Abstract in English:Abstract Anthocyanins have a great potential for human health, as a sub-group of phenolic compounds. Interactions of anthocyanin involved in digestion and thus in obesity consist of inhibition of pancreatic lipase, regulation of lipolysis and lipogenesis, activation of an activated protein kinase enzyme, controlling of digestion hormones (leptin, insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, GIP, GLP-1). Anthocyanins are the compounds that can control metabolic syndrome and obesity by ameliorating lipid metabolism, increasing energy expenditure, suppressing food intake and inhibiting lipid absorption. In addition, the interactions with other compounds during the processing and/or in the intestinal canal can change their absorption capability and bioavailability. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, inflammatory cytokines signaling, free-radical scavenging activity are among the primary functions of anthocyanins playing role in the basic metabolic pathways. Anthocyanins also interact with gut microbiota that plays a role in many metabolic pathways. In the review, the effects of anthocyanins on the obesity-associated mechanisms in the metabolism are considered and summarized under the light of recent researches.
Abstract in English:Abstract Calcium fortification is usually achieved by employing wheat flour as the most frequently used vehicle. In this study, potential of calcium extraction from chicken eggshell and its utilization as a bread fortificant in straight grade flour (SGF) is investigated. In addition, the fortified and unfortified (control) flour samples were evaluated for nutrient composition and rheological properties. Results showed that addition of fortificant at different concentrations significantly (p<0.05) enhanced calcium content of fortified flour and it was considerably increased from 115.80 mg/kg (To) to 1135.1 mg/kg (T3). Nutrient composition data of fortified flour have shown a significant (p<0.05) reduction in moisture content of flour from 12.7% (To) to 11.76% (T3) and protein content from 9.89% (To) to 9.79% (T3). However, a significant increase in ash content was observed by increasing fortificant level from 0.54% (To) to 1.04% (T3). Rheological properties indicated a significant increase in water absorption from 63.60 to 67.527%, dough development time (DDT) from 7.38 to 11.37 min and dough stability from 13.79 to 17.37 min. Textural characteristics of fortified bread revealed a significant reduction for hardness values from 11.40 N (control) to 6.50 N (T3) in response to fortificant addition. Quality assessment of bread indicated that bread quality was significantly affected with corresponding rises in fortificant addition levels.
Abstract in English:Abstract The development of banana-based snack bars that fulfill the nutritional requirement for toddlers is required. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different concentrations of banana puree, banana flour and potato starch on the characteristics of inulin, dietary fiber, protein, and potassium as well as the hardness of banana bars using response surface methodology. In total, 14 experimental models were generated using a simplex lattice design. Results demonstrated that the quadratic model appeared to be the best fitting model for assessing dietary fiber and hardness response of banana bars; meanwhile, the linear model was found to be the best fitting model for assessing protein and potassium response, and the special cubic model was best fitted for assessing inulin response. Results of the optimization process suggested that banana bars prepared using 20% banana puree, 20.50% banana flour and 9.50% potato starch was the best solution for this combination of variables, with a desirability value of 0.923.
Abstract in English:Abstract The current study estimated the antioxidant activity and biochemical composition of four seaweeds; Toania atomaria (Phaeophyta), Padina pavonia (Phaeophyta), Jania rubens (Rhodophyta) and Corallina elongate (Rhodophyta). The highest total antioxidant activity was observed with ethanol extract of T. atomaria (44.6 ± 1.6 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g crude extract). Among the four seaweeds, ethanol extract of T. atomaria has recorded the highest value in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay (32.3 ± 0.0 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g crude extract). The uppermost level of carbohydrates was (20.4% ± 0.4 and 19.5% ± 0.7 dry wt.) in P. pavonia and T. atomaria. Proteins were maximum (10.5% ± 0.6 and 8.0% ± 0.0 dry wt.) in P. pavonia and T. atomaria. The results detected that T. atomaria had the largest amounts of lipids (5.92% ± 0.09 dry wt.). The polyunsaturated ω6 essential fatty acids were recorded in T.atomaria, P. pavonia, and J. rubens (11.39%, 8.09%, and 6.28%), and ω3 essential fatty acids were recorded in T. atomaria and P. pavonia (0.65% and 0.97%). The seaweeds are interesting candidates for medicinal, pharmaceutical, and nutritional applications owing to their antioxidant activities, biochemical composition; they are not widespread in the coastal waters of Egypt and has few studies, especially T. atomaria.
Abstract in English:Abstract Homemade foods have been reported as an important contributor to some foodborne outbreaks. This study determined the prevalence and number of Salmonella spp. on selected pathways of fried chicken preparation and cooking at the household level and investigated their antimicrobial resistance. Salmonella serovar was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequencing using primer 785F and 907R. Samples consisted of chicken meat (raw, pre-cooked and fried), seasoning, water, mortar, and the hands of the food handler. The results showed that Salmonella spp. was found in 22.1% of 104 samples. The level of Salmonella found was in the range of 0.3 MPN/g (in fried chicken and water) to 920 MPN/g (in marinated raw chicken). Six Salmonella serovars were identified, namely S. Typhimurium, S. Bergen, S. Enteritidis strain FORC_052, S. Enteritidis strain GD1011, S. Typhi strain 541, and S. Typhi strain 3N4. Three were resistant to nalidixic acid, while one was resistant to streptomycin.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ora-pro-nóbis (Pereskia aculeata Mill.) is an unconventional vegetable found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and consumed, mainly by the rural population who lives in this biome. The present study investigated the nutritional value and contribution potential this species to the recommendations of daily nutrient intake for adults. Moisture and ash content were determined by gravimetry after oven drying and muffle incineration, respectively. Proteins were determined by the micro-Kjeldhal method; lipids by gravimetric lipids using soxhlet extractor; Total dietary fiber (TDF) by non-enzymatic gravimetry; Carotenoids and vitamin C by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Diodes Array Detector; Vitamin E by HPLC and fluorescence detection; and minerals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Ora-pro-nóbis presented concentrations of TDF (3.73 g 100 g-1), ash (0.96 g 100 g-1), lipids (1.45 g 100 g-1), protein (1.27 g 100 g-1), carotenoids (3.15 mg 100 g-1), total vitamin E (438.68 µg 100 g-1), Ca (427.08 mg 100 g-1), Mg (88.84 mg 100 g-1), Mn (3.46 mg 100 g-1), Fe (13.89 mg 100 g-1) and K (689.41 mg 100 g-1). The species was considered a source of TDF, a good source of Mg, Cu and K, and an excellent source of vitamin A, Ca, Mn, Fe and Se.
Abstract in English:Abstract Five treatments of wieners were prepared with replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of added beef back fat with safflower oil (SO). Changes in pH, thiobarbuturic acid reactive substances (TBARS) and color (L*, a*, b*) values of wieners were determined during manufacturing day and refrigerated storage (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 d). Fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, cooking loss, proximate composition and textural properties of wieners were also determined on manufacturing day. Results revealed that SO incorporation in wiener formulation resulted in a higher unsaturated fatty acid contents (P < 0.05). Wieners manufactured with a 50% or higher fat replacement with SO resulted in lower cholesterol content compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). Increasing the amount of SO used for beef back fat replacement in wieners created higher TBARS formation during the storage period (P < 0.05). Incorporation of SO increased CIE L* and b* values, whereas it caused a decrease in CIE a* values of wieners (P < 0.05). On the other hand, replacing beef back fat with SO did not affect sensory attributes of wieners. Study results indicated that replacement rate of beef back fat with SO up to 50% can be good strategy for the meat industry to produce desirable and healthy weiners.
Abstract in English:Abstract A cashew nut-based beverage was obtained using broken cashew kernels and its composition and stability were evaluated during refrigerated storage for 60 days. Sensory tests were performed to define the formulation, testing the best proportion between kernels and water, the effect of kernel roasting, the ideal sweetness, the beverage attributes and the sensory acceptance. A cashew nut beverage can be obtained by grinding the kernel with water in the proportion of 1:10 (m/m) with added sugar at 3%, followed by heat treatment at 140ºC for four seconds. The proximate composition was 11.49% total solids, 0.26% ashes, 1.83% proteins, 3.97% lipids and 5.43% total carbohydrates. The pH remained above 6.49 and the color darkened during storage. The product was considered microbiologically safe and shelf-stable for at least 2 months, and sensory acceptance remained at an average value of 7.1 on a 9-point hedonic scale.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this work was to develop innovative formulations of dulce de leche made with sheep's milk with and without the addition of sheep’s milk cream and evaluate the shelf life of these products. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluations were performed on sheep’s pasteurized milk and cream, as well as on dulce de leche right after production and during the storage time. Addition of cream to sheep dulce de leche did not change the physicochemical and microbiological parameters between formulations. The dulce de leche showed dark color and adequate results of protein, fat, total and microbiological counts (thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. in all evaluations, and total mesophilic aerobic up to 150 days of storage). Innovative formulations of dulce de leche made by sheep’s milk were developed, differentiated from those existing in the Brazilian market, but a specific legislation is required in Brazil focused on the specific characteristics and quality parameters of sheep’s milk and its derivatives.
Abstract in English:Abstract Anthocyanin plays an important role in wine color and quality. The anthocyanin concentration in grapes depends on the variety and is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, sunlight, soil, and grapevine practice. In this study, the anthocyanin profiles of two varieties, namely Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, from five regions (11 plots) in Xinjiang were examined. The climatic parameters performed noticeable difference between northern and southern of Xinjiang region. Result showed that northern of Xinjiang possessed the relatively lower humidity and higher average temperature in comparison with southern area. In addition, the total anthocyanin profiles of Cabernet sauvignon, which in Changji, Wushitala, Heshuo respectively, were higher than of other plots. This result might be caused by which those have relatively higher altitude than in other plots. For merlot, the higher anthocyanin concentrations performed in southern of Xinjiang, which could be contributed to the lower average temperature and higher relative humidity. Comparing Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot, the latter was easily affected by environment factors, and the anthocyanin composition and concentration of Merlot showed significant differences in different regions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Carrageenan is a seaweed polysaccharide widely used as a food gelling and thickening agent. The New Methylene Blue dye was tested as an analytical reagent for the quantification of carrageenan in commercial jelly samples. The main spectral peaks of the dye decrease with increasing carrageenan-to-dye molar ratio up to 1. Three analytical procedures were tested: (i) spectrophotometric measurement at 590 nm, (ii) smartphone-based color measurement within the RGB color model and (iii) spectrophotometric titration at 625 nm. All the procedures provide straight calibration lines. Spectrophotometry provides better linearity as compared to smartphone-based colorimetry. Range of determination is dependent on type and purity of carrageenan. The spectrophotometric titration procedure provides lower values of limit of determination due to longer optical path used. Typical food additives used in jelly deserts do not interfere significantly with the proposed analytical approach.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three extraction parameters including extraction time, material to solvent ratio, and extraction temperature for the extraction yield of Phyllanthus urinaria polysaccharides were optimized by response surface methodology. The results revealed that the optimal extraction process was extraction time of 5.3 h, extraction temperature of 93 °C, and material to solvent ratio of 1:47 g/mL, under which the polysaccharide yield was 6.40%; The three parameters had significant effect on the polysaccharide yield, and the influence of extraction time was the greatest and that of extraction temperature was the lowest. The antioxidant activity test indicated that the equivalent scavenging ability of Phyllanthus urinaria polysaccharides on DPPH and ABTS free radicals was 0.88 and 0.84 μg TBHQ/μg of polysaccharides, respectively; while the reducing power and total antioxidant capacity of Phyllanthus urinaria polysaccharides was equivalent to 93.62% and 93.55% of TBHQ, respectively. The Phyllanthus urinaria polysaccharides had good antioxidant activity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Meat samples of various animal species have been obtained from Giza Governorate's butcher shops, common retail markets, veterinary faculties, Zoo and hospitals. Physical, bacteriological, and molecular analysis was carried out on the meat samples. Physical examination showed that typical and untypical meat differed. Bacteriological examination showed the highest TCC was found in horse meat while the least was in goat meat. The total count of S. aureus was the highest in donkey and dog whilst the least in pork meat. As for E.coli, donkey meat was the highest while buffalo and mutton meat were the lowest. The highest total Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Species count were in horse, donkey, rat and dog meat but zero in the other species examined. Multiplex-PCR targeting partial-length of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used for the discovery of adulteration of beef meat with chicken, pork, dog, cat and rat tissue. It showed high specificity in differentiating the six animal species meat. The study points out the importance of taking serious steps to control species meat adulteration that may lead to transmission of severe foodborne diseases and more studies need to be implemented to apply new and easy meat adulteration detection protocols.
Abstract in English:Abstract Date fruit is the ancient discovered and consumed fruit. Worldwide, Egypt is the largest producer of date. Besides its health benefits, many recent studies have proved its antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory effect. Currently, probiotic fermented fruit juices have a great attention especially for lactose intolerance patients. This study assessed the survival of two probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. sakei) in the date juice. Phenolics characterization was performed by HPLC. Anti-proliferative activity of fermented juice against Caco-2 and Hep-2 cell lines was also evaluated. Under cold storage, L. sakei was still live for 2 weeks at 1.8 x 107 CFU/mL. In contrast, L. acidophilus reduced from 5.2 x 106 CFU/mL to below the minimum value of probiotic products just after 1 week. L. sakie significantly multiplied the total phenols and antioxidant activity in the juice compared to the unfermented juice. Interestingly, probiotic date juice exhibited an antitumor activity against larynx cell lines (Hep-2) with no activity against Caco-2. Date juice was proved to be suitable for probiotic and as potential larynx anticancer juice. Therefore, the developed juice is recommended to contribute to the available probiotic foodstuffs.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the wine composition from vine clones of Merlot (181, 346, 347, 348) and Cabernet Sauvignon (R5, 18A, 163, 338, 341). The grapes were harvested between 2010 and 2012, then on the same day, taken to the winery facility for winemaking. After crushing and destemming the grapes, the musts were transferred to glass containers, where the alcoholic and later malolactic fermentations occurred. Next, the wines were bottled and analyzed, where the classical variables were determined by physicochemical methods, volatile compounds by gas chromatography, and minerals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey test, correlation analysis, and Principal Component Analysis. The clone effect was significant for some variables; however, year and varietal group exerted greater effects. The Merlot group generally had higher values of ethanol, absorbance at 520 nm, color intensity, total polyphenols index, and methanol. On the other hand, the Cabernet Sauvignon group presented higher pH, ashes, alkalinity of ashes, hue, and potassium. Therefore, the three-year average data demonstrate that the evaluated Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon clones are suitable to produce quality wines in the region, especially Merlot 181, 346, and 348 and Cabernet Sauvignon 18A and 163.
Abstract in English:Abstract Nearly all of the rejected frozen carcasses in Asian countries are due to their high amount of total volatile nitrogen (TVN). The main aim of this study was evaluating red meat putrefaction based on putrescine and cadaverine content in red meat as major biogenic amines that contributed in TVN content during long-term storage in freezing condition. For this, 48 samples were collected from local slaughterhouse from neck, flank, sirloin and rib set of beef meat and analyzed for the biogenic amine and TVN content during 12 months storage in freezing condition. The results showed no sensible organoleptic changes but the amount of cadaverin and putrescine had highly-significant (p < 0.05) and no significant (p > 0.05) changes after fifth month of storage, respectively. The mean concentration of putrescine and cadaverine were increased from zero up to 118.98 and 1121.48 µg/gr after five months storage, respectively. Increasing the cadaverine content might be a good index for red meat deterioration and used as quality index after long time storage in freezing condition.
Abstract in English:Abstract Laparoscopic surgery has become a common procedure in pediatric patients. However, adverse hemodynamic changes such as the increase of intraabdominal pressure (IAP) may occur laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study is find a method to set a suitable IAP level in children before laparoscopic surgery. From Jan 2012 to Dec 2014, data were collected from a total of 1776 children needing laparoscopic high ligation of hernia sac. A retrospective data analysis was performed using a new defined variant Index A which had information of age, body mass index (BMI) and duration of pneumoperitoneum. The blood pressures (SBP and DBP) and the PaCO2 were increased but SV showed no changes in patients after CO2 insufflation. The complications were found in 32 cases including 2 cases with subcutaneous emphysemarelated to the CO2 insufflation directly, 3 cases of respiratory infection, 5 cases of incision infection and 2 cases of urinary tract infection) and technique related. Furthermore, the risks of complications were negatively associated with the Index A. An IAP can be optimal set up in laparoscopic high ligation of hernia sac by using the Index A.
Abstract in English:Abstract The study aims to determine certain physicochemical properties (moisture, ash, titratable acidity, pH, and color), total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, ABTS, DPPH) and bioaccessibility of 20 bee pollen samples (10 unpackaged and 10 trademarked products in their original packages) sold in Turkey. The total phenolic content of the bee pollen samples was detected as 147.10-462.02 mg GAE/g and bioaccessibility ranged from 36.91% to 77.87%. The highest total value for antioxidant capacity was assessed as 83.24-257.27 μmol TE/g by the CUPRAC method. When the bioaccessibility of the antioxidant capacity of bee pollen was compared among the methods, the highest value (95.76%) was obtained for the sample M by the CUPRAC method. Antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of the unpackaged bee pollen samples were lower than those of the trademarked products. Based on overall evaluations, it can be deduced that bee pollen known for its potential beneficial effects on health may well be used as a functional food additive in the production of various food products with its high antioxidant and bioaccessibility features.
Abstract in English:Abstract To the mechanism and therapeutic effect of Antelope horn treatment on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injuries under different levels of concentration. The process is as follows: (1) establish MCAO mouse model, test the modelling using traction and open field experiments, use TTC staining to detect the protective effect of Antelope horn treatment on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury; (2) after 48 h of MCAO, use Nissl staining to measure the extent of hippocampal neuron damage in each group. The hippocampus corner 1 sector and dentate gyrus corner zone of hippocampal neurons of ischemia reperfusion group mouse suffered severe damages under Nissl staining detection. However, the hippocampal neurons of the medicated mouse show obvious alleviation. Western Blot results showed that, compared to the ischemic control group, the Bcl-2, Hsp 27, Hsp 27 expressions of the medicated group were significantly increased, while the Bax expression was dramatically reduced. Immunofluorescence outcome showed obvious reduction of TUNEL and FJB positive cells in the medicated group. That Antelope horn can reduce focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. The reduction of degeneration and apoptosis suggests the correlation between the therapeutic effect of Antelope horn on ischemia reperfusion injury and its anti-apoptotic protective effect.
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate different binding agents for the preparation of salty cereal bars and to characterize them regarding their physical and sensory parameters. Four formulations of cereal bars were developed using collagen, guar gum, xanthan gum and psyllium as binders, which were evaluated for instrumental color and texture. The results of the instrumental analysis revealed that the cereal bars presented characteristic color and crispness for this type of product and the microbiological analyzes ensured food safety. Sensorially, the cereal bars showed good acceptability, especially the bars made with psyllium and xanthan gum binders in the parameters of appearance, texture, flavor and color. The different binders showed technological efficiency in the elaboration of salty cereal bars, but xanthan gum and psyllium were the ones that best corresponded to the expected attributes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Considering that the consumption of baru is not yet fully diffused among humans, it is possible to perceive the need for its greater use, mainly because it is a natural source of sugars, essential raw material for the production of various products, such as beverages fermented. In view of the above, the objective of this work was to develop fermented alcoholic beverage from the pulp of baru, chemically monitoring the fermentation and aging process. Throughout the processing, the fermented presented behavior as expected, as a decrease of sugars ensuring an effective fermentation without interferents, as high amounts of acetic acid and propagation of deteriorating organisms. With this, it was possible to develop and chemically accompany the alcoholic beverage from pulp of baru, obtaining results that met the brazilian legislation in force for fruit fermented, providing a new source of exploitation of this raw material little explored.
Abstract in English:Abstract The shelf-life of the product need to be evaluated according to the commercialization of the product. Shelf-life assessment of the product can be done using acceleration method (Accelerated Shelf-life Testing) with critical moisture content approach. This research used the acceleration method to predict the expired date of the energy bar based banana. This method required the data such as initial water content, critical moisture content, solid weight of the product, surface area of the packaging, permeability water vapor of the packaging, saturated water vapor pressure, and slope of the sorption isotherm curve. The result showed that the shelf life of banana bar products that was packaged using aluminium foil, aluma, and metalized plastics consecutively for 511.15; 458.72; and 80.95 days based on the acceleration method with the critical moisture content approach.
Abstract in English:Abstract The intake of large amounts of the antinutrient oxalate can induce hyperoxaluria, an important risk factor for the development of calcium oxalate stones. The soluble and total oxalate concentrations of plants of the Fabaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Malvaceae families were determined using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. Sweet potato is a species of the Convolvulaceae, Fabaceae includes beans, lentils, peas, licorice and blue fenugreek, whereas okra and cocoa are species of the Malvaceae family. Total oxalate content was highest in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra; 3569 mg/100 g), an important medicinal herb and sweetener in candies, blue fenugreek (Trigonella coerulea; 1246 mg/100 g) and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; 548 mg/100 g), plants of the Fabaceae family. Total oxalate content amounted to 496 mg/100 g in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), 619 mg/100 g in cocoa powder (Theobroma cacao) and 317 mg/100 g in okra (Abdelmoschus esculentus), the most important agricultural crops of the Convolvulaceae and Malvaceae, respectively. The findings suggested that most foods of these plant families contain high to excessively high oxalate concentrations. The consumption of these oxalate-rich plants can negatively impact calcium oxalate stone formation.
Abstract in English:Abstract A total of 74 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were obtained from yoghurt, cheese, raw milk, boza and whey. 36 strains were identified at species levels as Lactococcus lactis (15), Lc. garvieae (8) Lactobacillus plantarum (7), Enterococcus faecium (3), Leuconostoc citreum (2) and Lb.casei (1) by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The strains were tested for antimicrobial properties using disc diffusion method against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Cronobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella Typhimurium. 18 strains from available samples showed antimicrobial activity. Formation zones were appeared from 7 mm to 19 mm against all bacteria, except B. cereus. Additionally, antibiotic susceptibility of these 18 strains were investigated and strains related to 18 LAB were found resistant despite of 72.2% rifampicin, 53.3% tetracycline and vancomycin, 27.7% to erythromycin and nitrofurantoin. In this study, we investigated antifungal effects of the strains. LAB were screened for antifungal effects by using dual agar overlay against mycotoxigenic Aspergillus candidus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor hiemalis, Ulocladium chartarum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum. 18 LAB isolates showed antifungal effects. As a result, Enterococcus faecium has antimicrobial and antifungal properties, and therefore, it can be used under various experimental conditions in future studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Amazon region has shown commercial potential for native mushroom species, such as mushrooms produced by the Yanomami people, who already sell more than 10 Amazon species. Among the species collected and consumed by the Yanomami people is Favolus brasiliensis (Fr.) Fr. (Basidiomycota: Polyporaceae), which occurs naturally in tropical areas of Central and South America. Thus, the objective of this work is to carry out the bromatological characterization of F. brasiliensis, contributing to a better understanding of the nutritional and food potential, as well as registering the natural occurrence of the species in the Cerrado biome and in the state of Goiás. The F. brasiliensis mushrooms collected in the present study showed an average of 7.4% humidity, 27% crude protein, 1.5% ether extract, 17% crude fiber, and 1.7% mineral matter. Compared with other species of edible mushrooms, both wild and cultivated, the moisture content of F. brasiliensis (93.60%) is low for species of the genus Pleurotus. For example, the humidity varies from 87% to more than 90%, similar to that found in Lentinus crinitus, another mushroom native to Brazil and also consumed by the Yanomami people. Thus, F. brasiliensis has the potential to be used in human foods.
Abstract in English:Abstract Prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite extracted from Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), could induce apoptosis in various cancer cells, with however low toxicity on normal cells. The red pigment was extracted from a strain S. marcescens NJZT-1 isolated from soil, which had antibacterial activity. Spectral analyses (LC-ESI-MS, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, infrared spectra and HPLC) and TLC indicated the presence of prodigiosin in the extracellular bacterial culture extracts. The red pigment effectively killed the TSC2-null cells, whose mutation resulted in the progressive and systemic disease LAM. Our findings provide interesting evidence and important basis for the development of new therapeutic compounds with high potential effects against TSC2-null cells.
Abstract in English:Abstract Six protein energy-bars (B1-B6) were prepared for Pakistani-athletes using dates, dried apricots, Cheddar-cheese and whey-protein isolate. Bars B1-B3 contained 5 g Cheddar-cheese and 13 g whey-protein isolate while quantity of dates were 74, 68 and 65 g and apricots 8, 14 and 17 g respectively. Bars B4-B6 contained 8g Cheddar-cheese and 12 g whey protein isolate while dates and apricots were same as in bars B1-B3. Bars were sealed in aluminium foil, stored at 20 ± 5 °C for 45 days to evaluate their sensory, compositional, physicochemical, microbial, textural and antioxidant properties. All bars have good sensory attributes except B6 that showed (p < 0.05) lower acceptability. The pH, water activity and microbial count decreased (p < 0.05) in all the bars. Maximum hardness was noticed in bar B1 and lowest in B6 while highest firmness was recorded in B2 and lowest in B6. The increase (p < 0.05) of total phenolic content was noticed in B6 and the highest increase of total flavonoid content was estimated in B2 at day 45, while B5 showed the highest antioxidant-activity on the 30th day afterwards a decline was observed in all the bars. Study revealed that these bars have good sensory attributes, physical characteristics and shelf-stability and could be a healthy snack for athletes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Food antioxidants are a core topic of food science due mainly to the consumption of ultra-processed foods, which cannot be overlooked, and represent an importance to modern society. At the same time, natural food antioxidants are gaining attention in studies due to its food safety aspects, that commonly affect food choices. Based on this, the present study aimed to explore the cognitive evaluation of food antioxidants by consumers using the qualitative consumer technique Word Association. Two stimuli were given. Respondents were first asked to write down the first four words that came to mind; descriptions, associated thoughts, or feelings when reading “Food Antioxidants”. Secondly the word Natural was added and the stimulus was “Natural Food Antioxidants”. The Word Association technique has been shown to be an important tool for cognitive evaluation of the perception of food antioxidants, and the dimensions, Health, Food Safety, Preservatives, Source and Preference which arose and differentiated the stimuli. The results revealed some prior knowledge about issues related to food antioxidants, natural or not. Additionally, showed a clear potential use for natural food antioxidants by the food industry, judging by consumer perception that primarily related cognitively to positive aspects of healthy and food safety.
Abstract in English:Abstract Brazil imports about 60% of all the malt used by the brewing industry which is spread throughout the country. Even though it is an agricultural country, only a small portion of the barley production has the characteristics to produce barley malt for brewing. Seeking supply to the ever-growing demand and reducing the dependency on other countries and logistic costs, malting industries and genetic enhancement companies endeavor to adapt barley to the Brazilian Savannah conditions. For the barley to be malted, it is crucial to develop cultivars with the necessary malting qualities and adapted to the region and with good yield. Considering the importance of protein to the brewing process, four protein quantification methods were compared: combustion methods - carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen elemental analysis and Dumas - and digestion ones - Kjeldahl and flux injection analysis (FIA). The methodologies tested showed good correlations (higher than 0.881) and variations were associated with matrix complexity. All protein quantification methods were satisfactory from an agronomic perspective. Yet, we recommend the combustion ones as they generate fewer residues and results are ready in up to 6 minutes. Therefore, they are the most suited for barley and malt analysis considering lab routine.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of the oil extracted from passion fruit seeds (Passiflora edulis), an agroindustrial residue from juice industries, as a potential source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive substances. The oil presented low levels of free fatty acids and peroxides, as well a great amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids 58.4%, especially linoleic and linolenic acids, which indicates lower oxidation and good source of lipids. A relevant antioxidant activity as a result of a satisfactory content of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid, were determined in the passion fruit seed oil. The thermodegradation behavior of the oil suggested high thermal stability and the infrared spectroscopy exhibited high intensity bands between 1745 cm-1 to 1163 cm-1 correlated to the functional groups of fatty acids. Due to their bioactivity and presence of nutritious substances, the passion fruit seed oil may have beneficial properties to health and to extend the shelf-life foods products when present in dietary foods. Furthermore, the use of this by-product could reduce agroindustrial waste, expand and add value to the production chain when used as an industrial lipid matrix.
Abstract in English:Abstract Most people now have their meals outside their homes and are vulnerable to illness caused by food. Unsafe food preparation and supply by vendors have made food safety a concern for public health. Jashore is a densely populated city, this study was designed to evaluate food safety knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of food vendors in Jashore region, Bangladesh. A randomized descriptive cross-sectional study on food safety KAP was conducted among 200 food vendors. Where 96% were male food vendors, 72.5% were smokers, and 63% were found to be overweight or obese. While 72.5% vendors had good knowledge of food safety, only 33% and 0.5% had good food safety attitude and practice, respectively. Among the socio-demographic factors investigated, only the level of education showed significant influence (p = 0.005 and 0.015) on the food safety knowledge and practice of the vendors. While handling food, over 90% vendors did not use any personal protective equipment, 4.5% had diarrhoea, 8.5% did not wash their hands after going to the toilet and 28.5% reused previous leftover oils. The data suggest that the overall food safety knowledge of suppliers in the Jashore region is good but their attitudes and practices need to be improved.
Abstract in English:Abstract Probiotic starter culture does not only improve the safety and shelf-life of products but also extends health benefits to the consumer. This study investigated the probiotic potential of a commercial starter culture used in the fermentation of meat sausages. The starter culture tested, composed of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus carnosus, was evaluated for resistance to antimicrobials, low pH values and bile salts; production of gas and capsules; acidification capacity; and growth after exposure to different pH values, temperatures, and curing salts. The antagonistic capacity was also assessed against Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC13076, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC43300, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC29212, and Listeria monocytogenes CERELA. The starter culture was susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and strongly inhibited pathogenic strains, with inhibition halos diameters > 30 mm. The culture was resistant to all concentrations of bile salts tested, did not produce gas or capsules, and could grow within a temperature range of 15 °C to 35 °C in saline medium containing healing salts (nitrite/nitrate). Although, the inability of the culture to withstand low pH, indicating intolerance to stomach acidity, limits its use as a live probiotic, beneficial health effects may be derived from the inactivated culture.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Southern region of Brazil is known for its floral diversity, presenting great potential for bee products such as honey, pollen, propolis and royal jelly. In this study, 67 honey samples provided by beekeepers from 14 municipalities of western Paraná were evaluated. Physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analyzed. The physicochemical parameters of the samples were in compliance with the specifications by national and international standards, presenting average values of 3.26, 34.54 meq.kg-1, 18.75%, 10.79 mg.kg-1, 0.14% and 340.10 µS.cm-1, for pH, acidity, moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural, ash content and electrical conductivity, respectively. The nutritive values of honey, on average, achieved 0.28% of protein from 69.09% of total sugars, 64.57% of reducing sugars and 4.28% of sucrose. Bioactive compounds showed average values of 34.83 mg GAE/100 g-1 of total phenols and 16.26 mg EQ/100 g-1 of flavonoids, enabling antioxidant activity of 2.68 µmol FE (II)/g-1 of FRAP, 1.01 µmol ET/g-1 from ABTS and 0.12 µmol ET/g-1 of DPPH. This first study evaluated the parameters through cluster analysis and observed nine groups formed, as well as the characteristics between the samples with similar reaction. We concluded that the honey samples have high similarity and confirmed the quality of the honey produced.
Abstract in English:Abstract Apart from their nutritional value, vegetables and spices were empirically known to have functional properties such as antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. However, scientific evidence of these health effects is limited. In our effort to find potent raw material for antidiabetic functional food development, α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activity of 15 Indonesian vegetables and spices methanolic extracts were screened. Their phytochemical profiles were assessed by determining total phenolic content (TPC) and 1H NMR fingerprinting. The results showed that the Syzygium polyanthum, Pluchea indica, Etlingera elaitor, and Cosmos caudatus had the highest GIA (IC50 11.76 ± 0.32, 12.17 ± 0.18, 53.13 ± 2.87, and 61.33 ± 1.21 μg/ml, respectively). The AA and TPC of the four samples were also higher than the others. The 1H NMR profiles of the active samples were different from the non-active samples mainly in the aromatic region. Further observation of the spectra revealed that caffeoylquinic derivatives and esculetin were identified in P. indica; while gallic acid, syringic acid, and myricetin were identified in S. polyanthum. These compounds were known to have antidiabetic activity through different mechanisms.
Abstract in English:Abstract Given the scenario of buckwheat cultivation in Brazil, the research was developed evaluating its insertion in beer production as adjunct. The samples of interest were made with 55% (w/w) barley malt and 45% (w/w) buckwheat malt (45BWM), referenced to 100% Pilsen malt beer (AM). The results showed that the buckwheat malt wort had a 96.27% dry base extract, equivalent to the standard result. It also showed that glucose content increased 3 times, while the maltose and maltotriose have balances proportional. The use of buckwheat malt raised the protein content in more than 89%, which is not seen from the use of other adjuncts and showed greater colloidal stability during the storage period, a factor associated with a 4-fold reduction of gluten content. Similar aspects regarding foam and turbidity pattern, although subtle differences in aromatic profile and flavors were present. Nevertheless, these factors show that is possible to use buckwheat as an adjunct in a Pilsen beer. The remaining sugars content gave a perspective on the metabolism of yeast during fermentation and the identification of some compounds by HPLC-MS was also able to demonstrate how buckwheat malt affected yeast metabolism due to wort composition.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Caspian Sea-style spontaneous milk fermentation to improve the quality of pasteurized milk containing high levels of Pseudomonas contamination, with a focus on microbiological safety and stability of the final product. Bacterial diversity of pasteurized milk, fermentation process, and after 60 days of storage was analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing, and presence of viable taxa was confirmed by culturing on selective media. Low quality pasteurized milk harbored mainly Gram-negative bacteria, markedly dominated by Pseudomonas. Following fermentation, lactic acid bacteria rapidly became dominant with maximum population of 10.15 log CFU/mL at 18 h, represented mainly by Lactococcus. However, sequences related to Pseudomonas, and to a lesser extent for enterobacteria, remained constant throughout the fermentation process. The cultured-dependent approach confirmed the presence of viable Pseudomonas, with a final population of 5.60 log CFU/mL. Biochemical transformations were further analyzed, indicating lactic acid as the main end-metabolite produced (maximum concentration of 5.93 g/L at 24 h). In addition, the increase of 2-nonanone can be correlated as a volatile biomarker of P. aeruginosa and related species. Altogether, the results demonstrated that natural milk fermentation may often not inhibit the development of pathogens and food spoilage microorganisms.
Abstract in English:Abstract Dry salted shrimp is a popular food in Acre cuisine, especially as a main ingredient in “tacacá” and “rabada no tucupi”. However, different intrinsic and extrinsic factors can result in accelerated deterioration and microbial proliferation, causing food poisoning to the consumer. The objective was to perform the counting and identification of molds and yeasts in dry salted shrimp in establishments that sell typical foods in the municipality of Rio Branco, state of Acre. Shrimp samples from six establishments were collected in sterile bottles, identified, refrigerated and transported to the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases of Animals at the Federal University of Acre, for the manual counting of colony-forming units and identification of fungal genera. As a result, the number of molds and yeasts in the dried salted shrimp samples varied between 1.0x102 and 1.02x106 CFU/g. Nine fungal genera were identified: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Malassezia, Fusarium, Exophiala, Candida, Curvularia and Trichosporon. The most frequent were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium, these being potential producers of mycotoxins. The presence of molds and yeasts in the samples of dried salted shrimp shows the need for greater hygienic-sanitary rigidity of this fish at different stages of manipulation and processing as preventative measures for public health.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the variability in ambient air conditions (temperature and relative humidity) and periods of exposure on the same batch of table grapes in the first stages of the fruit supply chain (harvesting, processing and storage prior to commercialization), in order to predict their dynamic shelf life. To estimate the shelf life we used a linear prediction model dependent on time and ambient air conditions (temperature and relative humidity). It was noted that during processing, there was considerable variations in ambient air conditions that grapes were exposed to, especially in harvesting stage. The ambient of following stages showed homogeneity in air conditions, but the residence time and the way of palletizing grapes affected their shelf life. We observed heterogeneity in the shelf life among different grape pallets and among boxes on a same pallet, with variations of up to 34 days. Thus, we ascertained a heterogeneity in the quality of table grapes from the same production batch, due to the variability in ambient air conditions and period of exposure, which should be considered in the logistics management of the dynamic shelf life of the product in the cold chain.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper aims to determine the influence of a cultivar (Golden delicious and Granny Smith) and enzyme treatments (hot and cold) on the aroma complex of clear apple juice. While the composition of aromatic components of the juice was determined by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique, a panel of 24 semi trained evaluators carried out sensory analysis. There are certain differences in the identified aromatic compounds of juice produced of these two apple cultivars. The most abundant aromatic compounds of apple juice were esters and aliphatic alcohols. Juice made from Granny Smith are determinated with higher content of 2-methylbutyl acetate (isoamyl acetate), hexyl acetate, hexyl butanoate, butyl butanoate, butyl acetate, pentyl acetate and butyl propanoate. It is possible to connect enzymatic treatments with some of the esters. Three esters such as1-(1.1-Dimethylethyl)-2-methyl-1.3-propanediyl 2-methylpropanoate, methyl dihydrojasmonate and ethyl butanoate are specific for the hot enzyme treatment. Cold depectinization processes could be recommended for the juice industry because this treatment better protects aromatic compounds. The panellist preferred apple juice of Granny Smith with flavours which stand for the typical aroma of ripe apples.
Abstract in English:Abstract Loricariid catfish (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus [Weber, 1991]) has invaded water catchments throughout the world, due to the lack of predators and high fecundity. An approach to control its population could be using its roe as food; however, more knowledge is needed. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the shelf-life of fresh loricariid catfish roe stored in ice, as an approach for possible food utilisation. Physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, aw, pH, hardness, and colour), protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), amino and fatty acid contents, oxidative stability (TBARS) and microbiology of roe were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 11, 15 and 21 days. Moisture content (58.5 ± 2.1 vs. 60.4 ± 1.2%), aw (0.89) and pH (5.87 ± 0.14 vs. 5.96 ± 0.03) were shelf-stable (initial vs. final day, respectively). SDS-PAGE showed minor hydrolysis of its protein. Ice storage increased roe free amino acid concentration, confirming proteolysis of its proteins/peptides with not impact on the fatty acid content and TBARS (2.4–3.3 mg malonadehyde/kg sample). Thus, ice storage of fresh loricariid catfish (P. disjunctivus [Weber, 1991]) roe, under the study conditions, proved to be an effective preservation method for its food utilisation, maintaining its physicochemical and microbiological characteristics for up to 20 days.
Abstract in English:Abstract After natural fermentation and solar drying, sour cassava starch acquires expansion property. Traditionally, solar drying occurs without protection, and consequently physical contamination can arise. Thus, the aim of this study was to produce sour cassava starch using a low-cost solar dryer to prevent contamination, whilst retaining the expansion property. The samples were characterized in relation to chemical composition, microscopy and physical contaminants, as well as expansion, thermal, pasting, structural and technological properties. In addition, biscuits were prepared and compared with commercial samples. The solar dryer provided faster drying and lower moisture levels than the control. The specific volumes of the sun-dried products were similar to the control, with minimized contamination. The granules of the starches showed slight erosion on their surface, which was probably due to amylolytic enzymes. X-ray diffraction showed a typical A-type pattern. DSC analysis resulted in higher gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy changes for the sour cassava starch. The pasting properties showed a reduction in the viscosity peak at neutral pH. Although the cassava starch biscuits made with sour cassava starch dried in the solar dryer presented lower expansion levels in relation to the other biscuits produced with commercial sour cassava starch, they had desirable sensory characteristics.
Abstract in English:Abstract Monoglycerides are oleochemical compounds that were widely used as emulsifying agents for foods, anti-bacterial and anti-viruses (monolaurin, monocaprin). The objective of this research was to study the optimal reaction conditions in monoglyceride production from coconut milk. To achieve that purpose, the research was carried out with two factors, namely the ratio of coconut milk: glycerol (50:5; 50:10; 50:15 and 50:20) and esterification reaction time (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hour). The observation was conducted on free fatty acid levels of hydrolized coconut milk, esterification reaction rates, the amount of monoglyceride and fatty acid compositions in monoglyceride. The results showed that the ratio of coconut milk with glycerol of 50: 5 and the reaction time for 4 hour had the optimum esterification reaction rate. The highest of monoglyceride amount was obtained on the reaction time for 4 hours and the ratio of coconut milk with glycerol of 50:5.
Abstract in English:Abstract A direct steam injection pretreatment was added before the microwave-assisted extraction procedure for the extraction of flavonoids from seeds of Hovenia dulcis Thunb, and the antioxidant activity of flavonoid extracts was determined. Based on the experimental results, the addition of direct steam injection simultaneously increased the extraction yield of total flavonoids compared with direct microwave-assisted extraction, and antioxidant activity of flavonoid extracts obtained by adopting the steam injection pretreatment was higher than that by direct microwave extraction alone. Myricetin was isolated from the flavonoid extracts, and the structure was identified by infrared spectroscopy (IR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Recovery yield of total flavonoids was increased by 11.63% when the direct steam injection pretreatment was added to direct microwave extraction.
Abstract in English:Abstract Polyphenol oxidase is the popular enzyme involved in fruit-vegetable browning and melanin synthesis. In the present paper, L-3-phenyllactic acid, a natural bacteriostatic substance, was investigated as an inhibitor of polyphenol oxidase. The results were demonstrated that the residual enzyme activity of polyphenol oxidase decreased gradually with the increase of the concentration of L-3-phenyllactic acid. The L and ΔE values of the reaction system increased gradually. The reversible mixed-type inhibition mode of L-3-phenyllactic acid was determined by Lineweaver Burk plot. At the same time, the results of fluorescence quenching demonstrated that L-3-phenyllactic acid was a quencher of polyphenol oxidase, and the molecular docking study provided the binding mode of L-3-phenyllactic acid and polyphenol oxidase at the molecular level. L-3-phenyllactic acid decreased the activity of polyphenol oxidase and browning of fresh-cut Agaricus Bosporus. This research first studied the inhibitory effect of L-3-phenyllactic acid on the activity of polyphenol oxidase, and would provide a theoretical foundation for the use of L-3-phenyllactic acid as anti-polyphenol oxidase agents.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the baking industry, different processes and methods of freezing have been used for breadmaking to preserve a quality comparable to that of fresh bread. In this study, the effect of part-baking time, freezing rate, and frozen storage time on part-baked French bread quality was determined. The bread was part-baked for 0, 3 and 6 min, frozen at slow (0.15 °C/min) and fast (1.75 °C/min) freezing rates, stored under freezing conditions for up to 56 days and thawed every 14 days. Part-baked bread was rebaked, and the SV and firmness at 2, 24 and 48 h were obtained. An experiment with a factorial design of 3×2×5 (3 part-baking time, 2 freezing rates and 5 frozen storage times) with analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a confidence level of 95% was carried out. The highest SV was obtained at 6 min of part-baking at a slow freezing rate and decreased as the frozen storage time increased. In contrast, TPA showed that bread firmness increases when the specific volume decreases, and the highest firmness is at 0 min of part-baked time. Relatively long part-baking times allow for firm crumb formation with limited damage to the structure and therefore bread with optimal quality.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fermented indigenous foods are of global interest, in the case of South America, fermented beverages made from cassava (Manihot esculenta) are a vital component in the daily life and diet of indigenous groups. Traditional fermentation methods promote the microbiota of beverages and consequently the generation of secondary metabolites during the spontaneous fermentation process. In addition, they improve nutritional value, ensure microbiological stability, promote flavor and aroma formation (flavor) and degrade cassava’s own cyanogenic compounds. The objective of this review article is to describe the methods of artisan elaboration, the role of microorganisms on the chemical parameters of the substrates of indigenous beverages and their significance as a potential source of probiotics. The fermented cassava-based beverages studied were chicha, calugi, yakupa, caxiri, cauim, tarubá, y parakari, from Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Guyana. A specific search was carried out in the main scientific databases using the key words: chicha, cassava, fermented beverages, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Articles in English and Spanish were chosen from the last 7 years to the present. It is recommended to study these beverages in depth for subsequent research and development of industrialization processes, and thus rescuing the ancestral traditions of native indigenous groups.
Abstract in English:Abstract The study aimed to know how almonds from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a byproduct of this fruit from Brazilian Cerrado, can be used to improve value to cereal bars. To respond to this question, the study characterized pequi almonds and cereal bars with pequi, and evaluate sensory acceptance. The preparation of cereal bars enriched with pequi almonds consisted of 3 formulations: standard (0%, pequi almond), formulation A (12.5% almond) and formulation B (25.0% almond). The best results were obtained through drying kinetics for the use of almonds in the formulations. Later, they were subjected to physicochemical analyses: moisture, ash and lipids, pH and soluble solids, crude fiber, proteins, sugar content and color index (L*, a* and b*), antioxidant capacity and sensory analysis which relied on 108 consumers. The blind test was applied and the information was used to evaluate the attributes: color, taste, texture, overall impression and purchase intention. Pequi almond obtained: 27.99% of fibers, 29.62% of proteins and 35.36% of lipids (composed mainly of oleic acid 57.65%, followed by 27.43% of palmitic acid). The results showed that the sensory acceptance for the consumers increased when they found out that the cereal bars contained pequi. Regarding the blind test (without information on the product), it was concluded that consumers appreciate new products with this fruit from the cerrado.
Abstract in English:Abstract A highly efficient tool that has stood out in data processing and treatment is Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Self-organized maps (SOM), which is a type of ANNs, are easy-to-view computational models that simulate information processing and knowledge acquisition. Applying this tool, we analyzed the behavior of the film formed on the mozzarella cheese surface when subjected to salting by immersion. In order to reduce the amount of NaCl in the food, KCl was used as a partial substitute in adequate amounts, without causing sensory changes in the cheese. The diffusion of salts in the brine is caused by the transfer of sodium and potassium ions, induced by concentration gradient of these salts inside and outside the food. The application of artificial neural networks proved to be an effective tool in the evaluation of the influence of the film on the diffusion process of Na+ and K+ ions, in the mozzarella cheese salting.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this work was to associate the use of biofilms to Lippia sidoides (Lippia) and Morinda citrifolia (Noni) essential oils and their respective major constituents in post-harvest quality components. The evaluations in this study were chromatographic analysis the essential oils, fruit mass reduction effect, total soluble solids, peel color and fruit firmness. Regarding the adjustment and viability of the essential oil concentrations to be used in the treatments, a phytotoxicity test was performed. The main constituent found in Noni essential oil was octanoic acid, while for Lippia essential oil was thymol. The concentration of 3% of Noni and Lippia essential oils was the maximum to reach an acceptable level of phytotoxicity on papaya fruit peel. The paraffin + L. sidoides and paraffin + M. citrifolia treatments achieved the lowest reduction in pulp mass. In relation to total soluble solids, treatments did not show a significant difference. The best result for firmness was found in sunflower oil + noni coating. Sunflower oil + noni and sunflower oil + octanoic acid were the treatments that maintained normal yellow color in fruits for longer time.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this research, kombucha tea was prepared using 5 different tea extracts and physicochemical and sensory analyses were made. The tea extracts used are black tea, green tea, sage, linden and mint, respectively. The prepared tea samples were subjected to fermentation for 14 days. In tea samples, pH, electrical conductivity, water-soluble solid and phenolic components were analyzed before and after fermentation. pH values decreased by an average of 63% in all tea samples after fermentation. The electrical conductivity increased in black tea, green tea and mint tea, while sage and linden decreased. Brix values decreased in all tea samples, the most decrease was in black tea. Total amount of phenolic contents of kombucha tea samples decreased excluding mint tea sample. As a result of sensory analysis of tea samples, mint tea got the highest score. As a result of the research, it has been determined that the kombucha tea, which is usually made with black and green tea, can be prepared with teas of different flavors and its consumption can be increased.