigation as a potential chemopreventive compound.
  • Highly selective enrichment of aflatoxin B1 from edible oil using polydopamine-modified magnetic nanomaterials Original Article

    SHENG, Jianguo; ZUO, Jingjing; LIU, Kejie; MA, Lei; LI, Chao; LI, Yaqi; KONG, Dezhao

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic mycotoxin that enters the human body through the food chain and poses a serious threat to human health. In this paper, polydopamine (PDA)-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PDA MNPs) were prepared by the co-precipitation method to enrich aflatoxin from edible oil. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to characterize the Fe3O4@PDA MNPs. Using the obtained Fe3O4@PDA MNPs as an adsorbent, a simple method for enriching AFB1 from samples by magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with fluorescence rapid detection was developed. The effects of the ratio of Fe3O4 MNPs to PDA, adsorption dosage, sample volume, adsorption time, and elution time on enrichment of AFB1 were investigated to determine the optimal experimental conditions. This method has good intraday and daytime precision.
  • Impact of alternative sanitizers on the physicochemical quality, chlorophyll content and bioactive compounds of fresh vegetables Original Article

    COSWOSCK, Kaio Henrique Cesconetto; GIORGETTE, Mylena Augustinho; LEPAUS, Bárbara Morandi; SILVA, Erika Madeira Moreira da; SENA, Geralda Gillian Silva; AZEVEDO, Mariana Corrêa de Almeida; SÃO JOSÉ, Jackline Freitas Brilhante de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sanitization solutions on the physicochemical characteristics of strawberries, cucumbers, and rocket leaves. In each procedure, 200 g of the sample was immersed in 1 L of sanitizing solution for 5 minutes. Strawberries, cucumbers and rocket leaves were sanitized with acetic, and lactic acid (1% and 2%), hydrogen peroxide (3%), sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (200 mg/L). Samples not submitted to sanitization were used as controls. The values of pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C content, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity were directly analyzed, and chlorophyll (SPAD Index) was indirectly analyzed. Sanitized strawberries and cucumbers presented no significant difference (p > 0.05) in pH values, total titratable acidity, and total soluble solids/total titratable acidity ratio compared with un-sanitized samples. Vitamin C content was preserved in samples treated with sodium hypochlorite. All vegetables maintained their total phenolic compounds after sanitization treatments. The proposed treatments did not alter the physicochemical characteristics of the samples.
  • Effects of various chemical decontaminants on Salmonella Typhimurium survival in chicken carcasses Original Article

    AGIRDEMIR, Okan; YURDAKUL, Ozen; KEYVAN, Erhan; SEN, Erdi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most common foodborne pathogens isolated from poultry meat. The goal of this study was to investigate S. Typhimurium survival in broiler carcasses exposed to ozone, lactic acid, sodium hypochlorite and levulinic acid. S. Typhimurium was inoculated into broiler carcasses, which were divided into eight treatment groups, including a positive and negative control group. After standardized bacterial culture methods, microbiological analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between the number of bacteria detected and the concentration and application time in all the treatment groups (p < 0.05). As compared with the control group, all the treatments were effective in terms of inactivation of S. Typhimurium. There was a significant decrease in the 1.5 ppm ozone treatment group (5 min and 15 min) as compared with that in the other chemical decontaminant groups (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in reduction of S. Typhimurium among the other treatment groups, irrespective of the treatment time (p > 0.05). Among the decontaminants, the most effective chemical solution was 3% LEV. The ozone treatment caused a lower logarithmic decrease in S. Typhimurium numbers at all treatment times as compared with that in the other treatment groups.
  • Biological effectiveness of organic and inorganic products for the management of Maconellicoccus hirsutus green in soursop crop Original Article

    CALIFA-ESTWICK, Therola; ROBLES-BERMÚDEZ, Agustín; CAMPOS, Octavio Jhonathan-Cambero; LUNA-ESQUIVEL, Gregorio; ISIORDIA-AQUINO, Néstor

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The pink mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green is a pest of economic importance in various crops around the world. The objective was to determine the biological effectiveness of organic and inorganic products for the management of M. hirsutus in the soursop crop. The experiment was carried out in the communities of “Lima de Abajo” and “El Capomo”, in the municipality of Compostela, Nayarit, Mexico, during the period from September to November 2018 and from July to August 2019. The treatments were Ara3, Inter-a-ch-c, Evolution, a complex of plant extracts (Capsicum chinense + Allium sativum + Allium cepa + Artemisia absinthium), Mos Blanc® (Imidacloprid), farmers’ control (Detergent Blanca Nieves® + Sodium Hypochlorite Cloralex®) and the absolute control (Water). The nymphs and adult females of M. hirsutus were counted after each application, in young shoots. The results showed that in “Lima de Abajo”, Ara 3 registered the highest percentage of suppression after 28 days. In “El Capomo”, Imidacloprid recorded the greatest suppression after 28 days of application. In both communities, the treatments Ara 3, Evolution and Imidacloprid registered the least number of living individuals. The results indicated that Ara 3 and Evolution were the most promising alternatives in the management against M. hirsutus in the crop.
  • Ameliorative effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed on type 2 diabetes Original Article

    REHMAN, Muhammad Haseeb ur; AHMAD, Asif; AMIR, Rai Muhammad; AMEER, Kashif; ALI, Shinawar Wasim; Siddique, Farzana; Hayat, Imran; AHMAD, Zaheer; Faiz, Farrukh

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The hyperglycaemia defines features of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which is a real time problem and poses a significant economic burden on the globe and is spreading like an epidemic. Currently it affects 384 million people on the globe and this number is expected to reach 592 million in 2035 as reiterated by International Diabetes Federation (IDF). By improving the quality of diet and decreasing the intake of sugary foods T2DM can be treated. Fenugreek seeds powder in sachet form of 20 g/day used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus as a natural supplement. Anthropometric parameters of height, weight, age and BMI of T2DM patient was also calculated. In this study patients from Rawalpindi and Islamabad region were selected for study purpose. Blood sugar levels such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), random blood glucose (RBG), and HbA1c of both the groups (treated and control) were taken at baseline, after one month and at the end of study. When fenugreek seeds were given to T2DM patients significant decrease in their glucose levels were seen after 30 and then 60 days of treatment.
  • Raw milk cheese as a potential infection source of pathogenic and toxigenic food born pathogens Original Article

    CARDOZO, Marita Vedovelli; NESPOLO, Natalia; DELFINO, Tammy Chioda; ALMEIDA, Camila Chioda de; PIZAURO, Lucas José Luduverio; VALMORBIDA, Mylena Karoline; PEREIRA, Natália; ÁVILA, Fernando Antônio de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The consumption of raw milk cheese has been growing worldwide with S. aureus and E. coli been the leading agents in food poisoning. The present work aims to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw milk cheeses commercialized in Brazil, regarding microbiology safety and enterotoxin gene presence. Forty-three raw milk cheeses samples from five different suppliers were analyzed. Counting and identification of S. aureus, E. coli and Salmonella spp were performed according to BAM from the FDA. Further S. aureus identification was performed by the cydB and Salmonella spp by the invA gene. S. aureus toxin genes (sea, seb, sec, see, ses, seh and sei) and E. coli gene LT, STa, Stb, stx1, stx2, eae, rmpA, wabG, mrkD, kfu, mcgA, fimH and uge were analysed. From the 43 samples analyzed, 18 presented S. aureus with two isolates positive for the tst gene, two for the sec gene, two for the seh gene and four for the sei gene. Thirty-five E. coli and seven. Salmonella spp isolates were obtained. E. coli isolates harbored sta and stx2 genes. The results revealed that raw milk cheeses sold can cause harm consumer's health and highlights the importance of adoption good hygienic-sanitary practices and consumers awareness.
  • Development of an extruded food product similar to fried potatoes, based on by-products of potatoes and rice. physicochemical and microbiological evaluation Original Article

    ALMENDARES CALDERÓN, Laura; GARCÍA MENA, Verónica Alejandra; ROMÁN MIRANDA, José Manuel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The FAO and the OMS have warned on the high risk to health from the consumption of fried food due to their high energy density (fats) which leads to obesity, heart problems and the development of toxic compounds, like acrylamide, produced in frying oils. Chile has high obesity indices in adults, who affect 25.1% of the population. A fundamental cause is the increasing consumption of trashed food, like fried potatoes as an inevitable component. This is due mainly to the fact that fats and carbohydrates activate areas of the brain related to pleasure, leading to addiction. In this paper deals with an extruded food product similar to fried potatoes in configuration and organoleptic characteristics; made with raw materials of low commercial value. This product is aimed at producing a food similar to fried potatoes, but with low oil absorption capacity during frying, allowing to offer a healthier alternative to the population. The oil absorption for the samples submitted in both extrusions, were lower than in the commercial product. This fact presents the challenge of obtaining a prototype that generates a lower absorption of oil, realizing the changes that are already glimpsed with the preliminary tests carried out.
  • Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) of three different cultivation systems Original Article

    NEGRÃO, Leonardo Dias; SOUSA, Paulo Víctor de Lima; BARRADAS, Ana Maria; BRANDÃO, Amanda de Castro Amorim Serpa; ARAÚJO, Marcos Antônio da Mota; MOREIRA-ARAÚJO, Regilda Saraiva dos Reis

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Lettuce is a vegetable most consumed and produced on a large scale in the world, it deserves special attention for its nutritional and functional value. Cultivated in the conventional, hydroponic and organic method, it presents different characteristics in production, which may influence the composition of this vegetable. It is indisputable that regular consumption of vegetables is beneficial due to the presence of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties that protect and promote human health. In this study, the total phenolic compound, flavonoid, and tannin contents, as well as the antioxidant activities of lettuce samples from conventional, hydroponic, and conventional cultivars were analyzed. An extract was prepared using 80% acetone. The contents of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins were determined. The antioxidant activity was determined by the radical capture method using DPPH. It was observed that the organic cultivation system had the highest values ​​of ash, protein, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity, followed by the hydroponic system. The organic system presented greater protein content and higher content of bioactive compounds, justifying the high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the organic farming system favors the highest concentration in the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity.
  • Histological studies of the muscle tissue of the bactrian camel meat in the process of autolysis Original Article

    KAIMBAYEVA, Leila; KENENBAY, Shynar; DIKHANBAEVA, Fatima; TNYMBAEVA, Bagimkul; KAZIHANOVA, Saule

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of the study is to conduct targeted histological examination on the processing of camel meat to create technologies for new meat products. The objects of the examination were samples of the quadriceps femoris from three male Bactrian camels at the age of 5 years, obtained during slaughter at a meat processing enterprise in the Almaty region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Selected muscle tissue samples were fixed in 10% solution of neutral formalin. Conducted microstructural studies allowed to establish the patterns of morphological changes in the muscle tissue of camel after slaughter. It was established: the absence of transverse striation, slit-like violations of the integrity of muscle fibres, as well as nuclear lysis. It was concluded that in order to develop the technology of quality meat products from camel meat, scientifically-based methods and modes of processing, the use of intensive methods of mechanical processing and effective methods of salting are necessary.
  • Enterobacteriaceae in calves, cows and milking environment may act as reservoirs of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes Original article

    ALMEIDA, Camila Chioda de; FINANCI, Thaylane Paula; CARDOZO, Marita Vedovelli; PIZAURO, Lucas Jose Luduverio; PEREIRA, Natalia; VALMORBIDA, Mylena Karoline; BORZI, Mariana Monezi; WEISS, Bruno; ÁVILA, Fernando Antônio de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes and clonal profile of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from calves, cows, feeding buckets and the milk bucket. A a total of 31 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from calves (6), milk bucket (6), feeding buckets (6) and from cows’ rectum (13) were used. The presence of LT, STa, STb, STx1, STx2, eae, rmpA, wabG, mrkD, kfu, mcgA, fimH and uge as well as the antimicrobial resistance genes: AmpC MOX, FOX, MIR, ACT, DHA, ACC, CTX-M-1, CTX-M2, TEM KPC and MCR-1 and SH were evaluated by PCR. The LT toxin gene were detected in five isolates (16.1%) and the mrkD gene was detected in three isolates (9.0%). The CTX-M-1 gene was detected in 13 isolates (41.9%), CTX-M-2 in five isolates (16.1%) and ACC-M in four isolates (12.9%). Most of the isolates obtained demonstrated, resistance to cephalothin (87.5%), ampicillin, (87.5%) and streptomycin (84.3%) with multidrug resistance observed in all isolates. Isolates from bucket and cow’s rectum, calves and milk bucket, calf and cow’s rectum shared the same pulsotypes. These findings may suggest that enterobacteria carring virulence and resistance genes may persist in the environment and became a reservoir of these genes.
  • Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of goats reared on organic rationing in Karakoram region Original Article

    FAIZ, Furukh; QUEEN, Farzana; AMIR, Rai Muhammad; AHMAD, Asif; AHMAD, Zaheer; AMEER, Kashif; ARSHAD, Muhammad; HAYAT, Imran; QASIM, Shahnawaz; KABIR, Khurram

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Goat meat is consumed all over the world because of its nutritional profile and delicacy. It is produced in all areas of Pakistan but the meat produced in the Karakoram region of the Pakistan is mostly organic and the animals are fed on the natural vegetation having nutrition benefits for humans. In current study, goats were reared on the different systems having natural flora of alfalfa and grass hey (MS I) sea buckthorn (MS II), Russian Olive (MS III) and the mix ration of sea buckthorn and Russian olive (MS IV). The animals were reared for 6 months and after slaughtering evaluated for fatty acids, physiochemical, microbiological and the sensory evaluation of the smoked meat. It has been observed that the meat has microbiological quality on acceptable degrees, fatty acid profile of the meat was best for MS IV, mineral and sensory characteristics, color and physical properties for all treatments remained non-significant. The basic choice for health-conscious consumer is on the profile of fatty acids in the meat so on the basis of data it could be suggested that the meat fed on the sea buck thorn and Russian olive is best among all treatments.
  • Antimicrobial activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus mycocins against strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from meats Original Article

    CALAZANS, Graciela Fernandez; SILVA, Jessica Cassia da; DELABENETA, Mateus Foltz; PARIS, Ana Paula; YASSUDA, Paulino; AULER, Marcos Ereno; MENOLLI, Rafael Andrade; PAULA, Claudete Rodrigues; SIMÃO, Rita de Cássia Garcia; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is among the major pathogens involved in food poisoning, and meat contaminated with S. aureus coagulase positive is considered a public health risk because the bacterium is resistant to several conventional antimicrobials. Mycocins are substances produced by yeasts that secrete glycoproteins, which can also be called toxin killers, they have an inhibitory action on other microorganisms. The Wickerhamomyces anomalus, is one of the microorganisms capable of producing these mycocins, resulting in the action of disturbances on the cell wall of the pathogen causing deleterious effects. This work aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the mycocins produced by W. anomalus WA45 against the 29 strains of S. aureus coagulase positive isolated from bovine, porcine and chicken meat and 1 standard strain. The antimicrobial action of the mycocins present on the culture supernatant of W. anomalus WA45 was tested by microdilution and the results were satisfactory, since 100% inhibition of strains of S. aureus coagulase positive. We concluded that the mycocins present in the supernatant of W. anomalus WA45 showed antimicrobial action, being candidates for the development of new products for the biocontrol and bioconservation of meat.
  • Impact of organic certification on the price of ready-to-drink fruit nectars and juices Original Article

    TAVARES, Victor de Souza; PEREZ, Ronaldo; STRINGHETA, Paulo César; BRAGA, Gustavo Bastos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Several studies indicate that the consumer market considers the price of organic foods to be significantly high and attribute this fact as one of the main restrictive aspects for starting the consumption of organic foods or even increasing their frequency. Given this scenario, the present study is proposed as a way to confirm such a perception. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to evaluate if the price of organic is higher than conventional in the market of ready-for-consumption juices and nectars, using samples collected in Brazil and France. For this, the hedonic price methodology was applied, using as variables the information described on ready-to-drink processed juices/nectars marketed in Brazil and France. The results of the study confirm that organic version is more expensive, with the price being approximately 50% higher in the Brazilian market, and 10% higher in France. Additional attributes, such as type of packaging, pulp content, and flavor, are also relevant for the price. This is believed to be the first study to evaluate the impact on price of the organic certification of ready-for-consumption juices and nectars in different consumer markets.
  • Nigella sativa ameliorates oxidative stress induced adverse effects in rodent modeling studies: Indices of serum chemistry and hematology Original Article

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Aslam, Farhan; Rasool, Bilal; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Tariq, Hafiza Bushra; Afzal, Muhammad Inam; Rehman, Habib-ur; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this era, various traditional medicinal herbs were researched for their toxicological and safety aspects. The present study focused on using Nigella sativa fixed (NSFO) and essential oil (NSEO) to mitigate the adverse consequences of oxidative stress. For the purpose, oxidative stress was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using potassium bromate injection. The effect of NSFO and NSEO on indices of serum chemistry and hematology were studied. The results indicated that potassium bromate imparted drastic changes in serum chemistry and hematology e.g. it increased the blood cholesterol and blood glucose along with decreasing the insulin secretion. Oxidative stress also influenced the hematological attributes negatively but experimental diets were slightly successful in normalizing the values. The experimental diets especially essential oil that contains significant quantities of thymoquinone modulated the adverse consequences of oxidative stress with special reference to hematology and serological attributes. In the nutshell, NSFO and NSEO hold potential to mitigate the oxidative stress, and improved various serological and hematological attributes.
  • Row orientation effects on chemical composition and aromatic profile of Syrah winter wines Original Article

    MOTA, Renata Vieira da; PEREGRINO, Isabela; SILVA, Camila Pinheiro Carvalho; RAIMUNDO, Ricardo Henrique Paulino; FERNANDES, Fernanda de Paula; SOUZA, Claudia Rita de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sunlight and heating influence leaf and grape metabolism and therefore wine quality. As a recent management tool, no information exists on the effects of grapevine row orientation on the wine composition of Syrah vines within the context of double pruning management, a technique used to transfer the grape harvest from the wet summer to the dry winter season. This is a first attempt to investigate the wine composition from north-south- (NS) and east-west- (EW) oriented Syrah winter vines. EW wine samples had higher total acidity, residual sugars, alcohol and color hue, whereas NS wines exhibited higher content of color intensity, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total phenolic index, ashes and pH. The identification of volatile compounds was tentatively performed and demonstrated the presence of alkanes, volatile phenols and alkyl sulfide in NS wines, while butyrolactone and beta-damascenone were found mainly in EW wines. Row orientation contributed to wine composition and could be used as a management tool for obtaining individual wine styles.
  • Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from commercial yoghurt starter cultures Original Article

    YERLIKAYA, Oktay; SAYGILI, Derya; AKPINAR, Asli

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This research investigated the antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibilities of nine Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and nine Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from commercial yoghurt cultures. The antimicrobial activities of overnight culture strains against Bacillus cereus CECT 131, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11351, Candida albicans ATCC 14053, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600 were investigated using the disc diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance/susceptibility profiles of the strains were determined using antibiotic discs, which included ampicillin (10µg), ampicillin (25µg), bacitracin (10µg), clindamycin (2µg), clindamycin (10µg), erythromycin (10µg), erythromycin (15µg), gentamicin (10µg), gentamicin (120µg), nalidixic acid (30µ), neomycin (10µg), novobiocin (5µg), oxacillin (1µg), penicillin (10units), streptomycin (25µg), streptomycin (300µg), tetracycline (30µg) and vancomycin (30µg). The results of the study showed that while the Streptococcus thermophilus strain SY8, Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains LY6, LY8, LY9 and LY10 showed antimicrobial activity for all test microorganisms, Streptococcus thermophilus SY5 strains showed the weakest antimicrobial effect. All the Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were resistant to oxacillin (1μg) and nalidixic acid (30μg). Indeed, the highest antibiotic susceptibility was seen with antibiotics such as ampicillin (25μg), clindamycin (10μg) and erythromycin (15μg).
  • Hydration level significantly impacts the freezable - and unfreezable -water contents of native and modified starches Original Article

    GERÇEKASLAN, Kamil Emre

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The freezable- and unfreezable-water contents of corn and waxy corn starches (native, pregelatinized and retrograded) were analyzed at various hydration levels (25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85%) using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The unfreezable water contents and also the temperature of onset (To), peak (Tp) and endset (Te) of the peaks' in all samples were increased with increasing hydration level. Water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI) values of the pregelatinized and retrograded starch samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) than their native counterparts. RVA profiles revealed that modified starches had higher viscosity values than natural starches.
  • Effect of temperature and concentration of βeta-galactosidase on the composition of reduced lactose pasteurized goat milk Original Article

    ARAÚJO, Nkarthe Guerra; SILVA, José Barros da; MOREIRA, Ricardo Targino; CARDARELLI, Haíssa Roberta

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the influence of temperature and β-galactosidase concentration on lactose hydrolysis and on the composition of pasteurized goat milk. Goat milk was pasteurized at 75 °C/15 s and cooled to 10 °C and 30 °C, received 0 (control); 0.04%; 0.07%; 0.20% (v/v) β-galactosidase and was incubated for 5 h, followed by enzymatic inactivation at 85 °C. The hydrolysis degree, pH and acidity were evaluated hourly. Physico-chemical parameters were determined after hydrolysis. The maximum hydrolysis degree (100%) has been reached in 4 h when using 0.07% and 0.20% lactase concentrations at 30 °C; however, the minimum hydrolysis percentage of 70% has been reached at 10 °C for all lactase concentrations tested since 1 h of incubation. The degree of hydrolysis and the total acidity of pasteurized goat milk increased with temperature. Low lactase concentrations resulted in an increase in protein levels, total casein, density, total and defatted dry extract. Therefore, combination of low lactase levels and hydrolysis at 10 °C promoted positive changes in lactose-free pasteurized goat milk. This study was the first reporting the changes resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis in the composition of pasteurized goat milk.
  • Modeling mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of different vegetable structures under vacuum conditions Original Article

    JUNQUEIRA, João Renato de Jesus; CORRÊA, Jefferson Luiz Gomes; MENDONÇA, Kamilla Soares de; MELLO, Ronaldo Elias de; SOUZA, Amanda Umbelina

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Osmotic dehydration (OD) is a method to partially reduce moisture of food, aiming to improve the shelf life and the stability of the products. The mass transfer that occurs during this process can be enhanced with the application of reduced pressure in the first minutes of the osmotic dehydration (pulsed vacuum osmotic dehydration - PVOD). The present work aimed to study the vacuum effect on the kinetics of osmotic dehydration of vegetables (carrot, eggplant and beetroot) in terms of water loss, solids gain and water activity, in ternary solution. Moreover, mathematical modeling of experimental data obtained from the osmotic processes, was employed for correlating the mass transfer of the food product under the different conditions. An intensification of mass transfer was observed for carrot and eggplant in the vacuum treatments. This was related to their porous structure. The present work demonstrated a lack of fit of Fick’s second law for describing the dehydration kinetics of the eggplant.
  • Investigation of Listeria monocytogenes in workers, equipment and environments at Kaymak processing plants Original Article

    KARA, Recep; ASLAN, Savaş

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Listeria monocytogenes is a nutrient-borne pathogen spread to processed products such as vegetables, fruits and dairy products. Especially in the dairy industry, the presence of L. monocytogenes poses a major problem in milk, dairy products and dairy plants. Infection caused by this bacterium is a serious threat to individuals such as immunosuppressed patients, newborns, the elderly and pregnant women. In this study, the presence of L. monocytogenes in Afyonkarahisar/Turkey in the samples taken from plants that produce three different kaymak types was investigated. For this purpose, a total of 87 samples taken from the kaymak production plant, the surfaces of the equipment in this plant and the employees were examined according to the ISO 11290-1 protocol. According to the results of our study, L. monocytogenes was detected in 8.33% of the 36 samples taken from the processing plant and 16.66% of the total of 24 pieces of equipment in the processing plant. L. monocytogenes was not detected in the workers’ hands, aprons or boots at all three plants. When the results obtained are interpreted, it is understood that this may pose a significant risk to public health if the necessary precautions are not taken in production of cream.
  • Evaluation of anti anemic prospective of natural iron sources in lactating women- an ignored important segment of Pakistani population Original Article

    ABDULLAH, Muhammad; MAHMOOD, Shahid; AHMED, Zaheer

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Almost entire segment of expecting and breastfeeding mothers in Pakistan are severely affected by iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with predictable prevalence of 50% and as severe public health problem in lactating mothers, has worldwide pervasiveness. Commonly used synthetic iron sources provoke complications. Thus, food sources are preferred due to high bioavailability and sustainability. The present study was done on various natural and synthetic iron sources evaluated for proximate composition, mineral matter, sensory attributes and storage stability. The treatments were fed for 90 days and their efficacy was tested among anemic lactating women. The blood samples of 862 women were taken to examine their hemoglobin level and pertinent biomarkers. Hence, 37.00% volunteers were found to be anemic (Hb < 11 g/dL) and 67.71% women showed IDA problem. Finally, 200 volunteers were strewn arbitrarily into 4 groups. All treatments provided 50% RDA of iron. Dietary intakes and biochemical investigations of T2 group showed momentous improvement (P < 0.05) while linear variations were recorded in anthropometrics, liver function tests (LFTs) and renal function tests (RFTs). Study revealed that food iron sources are easily accessible, cheaper, safe and has more bioavailable iron in skirmishing IDA among lactating women on sustained basis.
  • Determination of malathion, chlorpyrifos, λ-cyhalothrin and arsenic in rice Original Article

    HAMID, Almas; YAQUB, Ghazala; AYUB, Mehak; NAEEM, Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Presented study focused on the incidence of pesticides: malathion, chlorpyrifos and λ-cyhalothrin and heavy metal, arsenic in the rice samples collected from the three main rice growing areas. 30 samples of brown Super Kernel Basmati rice and Super Basmati rice varieties, irrigated through tube well irrigation were selected. Highly sensitive and selective method of High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used for determination of pesticides. Results of analysis showed the presence of malathion in one sample in concentration of 18.26 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos in two samples in concentration of 3.3 mg/kg and 1.45 mg/kg respectively and λ-cyhalothrin in one sample in concentration of 1.848 mg/kg. Amount of pesticides detected in these samples were exceeding their maximum residual limits thus showed their strong potential to pose significant health risk. The presence of arsenic in rice was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and it was detected in 12 samples out of 30 in range of 0.04-0.28ppm. The detected arsenic concentration of arsenic in all samples was within the permissible limits set by WHO/FAO.
  • Comparison of models for describing weed: crop competition Original Article

    MARTÍNEZ, José Mansilla; BUENDÍA, María Raquel Picornell; PADILLA, Alfonso Domínguez; VALERO, José Arturo de Juan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to predict sugar beet yield reduction from weeds, obtained data was fitted to some non-linear regression functions. Two independent variables were selected for validating these functions: time and thermal time. The hypotheses of normality, homoscedasticity, independence of residuals, predictive capacity or goodness of fit with respect of the model, and diagnosis of the model, have been verified by means of residuals analysis for both independent variables. In early competition, a hyperbolic function was rejected due to the fact that some parameters seemed insignificant. However, the goodness of fit was similar to other functions. In late competition, some parameters were insignificant, but this hyperbolic function reaches the best goodness of fit. Comparing the validated functions, the logistical equation that includes the inflection point with independent variable time is the one that reaches the best results. The high flexibility of the model may allow the detection of special cases, and thus minimize risk. This study could be done anywhere in the world, as long as the mathematical model is adapted to the climate study area.
  • Qualitative properties of cookies enriched with berries pomace Original Article

    TARASEVIČIENĖ, Živilė; ČECHOVIČIENĖ, Indrė; JUKNIŪTĖ, Kotryna; ŠLEPETIENĖ, Alvyra; PAULAUSKIENĖ, Aurelija

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the qualitative properties of cookies with the addition of raspberry, red currants and strawberry pomace flour. Cookies were prepared by substitution of wheat flour with berry pomace flour (10%, 15% and 20%) and evaluated in terms of their proximate composition, physical characteristics, and functional and sensory properties. Berry pomace-supplemented cookies had significantly higher dietary fibre content and different fibre fractions NDF (neutral detergent fibre), ADF (acid detergent fibre), MADF (insoluble fibre fraction of modified acid detergent solution) as well as WSCs (water soluble carbohydrates) content. Correlation analysis results showed that cookie hardness was significantly correlated with dietary fibre content. The raspberry, red currant and strawberry flours contained 49.88%, 33.13% and 24.25% of dietary fibre, respectively. The colour of the cookies was measured using a Color Flex spectrophotometer. The average L*, a*, and b* values ranged from 37.35 to 68.29, from 7.08 to 13.18, and from 20.12 to 34.73, respectively.
  • Synergistic effects of unripe raspberry extracts (Rubus chingii) and antibiotics against three bacteria Original Article

    JIANG, Huichuan; YANG, Jing; FAN, Yanling; LIU, Yongping

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dried unripe raspberries (Rubus chingii), a kind of Chinese herbal medicine, have been used for many years in China. They were prepared as unpurified raspberry extract (URE) by ethanol extraction, and purified raspberry extract (PRE) by macroporous resin. Synergistic effects between the URE (or the PRE) and ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline or streptomycin against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica were carried out using checkerboard microdilution and time-kill curves, respectively. The results showed that all pairwise combinations revealed synergistic effects, with 0.10 ≤ fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤ 0.50 and more than 2 × log10 reduction in colony-forming units/mL. In particular, the erythromycin concentration in the combinations was reduced to 1/50-1/100 of its dose alone while retaining its effectiveness against S. aureus and E. coli. The synergistic effects of raspberry extracts and four antibiotics against three bacteria were related to the abundance of polyphenols in the extracts, especially ellagic acid. The extracts may be a dietary supplement and/or natural antimicrobials.
  • Smart film of jackfruit seed starch as a potential indicator of fish freshness Original Article

    COSTA, Leandro Araújo da; DIÓGENES, Izaura Cirino Nogueira; OLIVEIRA, Marília de Albuquerque; RIBEIRO, Sádwa Fernandes; FURTADO, Roselayne Ferro; BASTOS, Maria do Socorro Rocha; SILVA, Maria Aparecida Santiago; BENEVIDES, Selene Daiha

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Smart film from jackfruit seeds containing anthocyanin extract has potential application as a freshness indicator of fish as they deteriorate, changing the color as a function of the product pH. The lower solubility percentage of the films was evidenced by the lower anthocyanin extract volume. The films presented mean water vapour permeability values of 3.034 g.mm/kPa.h.m2. The starch/anthocyanin film (ST4.0:AN5.0) showed higher tensile strength, while ST2.4:AN5.0 and ST3.0:AN5.3 showed lower resistance. A small change in color in the films was evidenced after 48 hours, and fish (FF10) presented a blue color after 146 hours with a reduction in a* values. Shrimp (SF10) presented negative b* values and grayish color. The indicator film provides an alternative for a convenient, non-destructive and easy-to-view method, as well as informing consumers about the quality of the packaged product. The indicator function of the film was positive, suggesting the potential use of industry co-products in developing smart food freshness indicator packaging.
  • Ethanolic extract from Capsicum chinense Jacq. ripe fruits: phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and development of biodegradable films Original Article

    SANTOS, Larissa Sousa; FERNANDES, Cassia Cristina; SANTOS, Lauriane Sousa; DEUS, Isabella Pelosi Borges de; SOUSA, Tainara Leal de; MIRANDA, Mayker Lazaro Dantas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Capsicum spp. pepper has great economic and social importance in agribusiness worldwide, mainly associated with its high performance in cookery as a spice. This study aimed at determining the chemical profile of the ethanolic extract from Capsicum chinense Jacq. (EECC) ripe fruits by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and at evaluating its antioxidant activity by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. Besides, biodegradable films were prepared by incorporating EECC into arrowroot biofilms. LC-MS identified 10 phenolic compounds, a fact that corroborates its high concentration of total phenolic compounds, i. e., 277.62 ± 12.06 mg gallic acid/100g crude extract. High antioxidant activity of EECC was expressed as IC50 values for reagents DPPH (IC50 = 18.04 µg/mL), ABTS (IC50 = 25.33 µg/mL) and FRAP (IC50 = 128.58 µg/mL). Biodegradable films incorporating different doses of EECC (250-1000 µL) were obtained by a casting technique. The higher the EECC concentration, the higher their thickness, color, variable moisture content and the lower their solubility. This study proposes a new use to the plant extract from C. chinense, a natural product that may be applied to the development of biofilms to coat food and retard its deterioration. In addition, antioxidant activity of this type of pepper is also shown.
  • The screening of Digitalis ferruginea L. subsp. ferruginea for toxic capacities, phenolic constituents, antioxidant properties, mineral elements and proximate analysis Original Article

    KASKA, Arzu; DENIZ, Nahide; ÇIÇEK, Mehmet; MAMMADOV, Ramazan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present study outlines the antioxidant and toxic activity, total phenol, flavonoid and tannin content of Digitalis ferruginea’s extracts in addition to evaluating its proximate parameters and mineral elements. Successive extraction was made using different solvents (ethanol, acetone, water). Total phenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent method and flavonoid was determined by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The antioxidant activities were investigated using different assays. The phenolics were determined using HPLC. In addition an evaluation was made of the proximate parameters and mineral elements. The radical scavenging capacities were highest in the water extract. The same extract was effective in total antioxidant activities (β-carotene, 83.75%). The acetone extract demonstrated stronger reducing power and phosphomolybdenum antioxidant activity with 0.52 mg/mL and, 107.43 µg/mg, respectively. The HPLC results determined major phenolics: rutin and ferulic acid. This plant also have rich in polyphenolic content together with toxic activity and possesses nutrients and mineral elements. As well as demonstrating the good antioxidant activity of D. ferruginea this study suggest that the plant could be of particular interest from a practical perspective, as it is a significant source of potential natural antioxidants that can be used for the prevention of a range of diseases.
  • Comparison of chemical properties, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic acids of autoclaved and unautoclaved ground mustard seeds Original Article

    GÖK, Veli; ÇAĞLAR, Muhammed Yusuf; TOMAR, Oktay

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This present research, the proximate analyses, the antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of Sinapis alba (yellow mustard seed), Brassica nigra (black mustard seed), Brassica juncea (brown mustard seed) and their autoclaved samples were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of mustard seeds was analysed by examining antiradical activity, Fe2+ chelating activity, H2O2 scavenging and total phenolics. The mustard seeds were autoclaved to inhibit myrosinase activity. The level of antioxidant capacity and the phenolics of the mustard seeds were increased with autoclave treatment. The antiradical activity of mustard seeds were determined ACL×YM (0.810) followed by ACL×BRM (0.750), UNACLxYM (0.680), UNACLxBRM (0.600), ACLxBLM (0.590) and UNACLxBLM (0.450) types respectively (P < 0.05).
  • Evaluation of sterol composition in different formulations of cocoa milk as milk fat purity indicator Original Article

    ZARABADIPOUR, Fatemeh; PIRAVI-VANAK, Zahra; AMINIFAR, Mehrnaz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Based on available national standards, the level of phytosterols in cocoa milk should not exceed 3% of sterol compounds. The aim of this study is to control the quality of the product and evaluate the sterol composition application as an indicator of cocoa milk fat authentic. Therefore, the first part of the present study aimed to examine the sterol composition of ingredients, including milk, cocoa powders. For this purpose, the level of phytosterols in products determined. After the preparation of samples, their sterol composition examined using gas chromatography. Results showed that the level of cholesterol and phytosterols in milk was 99.24 and 0.76, respectively. The examination of the sterol profile of cocoa powder revealed that the largest portion of sterol compounds belongs to beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol have the highest level among sterol compounds, respectively. In the second part of this study, the effect of adding various amounts (2, 5, and 8%) cocoa powders was examined on the level of phytosterols in milk due to determine the optimal amount of these compounds to observe standard ranges. As expected, by increasing the percentage of cocoa powders in the formulation of cocoa milk, the level of phytosterols increased.
  • Fatty acid composition, cardiovascular functionality, thermogravimetric-differential, calorimetric and spectroscopic behavior of pequi oil (Caryocar villosum (Alb.) Pers.) Original Article

    LORENZO, Natascha Dantas; SANTOS, Orquídea Vasconcelos dos; LANNES, Suzana Caetano da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this investigation was to determine the composition and fatty acids profile of pequi (Caryocar villosum (Alb.) Pers.) oil, as well as its functionality in cardiovascular health, thermogravimetric-differential, calorimetric and spectroscopic behavior. The methodology used followed the standards established by the American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS). The results show oil with high nutritional value with predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (70%), especially oleic acid (52.67%) and linoleic acid (15.20%). The oil functionality indexes were expressed as cardiovascular protectors with low atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes (0.38 and 0.75) with a high hypocholesterolemic ratio (2.58). The oil pattern in the spectral bands 2980 to 2870cm-1 confirmed the predominance of unsaturated fatty acids with prominent peaks corresponding to double bonded chemical groups bands. The oil behavior under progressive temperature rises in an air atmosphere, supports the potential applications of this fruit by-product, that exhibits high thermal and oxidative stability with reduced mass loss at temperatures (267 °C and 376 °C) above those habitually used in food and industrial uses. These data show that unconventional fruits can increase and diversify the number of ingredients that can be used in food preparations and in the food, pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic, biofuel and other industries.
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