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Food Science and Technology, Volume: 41, Issue: 4, Published: 2021
  • Methods for gas permeability measurement in edible films for fruits and vegetables: a review Review Article

    SÁNCHEZ-TAMAYO, Martha Isabel; PASOS, Carlos VÉLEZ; OCHOA-MARTÍNEZ, Claudia Isabel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Permeability is a crucial parameter to describe the transport rate of a gas under pressure gradient, relevant to gas molecule movement in pores. The gas permeability of edible film, used on fresh or minimally processed fruits and vegetables, is an important parameter because it directly affects the product’s respiration rate and metabolic activity. The present study summarizes the principal methods for gas permeability measurement in edible films, considering methods developed at laboratory scale and the methods of the American Society for Testing and Materials Standards (ASTM), some of which have been adapted for edible films. The methods are classified as follows: gravimetric, differential pressure, and continuous flow. Gas permeability results depend heavily on the procedure achieved and laboratory conditions employed, as well as the preconditioning of the films before the tests.
  • ERRATUM: Effect of Xiaoning liquid on gut microbiota in asthmatic mice by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing Erratum

  • Polysaccharide isolated from Korean-style soy sauce activates macrophages via the MAPK and NK-κB pathways Original Article

    SHIN, Kwang-Soon; SEO, Haesun; LEE, Sue Jung; SUNG, Sooyun; HWANG, Dahyun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Soy sauce is a staple fermented food in Korea, however, there are relatively limited studies on soy sauce in Korea compared to that in Japan. In this study, the immuno-stimulating activities are compared in polysaccharides isolated from soy sauce in Korea and Japan. Crude polysaccharides was isolated, and which were named as Korean-style soy sauce (KSS-0) and Japanese-style soy sauce (JSS-0). Then, difference in cytokine production was compared in peritoneal macrophages, and KSS-0 showed higher cytokine production than JSS-0. The KSS-0 was purified into two polysaccharides, which were named as KSS-I and KSS-II. The polysaccharides consisted mainly galacturonic acid, xylose, and galactose. Out of the four polysaccharides isolated, KSS-II enhanced NO and cytokines production the most. Western blot analysis showed that KSS-II phosphorylated the MAPKs and nuclear factor NF-κB in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that KSS-II activates macrophages via the MAPK and NF-κB pathways, and also induces an increase in the cytokine production. In conclusion, the polysaccharides isolated from Korean soy sauce have better immune-stimulating activities than those from Japan and may be used as potential functional foods.
  • Ethylene and its inhibitors affect the quality of processed sweet potatoes Original Article

    LIMA, Paula Cristina Carvalho; SANTOS, Mirelle Nayana de Sousa; GUIMARÃES, Maria Eduarda da Silva; ARAÚJO, Nícolas Oliveira de; KRAUSE, Marcelo Rodrigo; FINGER, Fernando Luiz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sweet potato fried chips have great acceptance and high market value. Sprouting and fresh mass loss of tuberous roots during storage compromise the quality of the processed products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA), and ethylene on the physico-chemical quality of fresh sweet potato and its relationship with fried color score in processed chips of cv. BRS Rubissol stored at room temperature. During storage, the weight loss, sprouts number, dry matter content, non-enzymatic browning, protein content, soluble phenols fraction, reducing sugars, total amino acids, pH, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA) and SS/TA ratio were evaluated. The sweet potato roots cv. BRS Rubissol present good potential for processing as fried chips. 1-MCP and AOA treatments reduced the root sprouting, physico-chemical quality was maintained in all treatments and the fried chips showed less browning in all treatments with storage. Since the sprouting process compromises the storage of roots, AOA and 1-MCP treatments may be applied to extend the shelf-life of roots and improve the processing potential.
  • Analgesic effect of ginger and peppermint on adolescent girls with primary dysmenorrhea Original Article

    SULTAN, Sana; AHMED, Zaheer; AFREEN, Asma; RASHID, Farhat; MAJEED, Fatima; KHALID, Nauman

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Present study was aimed to explore the impact of ginger and peppermint in adolescents suffering with primary dysmenorrhea. For that purpose, 150 adolescents, aged 13-22 years, with regular menstruation suffering with moderate to severe dysmenorrhea (scoring 3-5 on pain scale) and preferably not taking any medication were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups i.e. control, ginger and peppermint. Baseline data was collected with help of self-administered questionnaire. To determine comparative analgesic effect of ginger and peppermint, capsules were formulated, and each group received total number of 15 capsules in a month (3 capsules/day for consecutive 5 days). Compared with baseline data, ginger was found more effectual than peppermint in releasing dysmenorrhea i.e. observed scoring in case of ginger was reduced from mean value of 4.13 ± 0.63 to 2.10 ± 1.52 (p = 0.001). Similarly, ginger intervention exhibited gradual betterment of 10% in symptoms of dysmenorrhea but also affected blood pressure positively (p < 0.05). However, blood hemoglobin and serum calcium levels acted as independent variables in ginger and peppermint groups (p > 0.05), not affected by any mode of intervention. It was concluded that ginger exhibited superior impact in lowering pain as compared to peppermint and control groups.
  • Physiological impact of putrescine on Trigonella foenum-graecum L. growing under temperature stress Original Article

    OSMAN, Mohamed; EL-FEKY, Soad; SELIEM, Horia; ABO-HAMAD, Shaimaa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract It is important to determine the effect of the rapid environmental changes on plant physiological processes which were reflected on plant production and find the ways to alleviate their effects. This study was performed to study the role of putrescine in ameliorating the harmful effects induced by temperature stress. Priming treatment was applied to Trigonella by soaking the seeds in 5mM putrescine before exposure to the different temperature degrees (15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C or 40 °C). At the age of 120 days old some yield parameters and physiological processes were measured. The results indicated that, 15 °C, 35 °C or 40 °C significantly decreased the yield parameters, carbohydrates and soluble proteins. Amino acids and phenols are accumulated in seeds which is considered an acclimation mechanism of plant against temperature stress. The results also, indicated an increase in the total unsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in the thickness and intensity of the β-esterase isoforms in plant seeds subjected to 15 °C and 35 °C. Temperature stress affects the plant production and application of putrescine improves the harmful effects.
  • Conventional study and discussion on premature infants nursing essentials and feeding methods Original Article

    LI, Xingxia; WANG, Zhichao; ZHAO, Lingling

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Explore the nursing essentials and feeding methods for premature infants and their clinical effects. We selected 90 premature infants born in the neonatology department of our hospital over the past year, implemented the nursing measures combined with several nursing methods and reasonable and effective feeding methods according to the clinical manifestations of the premature infants, and observed the clinical effects. After a period of careful nursing, among these 90 premature infants, 2 infants died unfortunately, 4 infants abandoned the treatment, the remaining premature infants were discharged in good condition in all respects, could autonomously suck milk and reach the minimum daily suction volume, their weights increased to some extent, and their body temperatures could maintain normal under normal room temperature condition. According to the clinical experience, timely implementing the nursing measures combined with several nursing methods and reasonable and effective feeding methods to the premature infants can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality of premature infants, and improve the survival rate and living quality of the premature infants, so that it is suitable for clinical promotion.
  • Factors affecting buffalo Mozzarella cheese yield: a study using regression analysis Original Article

    SALES, Danielle Cavalcanti; URBANO, Stela Antas; LIMA JÚNIOR, Dorgival Morais de; GALVÃO JÚNIOR, José Geraldo Bezerra; BRITO, André F.; CIPOLAT-GOTET, Claudio; BORBA, Luís Henrique Fernandes; RANGEL, Adriano Henrique do Nascimento

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cheese production such as mozzarella is affected by several factors including the processing technology (e.g., cuts, fermentation, curd stretching), as well as quantity and quality of raw materials and other ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mozzarella cheese yield and buffalo milk composition, processing factors, and losses of whey constituents using polynomial regression and adjusted R2. All regression coefficients associated with each explanatory variable were significantly different from zero. The models explained an average of 99% of the variation in the dataset. The regression models showed that the concentration of milk components (e.g., fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids), somatic cell score, age and acidity of the starter culture, time between curd cuts, and percentage of lost whey constituents highly influenced the mozzarella cheese yield. The buffalo dairy industry should focus on rigorous control of milk quality and processing factors to standardize and optimize mozzarella cheese yield efficiency.
  • Impact of water temperature of chimarrão on phenolic compounds extraction Original Article

    SILVEIRA, Tayse Ferreira Ferreira da; MEINHART, Adriana Dillenburg; SOUZA, Thaís Cristina Lima de; CUNHA, Elenice Carla Emídio; MORAES, Maria Rosa de; LORINI, Alexandre; TEIXEIRA FILHO, José; GODOY, Helena Teixeira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the effect of water temperature (65 °C, 75 °C, 85 °C, 95 °C) on the concentration of caffeic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinc acid and rutin in chimarrão aqueous extracts prepared from two commercial types of yerba mate: traditional and coarse ground. The chimarrão preparation simulated the homemade process. Regardless of the temperature, aqueous extracts from the coarse ground had 60% more phenolic compounds than the traditional ones. In the extracts of coarse ground yerba mate the temperature of 95 °C favored the extraction of the compounds in relation to the other temperatures. For the traditional yerba mate extracts there was no difference regarding the temperature. The chlorogenic acids content in the chimarrão extracts is significantly higher than in other foods and beverages and represent an excellent contribution for chlorogenic acids intake.
  • Description of the antioxidant capacity of Calafate berries (Berberis microphylla) collected in southern Chile Original Article

    GUTIÉRREZ, Raúl SÁNCHEZ; PINCHEIRA, Carla GUZMÁN

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Berberidaceae family of shrubs has about 20 species present in Chile; however, the Calafate (Berberis microphylla) native to Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia, is the most widely distributed. The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity of Calafate collected at different locations in southern Chile, specifically Aysén and Magallanes. Methods: 2000 g of Calafate berries were harvested in both regions. The fruit was lyophilized for subsequent quantification of polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity. Results: All parameters evaluated were superior in the samples from Aysén. Conclusion: The results confirm the high content of polyphenolic compounds present in Calafate, with variations according to the geographical area where they grow. The higher antioxidant capacity of the fruit harvested in Aysén could be associated with the abiotic stress present in that location.
  • Proximal and sensory analysis of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fed with fish tanks sediments from a Biofloc culture Original Article

    DELGADO, Daniel Leonardo Cala; RUBIO, Caled Alvarez; QUIROZ, Victor Alexander Cueva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Feeding accounts for 50%-60% of production costs in fish farming, and alternative raw materials are used to lower production costs. These raw materials can alter nutritional values ​​and sensory aspects of the final product. The present study describes the results for the proximal composition, sensory, and microbiological analyses of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fed with a biofloc meal (fish sediment residue). The results showed that the red tilapia biofloc meal contained protein levels over 30%, with 3% nitrogen and 6% calcium. Fish fed biofloc meal showed productive performances within the ranges established for the species. Sensory analysis revealed that the cooked product’s appearance was very characteristic, presenting a slight metallic flavor and moderate juiciness. The bromatological composition analysis indicated that each 100g of tilapia contained 16 g of protein. Finally, the microbiological study guarantees compliance with the local tandards and confirms that the product does not contain significant levels of microorganisms that could cause foodborne diseases when consumed by humans. In conclusion, the use of biofloc meal at a small red tilapia farm proved to be a sustainable alternative for feeding Oreochromis sp.
  • The effects of different beehives on propolis production and quality Original Article

    KIZILTAS, Habip; ERKAN, Cengiz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of wood, styrofoam and plastic beehives on propolis production and phenolic content. In this study, propolis was obtained in three different periods as follows: before, during and after honey production. The yield and quality of the collected raw propolis samples were analyzed. Total phenolic (TP) content, total tannin (TT) content, total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and phenolic composition were determined as propolis quality parameters. The highest propolis production was determined in wood beehives, followed by styrofoam and plastic beehives in this study. The analysis of temporal propolis production demonstrated that 9.29 ± 11.37 g was produced in post-season, 2.88 ± 4.48 g was produced in the season, and 1.23 ± 0.80 g was produced in pre-season. Duncan and LSD multiple comparison tests, which were conducted to compare the hive groups and the collection periods, demonstrated that the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the highest TP and FRAP values were found in plastic beehives, suggesting that the propolis phenolic content and antioxidant capacity varied based on the hive type and collection period.
  • Optimization of the inulin aqueous extraction process from the açaí (Euterpe oleracea, Mart.) seed Original Article

    LIMA, Elaine Cristina de Souza; MANHÃES, Luciana Ribeiro Trajano; SANTOS, Edna Ribeiro dos; FEIJÓ, Márcia Barreto da Silva; SABAA-SRUR, Armando Ubirajara de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Inulin is a resistant fructooligosaccharide, synthesized by a wide variety of plants. Due to the importance of fibers intake and the high amount of residues of açaí, the objective of this study was to optimize the inulin extraction process from açaí seed flour (ASF) and subsequently, from this biomass, to develop inulin purification technology. Açaí seeds were dehydrated in a ventilated oven. Aiming the inulin extraction, from ASF, an aqueous extract was elaborated. It went through several stages of centrifugation and filtration with alcohol, acetone and water, until the constitution of a precipitate that was lyophilized. The analysis of the solvent concentrations effects and the precipitation temperatures on the responses was performed using the Designer Expert Program. A model with a response surface and contour was generated, allowing temperature, time and water: ASF relation selection, what provided the highest inulin concentrations, in other words, the extraction treatment with 80 °C and proportion of water: ASF of 4:1, for 20 minutes, presented the best performance. Although this extraction output is inferior when compared to other sources, it must be considered as relevant, since the açaí seed is evaluated as a waste product.
  • The benefits and harms of Chinese medicinal herbs for the treatment of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in adult patients Original Article

    LIU, Jialing; ZENG, Xiaoxi; LIN, Qizhan; HE, Weifeng; YE, Wei; YANG, Qianchun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective The aim of this review was to assess the benefits and harms of Chinese medicinal herbs for the treatment of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) in adult patients. Methods Our study included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We designed a strategy for searching the EMBASE, CENTRAL, PubMed, CBM, CNKI, and VIP. All studies were analyzed using the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook. All studies included were assessed the risk of bias. Review Manager ver. 5.3.5 was used for the data analysis. GRADE profiler was used to evaluate quality. Results Two studies were studied (74 Chinese participants were included). We found that compared with supportive therapies combined with specific therapies, Chinese medicinal formulae plus supportive therapies combined with specific therapies significantly reduced the serum creatinine levels (SCr; two studies, 62 participants: mean difference (MD), -145.93 μmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI), -236.75 to –55.11; I2=0%) and utilization number of methylprednisolone and prednisone (two studies, 74 participants: MD, -1.64 g; 95% CI, -1.87 to -1.40; I2=0%). Conclusion Our study suggested that there were insufficient evidences to confirm that the use of Chinese medicinal formulae for adults with RPGN was beneficial and safe.
  • Effects of herbal yogurt with fish collagen on bioactive peptides with angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity Original Article

    SHORI, Amal Bakr; YONG, Yeoh Shin; BABA, Ahmad Salihin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Illicium verum (IV; dried fruit), Psidium guajava (PG; dried leaves), and Curcuma longa (CL; dried rhizome) water extract and/or fish collagen were added into yogurt to determine their effects on acidification and the proteolysis of milk up to 21 days of storage at 4°C. The angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) test was conducted to analyze the inhibitory activity of bioactive peptides produced during proteolytic activity on the ACE enzyme. The addition of fish collagen in PG- yogurt significantly decreased pH compared to control on day 7 of storage. The presence of IV, PG, and CL enhanced (p<0.05) OPA peptide amount during 7 & 14 days of storage. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was shown on day 7 for all herbal yogurt. Herbal yogurt either in the presence or absence of fish collagen may improve the manufacture and formulation of yogurt with anti-ACE activity.
  • Use of encapsulated commercial enzyme in the hydrolysis optimization of cagaita pulp (Eugenia dysenterica DC) Original Article

    CARDOSO, Flávio de Souza Neves; CARVALHO, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; KOBLITZ, Maria Gabriela Bello; ORTIZ, Gisela Maria Dellamora

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC) is a Brazilian cerrado fruit with great economic potential and can be consumed in natura or as processed products like juices and pulps. The search for products with lower nutritional and sensorial changes led to the non-thermal techniques development where membrane processes stand out. The use of immobilized pectinolytic enzymes to reduce juices and pulps turbidity and viscosity has advantages over free enzymes such as enzyme reduction costs and reuse. The objective was the hydrolysis optimization of cagaita pulp with encapsulated pectinase, evaluation of reuse in cycles and application in microfiltration (MF). The free commercial enzymes and encapsulated activity in calcium alginate in pulp was evaluated, viscosity and turbidity reduction. The optimum hydrolysis with encapsulated enzymes conditions were temperature (30 °C), without stirring, enzymatic concentration (570 μL/L), considering clarity increment and viscosity reduction. After 8 cycles, encapsulated enzymes maintained 30% of its activity in reducing viscosity and reuse possibility. Microfiltration flow rate of hydrolyzed pulp with encapsulated enzymes was 13.4% higher than the nonhydrolyzed, indicating that enzymatic hydrolysis was efficient in time reduction. Encapsulated enzymes can be applied in juices and pulps as a pre-process for increasing the permeate flows, reducing operational and input costs.
  • Effects of chia seed on chemical properties and quality characteristics of regular and low-fat crackers Original Article

    DUNDAR, Ayşe Neslihan; AYDIN, Emine; YILDIZ, Elif; PARLAK, Ozen

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract As a direct consequence of understanding the importance of the relationship between health and food, the interest in healthy recipes has increased. In the present study, wheat flour was used to replace chia seed (CS) in the cracker formulation (control) at levels of 10, 20, and 30% (w/w) and fat content was reduced by 25, 50, and 75% for the production of low-fat crackers. The physicochemical, textural, sensorial properties of the crackers were investigated. It was determined that CS had high a dietary fiber (38.7%), protein (21.78%), and fat (28.69%) content. The cracker sample containing 25% fat and 30% chia seed had the highest amounts of protein (14.49%) and dietary fiber (16.70%). CS could provide positive effects on health in terms of its high fiber content and low carbohydrate value. Six different fatty acids (FAs) were determined in the cracker samples. By reducing fat and increasing chia seed amount; oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic increased compared to the control sample, whereas the palmitic acid amount decreased significantly. According to the sensorial evaluation, the crackers were acceptable. It was also determined that CS was a suitable supplementation for low-fat products.
  • Extraction of carrageenan from Eucheuma spinosum using ohmic heating: optimization of extraction conditions using response surface methodology Original Article

    HASIZAH, Andi; MAHENDRADATTA, Meta; LAGA, Amran; METUSALACH, Metusalach; SALENGKE, Salengke

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Seaweed is an important global commodity since it is the source of many important products such as carrageenans, agar, alginates, and bioactive compounds. Seaweed processing is an energy intensive process since it involves heating large volumes of seaweeds in alkali solutions at high temperatures for up to six hours. To increase energy efficiency, an ohmic based processing system has been developed but has not been tested thoroughly. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify optimum processing conditions for extraction of carrageenan from Eucheuma spinosum using ohmic heating technology. The experiment was conducted using Central Composite Design with four variables, i.e. extraction temperature, extraction duration, KOH concentration, and solution to seaweed ratio. Following the extraction process, carrageenan was recovered through precipitation using 90% isoprophyl alcohol solution. Results of experiments indicate that extraction yields varied from 29.6-62.4% dry basis with viscosity and gel strength varied from 259-290 mPa.s and 42.54-70.41 g/cm2 respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that extraction yield can be adequately modeled using the four variables and optimum extraction yield (61.59%), gel strength (53.48 g/cm2), and viscosity (284.51 mPa.s) were achieved at 95 °C extraction temperature, 240 minutes of extraction time, 0.4M KOH concentration, and 45:1 solution to seaweed ratio.
  • Factors affecting the consumption of organic and functional foods in Brazil Original Article

    MARTINS, Adalgisa Paula de Oliveira; BEZERRA, Maria de Fátima; MARQUES JÚNIOR, Sérgio; BRITO, André Fonseca de; URBANO, Stela Antas; BORBA, Luís Henrique Fernandes; MACÊDO, Cláudia Souza; OLIVEIRA, Juliana Paula Felipe de; RANGEL, Adriano Henrique do Nascimento

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this work was to investigate the factors which affect the consumption of organic foods enriched with functional properties. The study was developed by investigating the consumer profile of organic and functional foods by applying a questionnaire hosted on the Google Forms® platform (docs.google.com/forms/). The obtained results show that individuals in the age group 31 to 40 years old and those 51 and older, widowed, divorced and inhabitants of the Midwest, Southeast and South regions consume organic food more often. The education level did not influence the willingness to pay more for the purchase of an organic food, the consumption frequency or the interest in consuming organic food with functional potential. The interviewee group had a monthly income of up to R$4,686.00 (In Reais - 5 minimum monthly salaries) and showed a consumption frequency between “almost never” and “sometimes”, while those with an income higher than R$4,686.00 presented between “sometimes” and “often”. Residents of capital cities and from smaller cities showed similar behavior for all variables analyzed. We can conclude that the degree of confidence and the interest in consuming organic foods with functional potential were little influenced by socio-demographic differences.
  • Assessment of light intensity and salinity regimes on the element levels of brown macroalgae, Treptacantha barbata: Application of response surface methodology (RSM) Original Article

    AK, İlknur; ÇANKIRILIGİL, Ekrem Cem; TÜRKER, Gülen; SEVER, Onur

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this research, the effect of light intensity and salinity regimes on the element levels of Treptacantha barbata (formerly Cystoseira barbata) was studied, and the elemental compositions of this brown alga collected from wild stocks also compared with cultured ones. In culture trials, 11 different experiments that have ranges of light intensity as 50 to 150 µmol photon m-2s-1 and salinity as 24 ‰ to 42 ‰ were designed according to response surface methodology (RSM). Our results show that the element accumulation with changes of light intensity and salinity on the T. barbata was modeled. Most of the elements were affected by the salinity instead of light intensity. All macro and microelements were detected within the recommended dosages and exposure limits. In toxic elements, the least accumulations of Al, As, Cd, and Pb were observed in low light and salinity. Also, the levels of all toxic elements, including trace elements that exceed limits, can be reduced with using these models. The most effective experiment was found as 52.0001 µmol photon m-2s-1 light and 24.086 ‰ salinity for minimized toxic element accumulation on T. barbata with 0.869 desirability.
  • QUALITY OF ROASTED BARU ALMONDS STORED IN DIFFERENT PACKAGES Original Article

    FERNANDES, Dayane Stéphanie; DONADON, Juliana Rodrigues; RANGEL, Thiago Freitas; GUIMARÃES, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda; CAMPOS, Raquel Pires; LIMA, Liana Baptista de; HIANE, Priscila Aiko

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of type of packaging and storage time on the quality of roasted baru almonds by checking lipid and bioactive stability. Almonds submitted to roasting were packaged in three different packages: polypropylene (PP); polypropylene + bioriented polypropylene (PP + BOPP) and polypropylene + polyethylene terephthalate + metallized and polyethylene (PP + PETMET + PE) films. The moisture content was adequate for safe storage. Almonds packed in PP + PETMET + PE film showed lower titratable acidity and oil acidity index values. During storage, acidity increased from 90 days and the acidity index from 120 days. The iodine index was higher in PP + PEMET + PET film, with predominance of unsaturated fatty acids. The content of total phenols did not differ in almonds, regardless of packaging used. The content of tannins showed reduction after 120 days of storage in all packages, while the content of phytic acids howed reduction after 90 days. The antioxidant capacity did not differ among samples. Almonds had shelf life of 120 days when packed in PP + PEMET + PET packaging and 90 days in the other types of packaging.
  • Vitamin characterization and volatile composition of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK) McVaugh, Myrtaceae) at different maturation stages Original Article

    SOUZA, Francisca das Chagas do Amaral; SILVA, Edson Pablo; AGUIAR, Jaime Paiva Lopes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract During the process of fruit development there is synthesis and catabolism of compounds that culminate with the specific characteristics of each species, such as changes in color, size, acidity, vitamins content and volatile composition. In the present study was evaluated during the development of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK) McVaugh, Myrtaceae) the contents of pH, At, SS (ºBrix), Vitamin C, polyphenols, (L *, a * and b *) coloration and volatile composition using the HSPME-CGMS technique, at different stages of development. During development, an increase in the ºbrix variable was detected (6.92 to 9.02), and a decrease in the levels of vitamin C 1150 mg/100 g and total polyphenols 1280mg / 100g. Regarding the volatile composition, there was a difference of compounds according to the stage of development analyzed. Among the identified components, terpenes were the major class of compounds at all stages of maturation (p<0.05).
  • An exploratory study of possible food waste risks in supermarket fruit and vegetable sections Original Article

    RAMÍREZ, José Alberto; CASTAÑÓN-RODRÍGUEZ, Juan Francisco; URESTI-MARÍN, Rocío Margarita

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Food waste is an emerging issue in terms of food policy; the most common cause of fruit and vegetable waste at a retailer, in addition to excess stock and consumer behaviour, is the lack of employees certified in food handling. Fruits and vegetables require specific handling and storing to avoid waste. The objective of this work was to survey the employees of fruit and vegetable sections in supermarkets to understand their experience and the reasons they believe products are wasted. The results show that most employees have secondary educations; the average age of these employees is 33 with at least one year working for the company; and no significant correlation was found between age and seniority in the company. In comparison to international supermarkets, national supermarkets train their employees less. Employees perceived the best-selling fruits to be bananas, apples, papayas, melons and pineapples and the vegetables to be tomatoes, onions, green peppers (serrano), and potatoes, which are essential in Mexican cuisine, and their perceptions of best-selling produce were related to waste, probably due to the widespread availability of these types of produce. One of the strategies to avoid wasting fruits and vegetables in good condition is donating them to food banks.
  • Determination of some chemical compounds of bignay (Antidesma bunius) fruit juice Original Article

    HARDINASINTA, Gemala; MURSALIM, Mursalim; MUHIDONG, Junaedi; SALENGKE, Salengke

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bignay fruits are produced from wild trees of Antidesma bunius Spreng which can be found in India, Ceylon, and South East Asia countries. Each mature tree can produce hundreds of kilograms of fruits per year, so this fruit has the potential to be used as a raw material in juice and beverage industries. In addition, recent trends in consumer demand indicates that consumers are more inclined to demand products which can provide health benefits. In order to assess the potential of bignay fruit as a raw material for juice production, it is important to determine the health-promoting bioactive compounds contained in fresh bignay fruit juice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the concentration of bioactive compounds in fresh bignay fruit juice. Results obtained from this study showed that bignay fruit juice contained 1202.5 mg GAE/100 mL of total phenolic, 436.602 mg/100 mL of anthocyanin, 48.931 mg/100 mL of ascorbic acid, and 3.78 mg/100 mL of flavonoid. The scavenging activities obtained from DPPH and ABTS methods were 0.110 mg/mL and 0.126 mg/mL respectively. The above results indicate that bignay fruits contain health-promoting chemical compounds and can be used as a natural source of antioxidants.
  • Emulsion and inulin stability of meat pate with reduced fat content as a function of sterilization regimes Original Article

    MOMCHILOVA, Maria Marianovna; PETROVA, Todorka Valkova; GRADINARSKA-IVANOVA, Dilyana Nikolaeva; YORDANOV, Dinko Georgiev

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The paper examines the effect of eleven sterilization regimes on the emulsion capacity and achieved lethal effect of sterilized meat pâté with reduced fat content and addition of inulin. The changes in the inulin-type fructan content were traced under the different sterilization conditions. Optimal Central Composite Design (OCCD) was adopted to study, as independent variables of the sterilization process are selected: temperature and holding time. The mathematical models obtained describe with relatively high accuracy the effect of temperature and holding time of sterilization on the emulsion stability, the residual fructan content and the factual lethality during the sterilization process. It was found that the increase of the sterilization duration of the pâtés was responsible to a larger extent for the reduction of their emulsion stability whereas the rise in temperature had a more significant effect on their residual fructan quantity.
  • Evaluation on the physicochemical properties and mineral contents of Averrhoa bilimbi L. leaves dried extract and its antioxidant and antibacterial capacities Original Article

    IWANSYAH, Ade Chandra; DESNILASARI, Dewi; AGUSTINA, Wawan; PRAMESTI, Devry; INDRIATI, Ashri; MAYASTI, Nur Kartika Indah; ANDRIANA, Yusuf; KORMIN, Faridah Binti

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents of dried extract of Averrhoa bilimbi and its antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Dried extracts leaves powder of A. bilimbi were analysed for its physicochemical properties and mineral compositions. The antioxidant and antibacterial capacities of extracts were determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the disc diffusion method respectively. The functional groups from active compounds were identified by Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). Physicochemical characteristics of A. bilimbi dried extracts, including pH and total acids dissolved in water and ethanol solvents, showed negligible differences. The dried leaves powder of A. bilimbi was rich in carbohydrate, protein, and ash contents. It also exhibited essential minerals in which potassium was the highest content. Compared to water, ethanol extract showed more scavenging property against DPPH (82.82 mg GAE/ g DW) and gave a more inhibitory effect on the growth of Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The FTIR spectra showed phenolic compounds might be associated with the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this extract. A. Bilimbi leaves are promising a source for the development of functional food to prevent diseases related to stress oxidative and bacterial infections.
  • Morphology about the varieties mexican pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and its ripening stage Original Article

    CORONADO-REYES, Jesús Alberto; TINOCO-SALAZAR, Javier; GUISA-MORALES, María Lizeth; CORTÉS-PENAGOS, Consuelo de Jesús; GONZÁLEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, Juan Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a bush with abundant foliage originating from Iran, it was brought to Mexico during the time of the conquest and whose main characteristic is the fruit it generates, which is a big, globose berry with thick, shiny skin of red, green or yellow colour depending on the specie of pomegranate and the ripening stage in which itis founding. Recent research has shown that pomegranate contains chemical compounds with antioxidant and bactericidal activities resulting from its secondary metabolism as what are mainly polyphenols, terpenes and alkaloids, which affect the specific concentration of the state of maturity of the product and where most of them, polyphenolic compounds, are found in large quantities at this stage, presenting antioxidant activity and bactericide. The present article has the objective to analyse the ripening stage of three varieties of mexican pomegranate (Wonderful, Apaseo and Tecozautla) through a physicochemical characterization for which the morphology (sizes, colours and hardness) was analyzed as the amount of total suspended solids, pH and titratable acidity in the juice of the product to finish with the determination of the concentration of polyphenolic compounds with possible antioxidant and bactericide activity.
  • Hypocholesterolemic effect of designer yogurts fortified with omega fatty acids and dietary fibers in hypercholesterolemic subjects Original Article

    AHMAD, Nazir; SHABBIR, Umair; SAMEEN, Aysha; MANZOOR, Muhammad Faisal; AHMAD, Muhammad Haseeb; ISMAIL, Tariq; AHMED, Saeed; SIDDIQUE, Rabia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A cohort study of 90 days was designed to explore the hypercholesterolemic associated blood pressure with intake of extruded flaxseed powder (EFSP) fortified yogurts. The hypercholesterolemic subjects were distributed into two groups (1 and 2), then blood samples and blood pressure were taken. Descriptive statistics were used for comparison between groups. A significant increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) (6.330.48 to 6.510.04 mmol/dL) and low-density lipids-cholesterol (LDL-C) (5.170.28 to 5.370.47 mmol/dL) was observed in participants consuming plain milk yogurts for 30 days. A significant decrease in TC (6.470.95 to 6.28 ± 0.84) and LDL-C (5.350.29 to 5.130.44 mmol/dL) was observed in the group consuming EFSP fortified sheep milk yogurt. Similarly, a significant decrease in serum TC (6.381.01 to 6.200.98 mmol/dL), and LDL-C (5.301.16 to 4.980.99 mmol/dL) was noticed in the group consuming EFSP fortified cow milk yogurt. The intake of fortified yogurts reduced significantly serum cholesterol associated with blood pressure in both groups.
  • Evaluation of whole wheat flour sourdough as a promising ingredient in short dough biscuits Original Article

    ALIOĞLU, Tuba; ÖZÜLKÜ, Görkem

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The incorporation of whole wheat flour (WWF) via sourdough fermentation was studied in short dough biscuits. The substitution levels of wheat flour to WWF were 15%, 25%, 35%, and 50%. The biscuits containing WWF sourdough were produced by achieving the same level of WWF as in the WWF biscuits. The incorporation of WWF on dough formulation increased both G' and G” moduli, while the inclusion of WWF by sourdough fermentation caused a significant reduction. Spread ratio of the biscuits decreased as the WWF ratio in the formulation increased (p < 0.05). The hardness value of WWF sourdough biscuits was not significantly different than that of the control biscuits while the direct addition of WWF increased the hardness value (p < 0.05). Biscuits containing WWF sourdough had significantly higher lightness (L*) value than the WWF biscuits (p < 0.05). A low-level incorporation of sourdough corresponding to 15% WWF was preferable by the panelists for general acceptability parameters.
  • Effect of nutri-bar in the development of stamina building and exercise-performance in young male-athletes Original Article

    JABEEN, Sidra; INAM-UR-RAHEEM, Muhammad; HETTIARACHCHY, Navam; SAMEEN, Aysha; Riaz, Aysha; KHAN, Wahab Ali; AYUB, Zubaria; ABDULLAH, Muhammad; AADIL, Rana Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Nutri-bars were prepared (110 g) using dates (64 g), dried apricots (16 g), cheddar cheese (8 g), whey protein isolate (12 g) and roasted-chickpea flour (10 g). Bars were prepared for Pakistani-athletes based on their calories and protein requirement (3500-3925 kcals/day, 1.4-1.8 g/kg body weight). Efficacy trials were performed (1, 15 and 30 days) to evaluate the effect of nutri-bars on blood serum profile, stamina building and body-composition. Results showed that hepatic-indexes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were decreased (p > 0.05) during experimental-period. At day 30, ALT (6.8%), AST (1%) and ALP (0.4%) indicates the inhibitory effect of nutri-bar on the pathological serum-profile of athletes while significant increase (p > 0.05) was observed in total-protein (0.52%). Liver injury-indexes lactate dehydrogenase, Creatine kinase, total-cholesterol and total-glycerides showed a significant increase (p > 0.05) while low-density-lipoprotein and high-density-lipoprotein were decreased (p > 0.05). Effect of nutri-bar on body composition showed increase (p > 0.05) in body weight (kg) and body-mass index (BMI (kg/m2). In the twelve-minutes running test, distance covered by athletes (p < 0.05) increased after 30 days as compared to day 1. The study revealed the significant (p < 0.05) effect of nutri-bar in developing the stamina building of Pakistani-athletes while the effect on the blood-serum profile was non-significant.
  • Correlation of the free radical and antioxidant activities of Eriobotrya Japonica Lindl. with phenolic and flavonoid contents Original Article

    SEON, Ho Young; SUN, Sangouk; YIM, Soon-Ho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study was conducted to compare the correlations between antioxidant activity and free radicals. Total Polyphenol and Flavonoid contents were the highest 31.97 ± 1.29 mg TAE/g and 96.1 ± 0.31 mg CE/g in hot water extract, respectively. FRAP activity was highest at 559.17 ± 2.69 mg TE/g in 60% EtOH extract. The RC50 values of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity were lowest at 61.96 ± 5.01 μg/mL in 80% EtOH, 73.81 ± 0.16 μg/mL in 60% EtOH, respectively. The RC50 values of hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and NO radical scavenging activity were lowest at 265.33 ± 3.88 μg/mL in 60% EtOH and 52.51 ± 8.54 μg/mL in hot water extract, respectively. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents had significant correlation with the free radical scavenging ability and electron donating ability. On the other hand, there was confirmed significant correlation of free radical and antioxidant activities.
  • Study the effect of replacing the skim milk used in making ice cream with some dried fruit Original Article

    HASAN, Ghanim Mahmood; SAADI, Ali Mohammed; JASSIM, Mohammed Ahmed

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Ice cream is a popular frozen dairy product over the world, and there are many types of ice cream that differ according to additives and manufactured way, the goal of this research was to prepare skim milk dried fruits powder (banana, quince peach, apples) for ice cream production. The chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory attributes were evaluated for resultant ice cream. As the results indicated there was an increase in the total solids of resultant ice cream, especially when using banana powder because of its high carbohydrate content and low pH value of all treatments as compared to the control. As well as the specific weight and viscosity, increased in most treatments as compared to the control due to the increase in the rate of total solids . while the yield decreased in all treatments due to the increased viscosity which led to difficulty of air entering to the product. The microbial content of the resultant ice cream was decreased or close to the value of the control for all treatments except for the treatments in which the skim milk was replaced by the dried banana powder, this may be due to the fact that added fruit powder is an additional factor for increasing the number of bacteria as compared with dried skim milk powder, as well as the addition of dried fruits powder result in a slight improvement in flavor. There was an improvement in the appearance of the resultant ice cream in which banana powder was used.
  • Correlation of anti-wrinkling and free radical antioxidant activities of Areca nut with phenolic and flavonoid contents Original Article

    BYUN, Na-young; HEO, Mi-Ra; YIM, Soon-Ho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study was conducted to compare the correlations between free radical antioxidant activity and anti-wrinkling activity. Areca nut was extracted using various concentrations of ethanol (0, 40, 80, and 100%) and methanol (0, 40, 80, and 100%) at 100 °C for 90 min. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Areca nut were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (SRSA), and anti-wrinkling activity (collagenase inhibition and elastase inhibition). In addition, the antioxidant activities were correlated with collagenase inhibition. The antioxidant activities of the extracts exhibited little correlation (R=0.008-0.0760) with TPC, TFC, and TAC; however, significant correlation (R=0.825-0.891) was shown with collagenase inhibition. The 40% and 80% EtOH extracts showed the highest levels of antioxidant activities, and also had the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant activities of the 80% EtOH extracts was greater than that of other extracts. These results indicate that the collagenase inhibition effects of Areca nut extracts may be due to free radical antioxidant activities, and the optimal extraction condition was 80% EtOH.
  • Effect of Jianpibufei plaster on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in mice Original Article

    HUANG, Ying; WAN, Bin; HUANG, Zhenyan; LIN, Mian

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To explore effect of Jianpibufei plaster (JP) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in mice model. The COPD mice model was established by passive smoking and intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After treatment with JP, the body weight of mice were increased in comparison with those in the COPD group. The levels of RI, Cchord and FRC of mice in the JP group were significantly decreased when compared to those in the COPD group (p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, JP notably attenuated the pulmonary pathological lesions and bronchiectasis. Furthermore, the levels of KC, TNF-α and IL-6 in BALF were markedly decreased in the JP group when compared to those in the COPD group (p < 0.05, respectively). Jianpibufei plaster has a protective effect on COPD mice through improving the lung function and reducing the number of inflammatory cells and the levels of various inflammatory factors.
  • Clinical assessment of food impaction after implant restoration: a retrospective analysis Original Article

    WANG, Danning; ZHANG, Xinwen; ZHANG, Chong; JIANG, Lulu; DENG, Chunfu; ZHAO, Baohong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the current study the incidence of food impaction between implant-supported fixed dental prostheses and adjacent teeth was determined and the factors that influence food impaction were identified. Seven hundred seventy-nine implant prosthetic crowns and 879 adjacent sites from a pool of 489 patients were retrospectively studied. Food impaction existed in 16.6% of patients with implant restorations at the follow-up evaluations. Food impaction occurred more frequently on the mesial aspect of the implant prosthesis and the molar area. Among the factors that affected food impaction, proximal contact loss was shown to be the major cause (78.6%), while the incidence of food impaction on the mesial and distal aspects was 58.0% and 20.6%, respectively. Based on single-factor analysis of variance, gender, implant location, mesial and distal aspects of the prosthesis, and lost time before implant restoration were the factors that influenced proximal contact loss in patients (P < 0.05). In conclusion, proximal contact loss was shown to be highly associated with food impaction. Thus, gender, the molar area, the mesial aspect of the prosthesis, and the lost time before implant restoration should be fully considered. Guidance on the proper use and maintenance of prostheses is essential to achieve an optimal outcome.
  • Studies on phytosterol acetate esters and phytosterols liposomes Original Article

    HOU, Lifen; SUN, Xiangyang; PAN, Li; WANG, Hongyan; GU, Keren

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Phytosterols (PS) and phytosterol esters have been widely used in the food and health product industries as cholesterol-lowering agents. In order to improve theirs dispersity and bioavailability in low lipid media, PS and phytosterol acetate ester (PAE) were embedded into liposomes in the study. The effects of different PAE or PS concentrations on liposome properties were determined and interactions between PAE or PS and phospholipids were also explored. PAE and PS can be well embedded in liposomes, and the encapsulation rate was more than 90%. Compared to SPC liposomes, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in particle size (60 nm) and zeta potential (-15 mV) were observed between liposomes with PAE or PS. Liposomes were spherical, with smooth surfaces and uniform size distributions. The results of X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) revealed that PAE and PS were amorphously embedded in liposomes. The results from the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis indicated that PAE or PS changed the structure of the lipid membrane by interacting with phospholipids in the liposomes. Low doses of PAE had a stabilizing effect on the liposome membrane structure.
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