Food Science and Technology, Volume: 41 Supplement 2, Published: 2021
  • Castor oil (Ricinus communis): a review on the chemical composition and physicochemical properties Review Article

    YEBOAH, Akwasi; YING, Sheng; LU, Jiannong; XIE, Yu; AMOANIMAA-DEDE, Hanna; BOATENG, Kwadwo Gyapong Agyenim; CHEN, Miao; YIN, Xuegui

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Increasing world population has markedly increased the demand for vegetable oils for domestic and industrial purposes. Plant-based vegetable oils have been identified as one of the oils with high nutritive value. Castor plant is one of the oilseed with rich oil content owing to its high monounsaturated fatty acid and bioactive compounds. Its fatty acid profile constitutes mainly of ricinoleic acid and other minor acids such as stearic, palmitic, and oleic acid. Ricinoleic acid of castor oil is unique among all other vegetable oils, making it attractive for a wide spectrum of applications. The predominant triglyceride component in the oil is triricinolein. Minor biological compounds including carotenoid, tocopherol, tocotrienol, phytosterol, phospholipid, phytochemical, and phenolic compounds are present in castor oil. These compounds offer oxidation stability, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties to the oil. The acid, anisidine, iodine, viscosity, and saponification values indicate that castor has good oil quality compared to other vegetable oils. Castor oil composition is influenced by the area of production and method of extraction adopted. The chemical structure of castor oil is centered on the ricinoleic acid and three major functional groups linked by glycerol moiety. More research on the oil’s component is being investigated nevertheless efficient and eco-friendly extraction methods are required. This review, therefore, summarizes the castor oil composition namely the triglyceride, various fatty acids and bioactive compounds, extraction methods, as well as its physicochemical properties.
  • Influence of different packaging on the storage of milk candy in tablets Original Article

    FURTADO, Diogo Cunha; GARCIA, Lismaíra Gonçalves Caixeta; PERES, Daiane Sousa; SILVA, Flávio Alves da; SANTOS, Priscila Alonso dos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different packaging on the storage of milk candy in tablets by means of moisture, ash, lipid, protein, colour and texture profile analysis. The were used: Expanded polystyrene wrapped with polyvinyl chloride film (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and low-density polyethylene (PEBD) bags. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomised design, and the evaluations were carried out at 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 days. All treatments presented darkening of the milk candy; however, those candies packaged in PVC presented a light and yellow colour (L = 39.84, b* = 20.06), while those in PEBD presented a dark colour (L = 36.75). According to the conditions studied, PVC packaging is not recommended for the storage of milk candy in tablets due to the intense changes in the physical-chemical characteristics, texture and colour. In contrast, PVC, PP and PEBD packages are efficient materials for maintaining the initial properties of this type of candy.
  • Effect of high somatic cell counts on the sensory acceptance and consumption intent of pasteurized milk and coalho cheese Original Article

    BEZERRA, Joadilza da Silva; SALES, Danielle Cavalcanti; OLIVEIRA, Juliana Paula Felipe de; SILVA, Yhêlda Maria de Oliveira; URBANO, Stela Antas; LIMA JÚNIOR, Dorgival Morais de; BORBA, Luís Henrique Fernandes; MACÊDO, Cláudia Souza; ANAYA, Katya; RANGEL, Adriano Henrique do Nascimento

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Our aim was to evaluate the sensorial acceptance and consumption intent of pasteurized milks and coalho cheeses produced with milk with low (80,000 cells/mL) and high (480,000 cells/mL) somatic cell count (SCC) level. Low SCC pasteurized milk (LCC) obtained statistically higher scores on the aroma, consistency, flavor and overall liking attributes in comparison with high SCC pasteurized milk. LCC mean scores for all attributes were statistically higher than high SCC Coalho Cheese. High SCC in raw milk has a detrimental effect on the quality of pasteurized milk and coalho cheeses as it presented lower sensory acceptance, failing to meet the consumer’s desired expectations.
  • Effect of walnut (Juglans Regia) consumption on hyperlipidemic adults Original Article

    ASHRAF, Shazia; ARFEEN, Asma; AMJAD, Safeena; AHMED, Zaheer

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Present study was aimed to assess effect of walnut kernel with different dose on individuals with hyperlipidemia. Study was conducted at Fatima Memorial Hospital (FMH), Shadman, Lahore, Pakistan and 90 hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into 3 groups having no other disease. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were estimated in all three groups on 0 day (at start) 30th day and on 56th day of study. A significant (p < 0.05) result was observed and blood lipid profile of individuals were seen to improve by consuming walnuts. Group B who were fed 25 g walnuts kernel per day for 56 days a decrease of 21.6% in serum TC, 28.9% in serum TG, 26.5% in LDL-C; and an increase of 27.1% in HDL-C was observed as compared to control group. Whereas group C individuals who were fed 50 g walnut kernel per day showed a decrease of 30.3% in serum TC, 37.2% in serum TG, 33.8% in LDL-C and an increase of 50.0% in HDL-C was observed. It was concluded that consumption (25 g and 50 g) of walnut kernel showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in lipid profile of hyperlipidemic individuals when consumed for 56 days.
  • Effects of thermal process in bioactive compounds of mixed Brazilian cerrado fruit jam Original Article

    BRANDÃO, Telma Melo; CARVALHO, Elisângela Elena Nunes; LIMA, Juliana Pinto de; CARMO, Eloá Lourenço do; ELIAS, Heloisa Helena de Siqueira; MARTINS, Glêndara Aparecida de Souza; BORGES, Soraia Vilela

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of thermal vacuum processing and thermal processing without vacuum on the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of low-calorie mixed Brazilian cerrado fruit jam. The mixed jam consisted of 60% of mixed pulp of Marolo, soursop and sweet passion fruit, and 40% other ingredients. This jam was utilized a completely randomized design to evaluate the antioxidant activity, total phenolic profile and content, carotenoid profile, and ascorbic acid content. The results showed that there was a reduction in bioactive compounds in the jam of 44.37% for total phenolics, 50.56% for ascorbic acid, 78.40% total carotenoids, and 65.14% for antioxidant activity when compared with the mixed pulps. In the carotenoid profile, reduction was observed for all compounds in relation to the mixed pulps, especially β-carotene (average loss of 81.89%). Independent of the processing, there was a significant increase in m-coumaric acid in the jam compared with the mixed pulp. The concentrations of other phenolic compounds decreased after processing. These results suggest that thermal vacuum processing is most suitable for the production of jam with higher nutritional value.
  • Pink and white shrimps from the Brazilian coast: pigment identification, antioxidant activity and microbial quality under different freezing-times Original Article

    LÓPEZ, Ana Maria Queijeiro; SANTOS, Flávia Adaís Rocha dos; MARTINS, Everton Santos; SILVA, Amanda Lys dos Santos; SANTOS, Elane Cristina Lourenço dos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Shrimps fishing, especially the pink (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and F. subtilis) and the white (Litopenaeus schmitti) ones, are relevant for the Brazilian Northeast economy, and their price depends on their aspect-quality. They are rich in lipids/proteins, which are a target for autolytic and microbial enzymes. These may not change the shrimps’ appearance but generate substances that may cause poisoning, as histamines. This work compared the microbial quality of fillets and shells of these three shrimps, harvested in two years, after cooking and storage under different freezing times (0- 90 days), as well as the total carotenoids (TC) and antioxidant activity (AA%) of ethanolic extracts from all the samples, using spectrophotometry and DPPH test. None histaminogenic and few mesophilic bacteria were isolated (all Gram+ species of Corynebacterium, Listeria, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Erysipelothrix), but in lower number than the tolerability limit. The TC and AA% of fresh shells from time “zero” were always higher than those of fillets, mainly for F. subtilis. Cooking increased TC and AA% of fillets, but reduced them in shells, and both parameters declined along the freezing. Thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometric scanning of all the extracts and standards evidenced astaxanthin as the main carotenoid.
  • Ultrafiltration for the recovery of proteins from surimi washing water Original Article

    OLIVEIRA, Dayse Lícia de; GRASSI, Thiago Luís Magnani; PAIVA, Natália Mingues; SANTANA, Bruna Nicoleti; NAKAMURA, Alex Akira; BERMEJO-POZA, Rubén; PONSANO, Elisa Helena Giglio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the ultrafiltration process (UF) in the cleansing treatment of the tilapia surimi washing water and in the recovery of components. After producing surimi, the water generated in the washing operations was subjected to UF in a 30 kDa polyethersulfone membrane. Unfiltered washing waters and UF permeate and concentrate were analyzed for pH, total solids (TS) and fixed solids (FS), total proteins, and lipids. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was determined in the original water and in the permeate. The concentrate was dehydrated in a spray dryer and analyzed for amino acids and carotenoids. The permeate showed a significant decrease in TS, proteins and COD, indicating that UF was efficient in removing the organic load from the waters. The percentage of protein recovery by UF was 93.12% and the dehydrated concentrate had all the essential amino acids, being leucine (5.47%), lysine (6.49%), valine (3.59%), and phenylalanine (3.68%) those with the highest concentrations, and also 0.67 mg/100 g of carotenoids. The application of UF has proved to be viable both in the recovery of valuable compounds and in the decontamination of water, contributing to the sustainability of the fish productive sector.
  • Consumers value healthy eating and environmental responsibility: how negative food contexts aid decision-making Original Article

    DANG, Huy Duc; TRAN, Giang Thanh

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The research aims to explore consumers’ intention toward traceable food in the dual context of the animal disease outbreak (i.e. African Swine Fever - ASF) and the current food safety issues. An extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model was used to predict purchase intention/attitude toward traceable pork. The study employed the structural equation modeling (SEM) to extract insights from the dataset of 230 students in Vietnam. The current detrimental context of food safety deemed promoting the consumption of traceable food, a risk-mitigating alternative. Healthy and environmentally responsible consumers held positive standpoints toward traceable pork as a solution to fulfill their responsibility with the environment and healthy eating lifestyle. The extended model was promising in explaining 52% of the variance of the purchase intention. The study confirmed both the positive impacts of the long-lasting unsafe food issues and the short-term animal disease outbreak on intention toward traceable food. To promote traceable food, industry food marketers should tailor their marketing and communication strategies to target healthy and responsible eaters.
  • Properties and characterization of biodegradable films obtained from different starch sources Original Article

    RODRIGUES, Antonio Augusto Marques; COSTA, Rayssa Ribeiro da; SANTOS, Luana Ferreira dos; SILVA, Silvanda de Melo; BRITTO, Douglas de; LIMA, Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The increasing use of natural biodegradable polymers to preserve foods is a consequence of the concern of society with sustainability. Starch stands out amongst the natural polymers due to its great availability on a worldwide scale, high extraction yield and nutritional value, low cost, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Apart from the traditional sources, various others exist with extraction potential. The objective of this study was to identify films from different non-traditional starch sources with properties revealing their potential to be applied as coating for fruits and vegetables. The biodegradable films were prepared with three starch concentrations (2, 3 and 3.5%) for each of the following sources: cassava, yam, jackfruit seed and mango kernel. The starches from the sources studied are promising ingredients for the formulation of films, presenting good physical, optical (such as transparency) and mechanical characteristics, principally tensile strength whose maximum value was 36.63 MPa. Increases in starch concentration directly influenced the thickness, water vapor permeability, tensile strength and puncture force. The films with the greatest potentials for use according to their characteristics were 3% cassava, 3% yam, 3.5% jackfruit seed and 2% mango.
  • Study of gala apples (Malus pumila) thin-layer microwave drying: drying kinetics, diffusivity, structure and color Original Article

    KRIAA, Karim; NASSAR, Ahmed Fayez

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The effect of microwave power, sample thickness, and diameter on drying kinetics, effective moisture diffusivity, and activation energy of apple cylinders for microwave drying were investigated. Also, the effect of the microwave power on the quality of the dried apples was studied by measuring the surface color change and scanning the surface structure. The same mass of fresh apples was dried at different power levels. Two diameters and three thicknesses were studied. Aghbashlo model showed the best fitting for the drying kinetics of apple. The drying time was reduced by increasing the power and the diameter, but the thickness had no clear effect. The effective diffusivity values ranged between 1.47 × 10-7 and 24.4 × 10-7 m2/s. The effective diffusivity increased by increasing the three studied parameters. The parameters' effects on the drying time and the diffusivity were studied using a full factorial experimental design. The power and the diameter had the highest effect on the drying time. However, the thickness had the highest effect on the effective diffusivity.
  • Comparison of clinical effect of CT diagnosis and X-ray Plain film diagnosis in children with Acute Osteomyelitis during emergency treatment Original Article

    FAN, Jing; GUO, Yanyan; LI, Jin; HE, Li; ZHOU, Junfen

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Acute osteomyelitis has great harmfulness. To conduct comparative analysis on the difference of clinical effect of CT diagnosis and X-ray plain film diagnosis in children with acute osteomyelitis during emergency treatment, to provide guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Methods The study subjects were 32 children with acute osteomyelitis. All the children were examined by X-ray and CT before surgery. Image characteristics and detection rates of bone destruction, changes in periosteum and cortex were compared. Funding X-ray scanning image: for the children with acute osteomyelitis in the early stage, the symptoms were demonstrated as that the submuscular space disappeared, and the boundary between subcutaneous and muscle tissues was blurred. CT scanning image: the images in early stage showed hyperemia and edema of soft tissue, with a slightly lower density of lesion, disappearance of interfascicular space, and a low-density abscess cavity in the center. The detection rate of bone destruction in CT scan was obviously higher than that in plain X-ray, in terms of bone destruction in special morphology, bone shell destruction in residual expansion, circular bone destruction, and peripheral bone defect, and the detection rate of periosteum and cortex changes was higher than that in plain X-ray, The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of CT in children with acute osteomyelitis during emergency treatment were better than that of X-ray plain film. Interpretation CT scan has good diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity during emergency treatment of this disease.
  • A comparative study on effects of three measuring methods for gastroesophageal reflux of post-POEM achalasia patients Original Article

    LI, Xin; SU, Sibiao; LUO, Wei; QIN, Fengyan; JIANG, Haixing; QIN, Shanyu

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Gastroesophageal reflux is a major complication of post-POEM (peroral endoscopic myotomy, POEM) for esophageal achlasia. Objective: To discuss the effects of three measuring methods for Gastroesophageal Reflux of Post-POEM Achalasia Patients and find out the best method for diagnosing post-POEM gastroesophageal reflux of esophageal achalasia patients by conducting clinical follow-up studies. Methods: Follow-up visits were conducted on the patients with esophageal achalasia who had received POEM treatment in our hospital from 2013 to 2016. Between 2 to 4 weeks post operation, Eckardt score was adopted to evaluate the operation efficacy, the GerdQ score, electronic gastroscopy and 24h esophagus impedance-pH monitoring to investigate the gastroesophageal reflux and the comparison of detection rate among the three different methods on post-POEM gastroesophageal reflux. Results: There were 76 patients with Eckardt scores were 3 or lower than 3 post POEM (76/78, 97.44%), 2 patients with Eckardt scores were 4 or higher than 4 (2/78, 2.56%), the cure rate of the treatment was as high as 97.44%; the Eckardt score post operation decreased more significantly than before operation, P<0.0.5. Conclusion: for post-POEM Achalasia patients, 24h esophagus impedance-pH monitoring is the best way to diagnose post-POEM gastroesophageal reflux.
  • CircRNA malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified Sequence 1 (MFHAS1) reduced inflammatory responses in a Colitis Model via SIRT1/NF-κB Original Article

    WANG, Hong; HU, Ying

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and non-specific inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Its pathogenesis remains unclear, but its morbidity shows an increasing trend year by year. The pathogenesis of UC may be related to the genetic susceptibility, immune factor and intestinal microflora. In the last few years, an increasing number of studies have examined the relationship between the expression levels of peripheral CircRNA and UC. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CircRNA MFHAS1 in colitis and its possible mechanism. The expression of CircRNA MFHAS1 was reduced in colitis, and miR-486-5p expression was also increased in citrobacter rodentium-induced murine colitis. In vitro model, over-expression of CircRNA MFHAS1 reduced inflammatory responses, induced SIRT1 protein expression, and suppressed NF-κB protein expression. However, miR-486-5p CircRNA MFHAS1 suppressed SIRT1 protein expression, and induced NF-κB protein expression in vitro model. The inactivation of SIRT1 reduced the anti-inflammation effects of CircRNA MFHAS1 on inflammatory responses in vitro model. Over-expression of miR-486-5p also reduced the anti-inflammation effects of CircRNA MFHAS1 in vitro model. Our results demonstrated that CircRNA MFHAS1 reduces inflammatory responses in Colitis via SIRT1/NF-κB by miR-486-5p.
  • miR-223-3p suppresses inflammation to protect cardiomyocytes by targeting NLRP3 in acute myocardial infarction patients Original Article

    WANG, Fangfang; CHEN, Xin; SONG, Ying; HUANG, Shenglan; ZHOU, Changle; HUANG, Changgen; CHEN, Zengguang; ZHANG, Liangfeng; JI, Yuan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract microRNA (miRNA) had been found played an important role in occurrence and development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) disease. In this paper, we found that the circulating miR-223-3p in AMI patients was significantly higher than that in unstable angina (UA) patients and healthy people. Univariate and logistic regression analysis showed the circulating miR-223-3p was a protective factor in the occurrence of AMI. We also found that the circulating miR-223-3p was negatively correlated with the serum CK-MB, cTnI, AST, LDH, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-8. The luciferase reporter gene system confirmed that miR-223-3p targeted inhibition of NLRP3 expression in THP-1 and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), and miR-223-3p was negatively correlated with the expression of NLRP3 in the PBMC of AMI patients. In PBMC of healthy people, miR-146a-mimic could increase the expression of NLRP3, but decreased the level of TNF-α secretion. Moreover, H2C9 cells apoptosis by TNF-α in a dose-dependent. In conclusion, these results suggested that miR-223-3p suppressed inflammation to protect cardiomyocytes by targeting NLRP3 in AMI patients.
  • What are the problems of the red meat processing industry?: A case study from Turkey Original Article

    TOSUN, Duygu; DEMİRBAŞ, Nevin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The red meat processing industry has an important place in the food industry in Turkey. However, there are significant problems that limit the contribution of the industry to the red meat sector, particularly with regard to the livestock enterprises which are the source of raw materials. The aim of this paper is to identify the problems of the red meat processing industry, and to suggest solutions to these problems, through a case study of Izmir and Afyonkarahisar provinces, which together provide a useful representation of the structural characteristics typically found in the red meat sector in Turkey. In this study, a total of 71 face-to-face surveys were conducted with the managers of slaughterhouses (19), meat combines (13) and meat and meat product processing plants (39). The current situation of the enterprises and their problems were examined, particularly with regard to raw material supply, production and marketing. High and unstable prices of raw materials, combined with high costs, are the major problems. In order to resolve the problems in the industry, horizontal and vertical integration needs to be improved throughout the entire supply chain, starting from livestock farming through to the point where the end product reaches the final consumer.
  • “Yellow Araçá” flour (Psidium cattleyanum cv. Ya-cy) in cereal bars - nutritional and functional potential Original Article

    VANIN, Camila Da Rosa; SANTOS, Ronaldo Follmann dos; TONIAL, Ivane Benedetti; SANTOS, Tatiane Batista dos; WAGNER JUNIOR, Américo; PRADO, Naimara Vieira do; LUCCHETTA, Luciano

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Yellow Araçá (Psidium cattleyanum cv. Ya-cy) is a Brazilian native fruit that can be consumed fresh or turned into food products. However, distribution and consumption of fresh fruits are still limited due to faulty post-harvest handling. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and functional potential of fresh Yellow Araçá fruit, turned into flour, in formulations of cereal bars. Ripe fruits preserved higher nutritional and functional indexes, presenting high antioxidant potential. As observed during the sensory analysis, addition up to 20% of fruit flour into the cereal bar was well accepted by the consumers. The cereal bar showed significant levels of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-9 (n-9), and minerals nutrients such as iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc. Significant levels of phenolic compounds and low levels of sodium and saturated fatty, free from trans fatty acids, were also observed. The cereal bar presented high amount of crude fiber content, indicating a high potential for use as a functional food.
  • The effect of herbal salt as a natural antioxidant in preserving fish during freezing storage Original Article

    LIRA, Giselda Macena; LOPEZ, Ana Maria Queijeiro; NANES, Gabriela Marques de Farias; SILVA, Fernanda Geny Calheiros; NASCIMENTO, Ticiano Gomes do

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The changes in chemical composition, chlorides, phenols and fatty acid profile of roasted or not Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758) samples, after using or herbal salt or common iodized salt (NaCl), during storage under freezing, were evaluated. The ash and chloride contents were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in samples of the roasted fish previously treated with salt, compared to those treated with herbal salt. Oregano herb had a higher content of phenolic compounds and a significant difference (p < 0.05), compared to rosemary and basil herbs. At time “zero”, or after 45 and 90 days of storage under freezing, the fatty acid content of the samples in natura, showed no significant difference (p > 0.05), when compared to the roasted and pre-treated with herbal salt. However, statistically lower values were detected (p > 0.05) in roasted samples pre-treated with salt, showing a positive correlation between phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity exerted by herbs, in relation to the profile of fatty acids during storage under freezing, preserving nutritional quality. These results contributed to show the good functionality of herbal salt, in addition to encouraging healthy eating habits, by reducing common salt consumption.
  • Street food in Espírito Santo, Brazil: a study about good handling practices and food microbial quality Original Article

    FERRARI, Auriane Morellato; OLIVEIRA, Jhenifer de Souza Couto; SÃO JOSÉ, Jackline Freitas Brilhante de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Street foods are points of sale of ready-to-eat foods sold on the public roads. However, due to the conditions of handling and sale of food practiced in these trades, these can pose risks to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the conditions of the handling and sale of food from street vendors in Vitória and Serra, Espírito Santo, Brazil. A checklist based on the Brazilian legislation resolution number 216/2004 was used to verify the sanitary conditions of the trades. In addition, samples of foods commercialized in these trades were collected to determine microbiological quality, according to current legislation. Of the 200 trades evaluated, 58.5% were classified as “Poor,” with unsatisfactory hygiene conditions. The main inadequacies were related to the hygienic conditions of the seller. Of the 63 food samples analyzed, 57.1% presented contamination above the limit allowed by the legislation and were as a result considered unfit for consumption. It has been concluded that street vending is still a potential source of pathogens that cause foodborne illness.
  • Composition of spontaneous black garlic fermentation in a water bath Original Article

    SETIYONINGRUM, Fitri; PRIADI, Gunawan; AFIATI, Fifi; HERLINA, Nina; SOLIKHIN, Akhmad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Garlic was fermented spontaneously in a water bath with a temperature of 72 °C and relative humidity close to 90%. The fermentation periods were 0 (fresh garlic), 7, 14, and 21 days. Several physicochemical properties: antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol, flavonoid content, pH, and browning intensity were determined. All of the chemical properties of black garlic increased significantly during the fermentation, except the pH value. The pH value was decreased conveniently during the time of fermentation. Browning intensity as physical properties also increased during the fermentation. A volatile compound in garlic during the fermentation process was analyzed by SPME-GCMS and was quite different compared with fresh garlic. A water bath could be considered as fermentation instrument of black garlic processes.
  • Adjustment of mathematical models in the drying of cagaita pulp in foam-layer Original Article

    CAVALCANTE, Maisa Dias; BELISÁRIO, Celso Martins; OLIVEIRA, Daniel Emanuel Cabral de; MAIA, Geisa Priscilla Araújo Gomes; FERREIRA JÚNIOR, Weder Nunes; RESENDE, Osvaldo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The cagaita is a native fruit from Brazilian Cerrado region. Among conservation techniques and to increase shelf life of the fruit, foam bed drying becomes ideal. This study adjusted mathematic models of foam drying of the cagaita pulp at different temperatures to determine the net diffusion coefficient and the activation energy of this process. As the foam layer drying has a shorter drying time due to the greater exposure of the surface area to the air, it allows the application of lower dehydration temperatures, so it used 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C, the data observed were better fitted to the Midilli model. The net diffusion coefficient increased with temperature and the activation energy was 25.368 kJ mol-1.
  • Mascarpone cheese from sheep's milk - a new option for the consumer Original Article

    MUNIEWEG, Félix Roman; GAVIÃO, Emiliane Rodrigues; CZARNOBAY, Marcela; DILDA, Amanda; STEFANI, Lenita de Cássia Moura; NESPOLO, Cássia Regina

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dairy sheep farming, as well as processing of dairy products, are consolidated activities in Brazil, mainly for the production of cheese and yogurt. Considering that sheep milk has high levels of fat and the need for product diversification, this work aimed to develop a new formulation of mascarpone cheese using sheep's milk, since the basis for this type of cheese is milk cream. The quality of this derivative was monitored for 120 days of storage under refrigeration to evaluate microorganisms that indicate quality and safety, in addition to physical-chemical parameters. The ovine mascarpone cheese showed adequate microbiological results, in accordance with the Brazilian legislation, in addition to high total fat, fat content in the dry extract and protein. The physical-chemical and microbiological parameters remained adequate throughout the storage period under maximum temperatures below 7 °C. Mascarpone cheese was classified by its moisture and fat content in the dry extract as medium moisture or semi-hard cheese and as extra fat or double cream cheese, respectively. The processing, packaging and storage conditions proved to be adequate and provided product stability. In this study a new sheep milk derivative was successfully developed, characterized, tested and proved to be adequate for the market.
  • Chemical and sensory profiles of Peruvian native cocoas and chocolates from the Bagua and Quillabamba regions Original Article

    MEJÍA, Andrea; MEZA, Gilder; ESPICHÁN, Fabio; MOGROVEJO, Julio; ROJAS, Rosario

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Peru is home to six of the main genetic clusters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and is an important exporter of fine-flavor cocoa varieties. Two varieties of Peruvian native cocoa, in high demand for the fine chocolate market, grow in the regions of Bagua (Amazonas) and Quillabamba (Cusco). The main chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these two varieties were determined. Cocoa pastes and chocolates made with cocoa from these regions were subjected to chemical proximate analysis and determination of fatty acid profile, theobromine, caffeine, total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and main sensory attributes. A multiple factor analysis (MFA) was applied to the data. Samples from Quillabamba differ from those of Bagua mainly by having a higher fat and lower theobromine content. The main sensory attributes detected for Bagua samples that differ from, those of Quillabamba were fruity, acidic, astringent, and bitter notes.
  • Antimicrobial activity, physical-chemical and activity antioxidant of honey samples of Apis mellifera from different regions of Paraná, Southern Brazil Original Article

    GREGÓRIO, Angelívia; GALHARDO, Douglas; SEREIA, Maria Josiane; WIELEWSKI, Priscila; GAVAZZONI, Lilian; SANTOS, Idineia Fernande dos; SANGALETI, Gleyce Stefani Santos Gaspar Monteiro Gomes; CARDOSO, Erica Cavalheiro; BORTOTI, Tatiane Layanne; ZANATTA, Leticia Aguiar; GONÇALVES, Lucas Machado; SUZIN, Mônica Araujo; SANTOS, Ariane Ambrósio; TOLEDO, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Antimicrobial activity of honey has lately drawn researchers’ attention, especially due to the fact that its antimicrobial capacity has been proven. The aim of this study was analyzing bactericidal and bacteriostatic action in the pathogenic microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans of honey samples from five regions of the state of Paraná. Candida albicans yeast showed to be more resistant to honey than the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentration found for the three microorganisms tested was 12.5% to 25%. The minimal bactericidal concentration, in its turn, was 25% for bacteria and 25% to 50% for yeast. The samples from the Southern area had the best results for both the minimal inhibitory and the bactericidal concentrations. Through physicochemical and phyto-chemical analysis, we observed that several factors are associated to the bactericidal capacity of honey. In conclusion, honey is an excellent bactericidal agent with a great biotechnological potential. Its properties are directly related to its geographic origin, which gives each type of honey its own characteristics.
  • Protective Effect of Victory Onion (Allium victorialis L.) Extract on Reproductive System Injury in Male Rats Original Article

    LI, Fanzhu; ZHANG, Xian; AMEER, Kashif; EUN, Jong-Bang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aqueous and ethanol extracts of A. victorialis were obtained by reflux extraction. A model of kidney yang deficiency as established by injecting hydrocortisone into male Sprague-Dawley rats. The experimental groups (n=8 rats per group) consisted of blank group, kidney yang deficiency group, and Jingui Shenqi control group (oral administration of Jingui Shenqi herbal preparation). In the treated groups, A. victorialis aqueous or ethanol extract was applied at doses of 1000, 800, or 400 mg/kg. In the model group, kidney yang was associated with loss of appetite, increased drinking water consumption and urine output, and decreased range of activity. With a longer injection time, body weight slowly increased, the body temperature decreased, the response was slow, kyphosis was evident in the back of the bow, and body hair became sparse and lost luster in treated group.
  • Treatment of children’s proximal radioulnar joint fusion through single dual-plane osteotomy on combination with multi-sequence cast - a new method for treating the children’s proximal radioulnar joint fusion Original Article

    CAI, Haoqi; WANG, Zhigang; CAI, Haiqing

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To introduce an improved method of de-rotation osteotomy for treating the congenital proximal radioulnar joint fusion: single dual-plane osteotomy combined with multi-sequence cast. Twelve child patients with congenital proximal radioulnar joint fusion (16 limbs) had been treated from 2014 to 2017 with single dual-plane osteotomy combined with multi-sequence cast method. 12 of 16 limbs were corrected in position after one-time cast change, and the remaining 4 limbs of two patients needed to receive cast change for two times before correction. Neither one suffered related nervous and vascular complications, nor one suffered ischemic contracture after all the cases received cast fixation, and it took 8 weeks for their osteotomy parts to reach bony union averagely after operation.The affected limb’s functional evaluation before operation was averagely 5.75 scores (4~8); 12 movements could be completed fully after operation, i.e., functional evaluation reached 12 scores. This surgical operation is easy to operate with good operation result and big range of correction. It can also effectively avoid the occurrence of angioneurotic complications after operation with a high safety. Therefore, it is an ideal alternative method to treat the congenital proximal radioulnar joint fusion in the present stage when joint fusion dissociation operation is not matured.
  • Comparison of multispectral modeling of physiochemical attributes of greengage: Brix and pH values Original Article

    WANG, Xiwei; XING, Xiaoyang; ZHAO, Maocheng; YANG, Junrong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chemometric modeling concerns both accuracy and computational expense for the prediction of quality-indicating attributes of food materials. Modeling approaches were explored with the hyperspectral images with pH and Brix values of greengages. A two-phase architecture was applied for modeling. Firstly, waveband selection was performed using two approaches, i.e., succession projection algorithm (SPA) and its combination with genetic algorithm (SPA+GA). Secondly, multispectral models based on the two feature sets of wavebands were built via a total of six different modeling methods, i.e., partial least squares regression (PLSR) and extreme learning machine (ELM) in their respective stand-alone versions, their applications combined with genetic algorithm (GA), and their ensemble enhancements with modified Adaboost.RT (MAdaboost.RT). Analysis of accuracy and computational expense showed that supervised feature selection with SPA+GA was superior to unsupervised SPA for better modeling accuracy. MAdaboost.RT-ELM showed high accuracy at low computational expense. ELM models were the better base models than the PLSR ones, for being more randomized and diverse. It indicates that MAdaboost.RT-ELM on SPA is the best choice for a quick test on a newly available dataset, while switching the dimensionality reduction from SPA to SPA+GA may yield more accurate models with added, but well worthy, computational expense.
  • Development of vegetal probiotic beverage of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims), yam (Dioscorea cayenensis) and Lacticaseibacillus casei Original Article

    GUEDES, Cinthia Karla Rodrigues do Monte; GUEDES, Andrei Felipe Loureiro do Monte; SILVA, Joyce Ramos da; SILVA, Emanuele Batista Barbosa da; SANTOS, Eveline Cássia Meira dos; STAMFORD, Thayza Cristina Montenegro; STAMFORD, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to produce a non-dairy functional beverage containing Lacticaseibacillus casei, passion fruit juice, and yam flour. The physical and chemical characteristics, consumer acceptance, viability of L. casei during storage time, and resistance to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions were investigated. The beverages were considered good sources of fiber and were well accepted in their aroma, color and appearance parameters. The effectiveness of passion fruit to mask the off-flavor of L. casei fermentation was confirmed. There were >106 UFC.mL-1 of the microorganism during storage (28 days) and they were resistant to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions (> 104 UFC.mL-1). Passion fruit and yam flour showed to be excellent raw materials to be explored and used in combination to promote the probiotic survival and mask the off-flavor, thus being promising alternatives in non-dairy probiotic products development.
  • Feasibility of L. plantarum and prebiotics on Aflatoxin B1 detoxification in cow milk Original Article

    VASCONCELOS, Rute Alexandra Machado; KALSCHNE, Daneysa Lahis; WOCHNER, Katia Francine; MOREIRA, Maria Clara Cândido; BECKER-ALGERI, Tania Aparecida; CENTENARO, Andressa Inez; COLLA, Eliane; RODRIGUES, Paula Cristina Azevedo; DRUNKLER, Deisy Alessandra

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Milk is a key food worldwide prone to mycotoxins contamination. Lactobacillus plantarum and prebiotics detoxification ability was evaluated by a Plackett-Burman Design considering the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and its bioaccessibility in artificially contaminated ultra-high temperature cow milk. Six variables were evaluated: AFB1 concentration (from 5.0 to 10.0 μg L−1); incubation time (0 to 6 h); and inulin, oligofructose, β-glucan, and polydextrose concentrations (from 0.00 to 0.75%). The reduction in AFB1 ranged from 0% to 55.85% and in vitro bioaccessibility from 15.62% to 51.09%. The greatest reduction in AFB1 occurred by adding L. plantarum combined with inulin, oligofructose and β-glucan. The greatest reduction in bioaccessibility occurred by adding inulin or oligofructose and L. plantarum with a 10.0 μg L−1 AFB1 concentration. A sharp reduction in AFB1 was accompanied by higher bioaccessibility rates, and in this case, bioaccessibility is considered the main factor to ensure a low AFB1 absorption by the body. The best experimental condition was 10.0 µg L-1 AFB1, added of L. plantarum and inulin or oligofructose (0.75%), ensuring > 16% final bioaccessibility. Such results represent a safe AFB1 decontamination level for milk.
  • Acer triflorum: A maple species that serves as a resource for nervonic acid and that has an ultralow erucic acid content Original Article

    SU, Yajing; XUE, Wenxin; JIA, Bingyu; CHU, Jiangtao; WANG, Libin; FENG, Zhen; YU, Xiaoyan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this experiment, pulse NMR and gas chromatography were used to determine the seed oil content and fatty acid composition of Acer triflorum. In addition, the morphological characteristics of samaras and seeds were measured by conventional methods. The results showed that the average oil content of the tested seeds was 33.44 ± 0.098% and revealed the presence of 16 fatty acids, of which six constituted 93.57% of the total oil cocent: linoleic acid, oleic acid, docosadienoic acid, peanutenedioic acid, palmitic acid and nervonic acid. In particular, the erucic acid content was less than 1%. Fifteen morphological indexes were measured and used as a reference for breeding Acer triflorum. This is the first study to investigate the seed oil content and fatty acid composition of Acer triflorum.
  • Utilization of persimmon powder in gluten-free cakes and determination of their physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties Original Article

    YEŞİLKANAT, Nazlıcan; SAVLAK, Nazlı

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Reaching nutritious snack foods to consume outside, especially during socialization, is of great importance for celiac people. This study investigates the effects of partial substitution of sugar with persimmon powder (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80%) as a source of sugar, in gluten-free cake formulation. Specific volume and density ranged between 1.48-2.04 mL/g and 4.89-6.54 g/mL in persimmon powder substituted cakes, respectively, whereas it was 2.08 mL/g and 5.06 g/mL in control cake. Substitution of sugar with 20 and 40% persimmon powder resulted in statistically comparable cakes with control in terms of specific volume and density. Springiness, cohesiveness and resilience decreased; hardness and chewiness increased by increasing persimmon powder substitution. 20% persimmon powder substituted gluten-free cake was statistically similar to control cake in terms of hardness. Persimmon inclusion lead to enriched cakes with significantly higher total phenolic content (up to 304.2%), ferric reducing antioxidant power (up to 384.4%) and radical scavenging activity (up to 264.3%). Enriched gluten-free cakes with increased K, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content as well as favorable sensorial and physical properties were achieved by 20 and 40% persimmon powder substitution. This study can help socialization of celiac people outside their houses by providing nutritious cakes.
  • Dough rheology and the impact of zinc sulfate on the quality of cookies Original Article

    USMAN, Muhammad; PATIL, Prasanna Jagannath; MANZOOR, Muhammad Faisal; BILAL, Muhammad; AHMED, Shabbir; MURTAZA, Mian Anjum; SHAH, Haroon; NAWAZ, Nida; AMJAD, Sohail; ABRAR, Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Zinc deficiency is a growing issue in developing countries. Moreover, it is a well-known fact that the bakery products have very low zinc content and the further loss of zinc occurs during milling of wheat and under baking of end products, which makes it hard to produce nutritional bakery products. For this purpose, zinc sulfate has been incorporated in wheat flour at 0, 32.5, 65, and 97.5 mg/100 g to prepare cookies and determine their physicochemical and nutritional properties as well as stability under controlled storage conditions, i.e. temperature (23-25 °C) and relative humidity (45-55%). The findings exhibited that the cookies-percentage of fat and protein decreased after the addition of zinc sulfate. The fiber content of cookies was non-significantly changed, while the moisture content increased. Moreover, the diameter of cookies significantly increased from 45.65 ± 1.46 cm to 45.84 ± 1.34 cm. The thickness and spread factor of cookies were also effects ranged from 1.49 to 1.54 cm and 30.63 ± 2.98 to 29.76 ± 1.64 respectively. The results revealed that zinc sulfate was stable up to 90 days and under normal baking conditions. Based on the sensorial attributes, it was unveiled that the nutritional cookies were prepared by using 65 mg zinc sulfate with (AARI-2011) wheat flour.
  • Rehabilitation treatment of enteral nutrition whey protein in lung cancer patients in southern China Original Article

    ZHAO, Meilin; ZHAN, Qingqing

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study is to observe the clinical efficacy of enteral nutrition support therapy in patients with lung cancer chemotherapy in southern China. 212 patients with lung cancer chemotherapy were divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 cases in each group. Patients in the two groups were treated with a normal diet, anti-infection, oxygen inhalation, antispasmodic and asthma, phlegm elimination, correction of acid-base imbalance, and electrolyte disturbance. Patients in the control group ate according to usual dietary habits, and infused intravenously with 20% fat milk 250 mL. 8.5% compound amino acid 250 mL, 10% glucose injection 500 mL and vitamins and other general nutrition support treatment. Patients in the enteral nutrition treatment group were given oral nutritional support for Lishikang integrin-type nutritional solution based on the control group. Patients with hypoproteinemia were supplemented with an appropriate amount of whey protein powder for 2 weeks. Before and after treatment, nutritional assessment, biochemical index monitoring, and adverse reactions were observed in the two groups of patients. Compared with the control group, the enteral nutrition treatment group increased anthropometric values, improved lung function, and increased serum albumin. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Enteral nutrition support treatment can significantly improve the nutritional status of patients with lung cancer, we need improve the immune function of patients and tolerance to chemotherapy.
  • Improved bioactivity and composition of Cordyceps militaris cultured with Panax ginseng Original Article

    LI, Li; ZUO, Jin-Hui; YI, Fan; YANG, Yun-Li; DONG, Yin-Mao; LI, Qin-Yu; LI, Min-Hui

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cordyceps militaris is a commonly used edible and medicinal fungus in East Asia. Preparation of the mycelium and fermentation liquid by submerged fermentation using additives such as Panax ginseng for skin whitening applications has attracted wide attention. In the present study, we screened traditional Chinese medicines as additives to the liquid fermentation medium for C. militaris and performed systematical research on the changes of bioactivity and ginsenoside levels during the fermentation process. Total polysaccharide contents, cordycepin content, and polysaccharide molecular weight in the fermentation products were measured by UV spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC/DAD), and gel permeation chromatography-multi angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), respectively. In addition, the ginsenosides Rb1, Re, Rd, Rg1, and pseudoginsenoside F11 in the fermentation products were quantitatively analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS). Panax ginseng significantly increased the cordycepin and total sugar contents, and the average molecular weight of polysaccharides in the fermentation liquid and the mycelium of C. militaris. At the same time, C. militaris enhanced the production of ginsenoside pseudoginsenoside F11, which is a unique component of Panax quinquefolium. The research provides scientific evidence for the application of C. militaris and P. ginseng as raw materials for food and medicines.
  • Into the minds of coffee consumers: perception, preference, and impact of information in the sensory analysis of specialty coffee Original Article

    BRESSANI, Ana Paula Pereira; MARTINEZ, Silvia Juliana; BATISTA, Nádia Nara; SIMÃO, João Batista Pavesi; SCHWAN, Rosane Freitas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to analyze the knowledge, perspectives, and preferences of consumers about specialty coffees and to investigate how information can influence the perception of taste and the sensory characteristics of consumers. A descriptive-analytic survey was conducted through a questionnaire in a digital format with 1005 respondents. Four trained Q-Grader tasters evaluated a sample of cherry coffee fermented. The Specialty Coffee Association developed the cupping protocol used. According to the perceived descriptors, a sensory analysis was performed with the same coffee with 101 consumers to evaluate the influence of information received before the analysis. The chocolate flavor is the most expected in coffee. However, the participants are willing to try different specialty coffees. The coffee has been considered excellent (85.15 points) by Q-Grader tasters and widely accepted by consumers. Check-all-that-Apply (CATA) test showed that consumers could be influenced by information. When the coffee has been presented without information, the consumers noticed a more caramel flavor. However, when the information has been added to the same coffee, the citric flavor was more noticeable. In conclusion, information on specialty coffees should be more widespread. Consumer's expectations can be influenced by information, which in turn can modify their sensory perception.
  • Assessment of components of Gingko biloba leaves collected from different regions of China that contribute to its antioxidant effects for improved quality monitoring Original Article

    LI, Li; ZHANG, Ming-Xu; WANG, Xiao-Yue; YANG, Yun-Li; GONG, Xue; WANG, Cong-Cong; XU, Jin-Fan; LI, Min-Hui

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Ginkgo biloba leaves are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Owing to its wide distribution across China with varying geographical environments and climatic characteristics, G. biloba leaf products have different active ingredients and degrees of activities, which poses a challenge for quality control and standardization. We aimed to identify the key factors contributing to the quality of G. biloba based on assessment of anti-aging and antioxidative components. G. biloba leaf samples collected from 14 different regions in China were analyzed for antioxidant activities by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assay, and the levels of terpene lactones and flavonoids were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. Correlation analysis attributed the antioxidant activity of G. biloba leaf samples of different origins to isoginkgetin and ginkgetin, which also affected the matrix metalloproteinase-1 levels of fibroblasts, determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Therefore, appropriate quality control of a collected G. biloba sample could be achieved by determining the levels of isoginkgetin and ginkgetin as anti-aging and antioxidant components. The results further provide a foundation for the application of G. biloba leaves as an antioxidant raw material.
  • Development and characterization of edible bilayer films based on iron yam–pea starch blend and corn zein Original Article

    SONG, Xiaoyong; WANG, Yiqi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We prepared bilayer films of iron yam–pea starch and corn zein to evaluate their potential application in the packaging of instant foods and condiments. We found that the water resistance and mechanical properties of bilayer films were improved after adding a layer of corn zein compared with the monolayer films of the starch materials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bilayers were close and this was reflected in increased thermal stability and biocompatibility between layers with the addition of zein. Our experimental films showed greater elongation at break than the commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene polyethylene films. Based on the results of this study, the iron yam-pea starch/corn zein films have the mechanical strength and flexibility to be used for convenience food packaging materials, which are expected to provide consumers with clean products.
  • The phytochemical profiles for walnuts (J. regia and J. sigillata) from China with protected geographical indications Original Article

    WANG, Ruohui; ZHONG, Donglian; WU, Shutian; HAN, Yongxiang; ZHENG, Yuewen; TANG, Fubin; NI, Zhanglin; LIU, Yihua

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract There is little research about walnuts with the certification of protected geographical indications (PGIs), especially about iron walnut. In this study, the comparison of phytochemical profiles for common walnut (Juglans. regia) and iron walnut (Juglans. sigillata) with PGIs was investigated. The results showed that common walnut has advantage in polyunsaturated fatty acids (71.43%), polyphenols (39.65 mg/g), and flavonoids (21.72 mg/g), while iron walnut has advantage in α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (22.13 mg/kg and 420.72 mg/kg) and nutritive elements (Mn, Ba, Ni). Additionally, significant differences of palmitoleic acid, arachidic acid, eicosenoic acid, and flavonoids were existed in the two species walnuts, with highest variances of 87.05%. Compared with walnuts in other reports, walnuts with protected geographical indications have a higher level of beneficial fatty acids, especially for monounsaturated fatty acid. Finally, highly positive correlations were observed among amino acids for all analyzed walnuts, and oleic acid was negatively correlated with linoleic acid.
  • GC-MS analysis of PAHs in charcoal grilled rabbit meat with and without additives Original Article

    SIDDIQUE, Rabia; ZAHOOR, Ameer Fawad; AHMAD, Sajjad; AHMAD, Hamad; MANSHA, Asim; ZAHID, Faisal Maqbool; FAISAL, Shahla; AADIL, Rana Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Rabbit meat is a good source of protein as compared to beef and chicken. The processing of rabbit meat gives attractive texture with a strong flavor. Charcoal grilling is a well-known cooking method which results in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Therefore, to determine the concentration of PAHs, rabbit meat samples were prepared with and without additives and analyzed for six PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Naphthalene was dominant in all the samples and the highest naphthalene concentration (2.61 µg/g) was found in the foreleg sample (without additives) due to the presence of higher fat molecules. PAHs concentration was found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower by the addition of antioxidants. Lowest naphthalene concentration was observed in the back sample of seekh kebab (0.77 µg/g) with 1 h marinating duration. The content of pyrene was only noticed in foreleg (0.01 µg/g) and hind leg (0.03 µg/g) samples from reshmi kebab. The content of fluorene was not observed in all the samples.
  • Clinical effect analysis of patient with coronary heart disease after coronary intervention therapy Original Article

    OUYANG, Weili; GONG, Junhui; LIU, Xueqing; DING, Xiaojun; TANG, Jianfeng; ZHAO, Jianfeng; ZHU, Hongtao

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To explore the effectiveness and safety of the patients with coronary heart disease after coronary intervention therapy. 140 patients with coronary heart disease hospitalized and randomly divide them into observation group and control group with 70 patients respectively. Give coronary intervention therapy to the 70 patients in the observation group, and give drug therapy to the 70 patients in the control group. Compare the overall effective rate, survival rate and occurrence probability of complications of the two groups. The overall effective rate of patients in observation group reaches 92.86%, while the rate of patients in the control group only reaches 81.43%. Through data comparison of these two groups, it is found that the overall effective rate of the control group is far less than that of the observation group, so does the survival rate within 1 year; the differences between the two groups are statistically significant (P<0.05). although the occurrence probability of complications of the observation group is less than that of the control group, their difference is not statistically significant (P>0.05). The effect of coronary intervention therapy for patient with coronary heart disease is better than the effect of drug therapy, and both therapies have equivalent safety.
  • Seasonal variations in some quality parameters of milk produced in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran Original Article

    HAJMOHAMMADI, Marzieh; VALIZADEH, Reza; EBDALABADI, Mohammad Norouzi; NASERIAN, Abassali; OLIVEIRA, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this trial, 60 samples of raw cow’s milk collected during summer and winter in five collective centers from Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran were analyzed for penicillin residues, somatic cell counts (SCC), mesophilic counts (TMC) and adulteration materials. The mean penicillin level (0.57 ± 0.20 μg/L) was much lower than the maximum permitted level (MPL) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (4 μg/L). However, the mean SCC and TMC (Log 5.71 ± 0.08 cells/mL and Log 6.18 ± 0.11 colony forming units (CFU)/mL, respectively) exceeded their respective MPLs adopted in Iran for grade C milk (Log 5.69 cells/mL and Log 6.0 CFU/mL, respectively), with higher counts (P < 0.05) in the summer. High frequencies of samples containing salt (53-60%), detergents (16-20%) and formalin (7-10%) were observed in milk samples, stressing the need for stringent control measures to improve the quality of milk delivered in the evaluated collection centers.
  • Simplified process of extraction of polyphenols from agroindustrial grape waste Original Article

    CHAÑI-PAUCAR, Larry Oscar; SILVA, Jose Wesley Lima; MACIEL, Maria Inês Sucupira; LIMA, Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The extraction, and stability of polyphenols from the grape residue were studied. The extractions were performed following the Box-Behnken design, and the surface response methodology was used to model the extraction of total anthocyanins (TA), flavonols (TF), and phenolics (TP). The extraction was optimized simultaneously by the desirability function. The degradation kinetics of monomeric anthocyanins, and the increase in polymeric color were modeled under refrigeration conditions. The extraction with a temperature of 60 °C, solid:liquid ratio of 1/25 g/mL, and time of 80 min, maximized the recovery of TA (30.96 mg/100 g), TF (73.34 mg/100 g), and TP (856.78 mg EAG/100 g). The degradation of monomeric anthocyanins, and the increase in polymeric color followed a kinetic first-order reaction, with reaction rates (k) of 4.10 x 10-3 days-1, and 3.46 x 10-3 days-1, respectively. The half-life (t1/2) of anthocyanins was 169 days. The ethanol-citric acid solution allowed polyphenols to be efficiently extracted from the grape residue, and had a positive effect on the stability of anthocyanins.
  • Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of the juice and water seed extracts of two pomegranate species in high-cholesterol diet fed rats Original Article

    BINMOWYNA, Mona Nasser; ALFARIS, Nora Abdullah; ALMNAIZEL, Ahmad Tayseer; ALSAYADI, Muneer Mohammed; AL-SANEA, Ekram Abdo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study investigated the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of the juice and water seed extracts of two pomegranate species from Saudi Arabia and Egypt, and compared them with each other as well as with ellagic acid (EA) in high-cholesterol diet (HCD) fed rats. Compared with the case in rats fed HCD alone, EA and juice or water seed extracts of both pomegranate types significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, and GSH, increased the level of HDL-c, increased the activity of SOD and CAT, and decreased the level of MDA in the serum of HCD-fed rats. There were more profound effects of the juice or water seed extract of both the Saudi and Egyptian pomegranates on serum HDL-c and GSH levels and the activities of SOD and CAT than those of EA. In conclusion, this study showed that water seed extracts or juice of both types of pomegranate ameliorated HCD-induced hyperlipidemia, lipid peroxidation, and changes of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the serum of HCD-fed rats.
  • Protective effect of sesame (sesamum indicum) seed oil against hypercholesterolemic in sprague-dawley male rats Original Article

    ASLAM, Maria; SHABBIR, Muhammad Asim; PASHA, Imran; SHUKAT, Rizwan; SIDDIQUE, Umera; MANZOOR, Muhammad Faisal; AYUB, Sehrish

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To explore the protective effect of sesame seed oil (SSO) extracted from Til-06 sesame variety in Sprague-Dawley male rats against the management of hypercholesterolemia, the current two-phase study was conducted. In the first phase, oil was taken out from the sesame seeds (Til-06) and physicochemical analysis was carried out to find out the content of oil following by the evaluation of the quality attributes of extracted oil. In the second phase, efficacy was carried out to check the hyperlipidemic activity of sesame seed oil. Randomly distributed twenty (20) rats into 5 different groups with four (04) rats in each group and for 60 days fed as follow; the first group was fed on a basal diet, while the other groups were fed with 2, 4, 6 and 8% SSO plus basal diet. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the study for biochemical study i.e. lipid profile which includes high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and antioxidant status. Findings of the present study indicate that the oral administration of SSO significantly (P < 0.05) improved the antioxidant status with lower TC, LDL-C, TG, VLDL-C, and higher HDL-C values of hypercholesterolemic rats.
  • Characterization and probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dadiah sampled in West Sumatra Original Article

    AMELIA, Rinita; PHILIP, Koshy; PRATAMA, Yudha Endra; PURWATI, Endang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dadiah is a traditional dairy food from West Sumatra. Dadiah is made by fermenting fresh buffalo milk in banana leaves covered bamboo sticks at room temperature for two days. Dadiah is nutritious because it contains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that have probiotic properties. This study aims to determine the characteristics and biochemical properties of LAB by catalase assay and fermentation type. We identified the LAB found in dadiah using conventional laboratory tests and 16S rRNA sequencing methods and confirmed that the LAB was Lactobacillus fermentum. Gram staining showed that the isolated bacteria were Gram-positive bacilli and the catalase assay and fermentation type showed it to be negative catalase and homofermentative.
  • Traditional chinese medicine diet paratherapy for alleviating toxicity in chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cancer patients: a meta-analysis Original Article

    ZHOU, Xiaoying; WANG, Guoying; LAI, Lei; XU, Li; SHEN, Qiuping; WANG, Yingjie; FAN, Mingzhu; SHEN, Liping

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) diet therapy in alleviating the toxicity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with cancer. Searches were conducted in seven databases for relevant studies published from 1, January 2000 to 1 March, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TCM diet with ordinary diet of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and(or) radiotherapy were included. The study has been registered on the “PROSPERO” website with registration number of CRD42019131232. A total of sixteen RCTs included 2336 cases were included. TCM diet therapy is superior to ordinary diet in terms of reducing incidence of leukopenia [RR= 0.57; 95% CI (0.47, 0.69); P<0.0001], and nausea and vomiting [RR=0.54, 95% CI= (0.43, 0.70), P= 0.004], increasing hemoglobin [MD=10.04; 95% CI (7.66, 12.41); P<0.0001], improving Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) [RR= 1.28; 95% CI (1.15, 1.42); P<0.0001], and gaining weight [RR=1.53, 95%CI= (1.38, 1.68), P < 0.0001] in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy and(or) radiotherapy. This meta-analysis demonstrated that TCM diet may reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy (and/or radiotherapy).
  • Composition proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of Butia capitata Original Article

    BARBOSA, Maria Cristina de Albuquerque; ROSA, Queila da Silva; CARDOSO, Leandro de Morais; GOMIDES, Antônio Frederico de Freitas; BARBOSA, Luiz Cláudio de Almeida; SANT’ANNA, Helena Maria Pinheiro; PINHEIRO, Soraia Silva; PELUZIO, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; TEIXEIRA, Reinaldo Duque Brasil Landulfo; VALENTE, Maria Anete Santana

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Butia capitata, native to the Brazilian cerrado, is underutilized for human consumption. The objective was to determine the physical characteristics of the fruit, centesimal composition, bioactive and antioxidant activity. Fruits obtained in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Diameter, height and weight were evaluated. The moisture was analyzed by gravimetry after oven drying, ashes by calcining in a muffle furnace, proteins by the Kjeldahl method, gravimetric lipids after extraction in ethyl ether, carbohydrates by difference and total energy value by conversion factors. Vitamin C, E and carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC, minerals by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry, Folin Ciocalteu solution phenolic compounds, anthocyanins by spectrophotometry and antioxidant capacity by the Radical DPPH. The fruits presented good pulp yield (68.59%), which has a high lipid content (3.42 g.100 g-1) and total energy (83.34 kcal.100 g-1). The pulp contains ß-carotene (8.56 mg.100 g-1), vitamin E (121.07 mcg.100 g-1) and high concentrations of vitamin C (53.57 mg.100 g-1), total phenolics (493, 6 mg.100 g-1) and copper (1.80 mg.100 g-1). Almond has a high value of total energy (457.72 kcal.100 g-1), vitamin E (1594.39 mcg.100 g-1) and minerals Cu (2.40 mg.100 g-1) and Mo (0.9.100 g-1). The pulp is a source of carotenoids, vitamin C, copper and total phenolics, both natural antioxidants.
  • Association of snps of aif-1 gene with susceptibility to oral cancer in chinese population Original Article

    ZHANG, Liqiong; DENG, Shaolin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To investigate the association between allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) gene polymorphism and susceptibility to oral cancer in Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted to collect 400 cases of newly diagnosed oral cancer patients diagnosed by pathology from January 2015 to June 2019 and 400 cases of physical examination in the same period. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the AIF-1 gene were detected using TaqMan probe technology. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association between AIF-1 gene polymorphism and oral cancer susceptibility. GG genotypes reduced the risk of oral cancer in co-dominant models (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.328-0.760, P = 0.001) and recessive models (OR = 0.496, 95% CI: 0.342-0.729, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the case group and the control group in the dominant model genotype (OR = 0.836, 95% CI: 0.623~1.121, P = 0.836). Conclusion AIF-1 gene rs2857595 gene SNPs can reduce the risk of oral cancer.
  • Comparative metagenomics analysis of the rhizosphere microbiota influence on Radix Angelica sinensis in different growth soil environments in China Original Article

    YAN, Hui; ZHU, Lei; WANG, Yingjun; ZHANG, Sen; LIU, Pei; DONG, Tina T. X.; WU, Qinan; DUAN, Jin-Ao

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We studied the correlation between the soil microbial status and the crop yield or medicinal properties of Angelica s.. Soil from different counties of China were collected and used in this study. Readfq, SOAP denovo, MetaGeneMark, and DIAMOND Resistance Gene Identifier (RGI) software were used in the analysis. A total of 131,345 genes of high quality were obtained, with the number of genes in all samples ranging from 483-42,545 and the average length ranging from 354.88-523.47. The acidobacteria in the non-sterilized group were significantly increased by comparing with the sterilized group, while actinobacteria in the non-sterilized group were significantly reduced by comparing with the sterilized group. There was a strong correlation between the two groups of the planting group and the two groups of the non-planting group, while the correlation between the planting and non-planting group was very weak. There were significant differences in the soil microbial community structure between Min county and Yunnan, as well as significant differences between the dominant genera of Min county and Yunnan. In summary, our study showed that the soil microbial flora in different areas affected the characteristics of Angelica s. roots, while sterilized soil was not conducive to the growth of Angelica s.
  • Quality evaluation of iron-containing food supplements in the Palestinian market Original Article

    ABUALHASAN, Murad; DWAIKAT, Shorouq; ATAYA, Rawan; ALI, Anagheem; AL-ATRASH, Munir

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Iron is widely used to treat anemia and is prescribed or sold as an over-the-counter drug and food supplement in the local market as well as community pharmacy. The iron supplements available in the Palestinian market were tested for their claimed iron content (% assay) and microbial contamination. Altogether, 18 samples of different pharmaceutical dosage forms were collected from the Palestinian market. These samples represented both local and international markets. The actual iron content in the sample products was determined using potentiometric titration and atomic absorption methods. Moreover, bacterial and fungal contaminations were tested according to international pharmacopeial methods. Results revealed that 72% of the tested samples failed the test, and most of them exceeded the standard limit. The results varied according to source and dosage form. This shows that the iron supplements in the Palestinian markets do not meet the international standard allowable limits. Responsible authorities must take an urgent action. In particular, the Ministry of Health should take corrective actions, such as monitoring the registration and performing regular quality checks on imported and local products.
  • Correlation between antioxidant activity and anti-wrinkle effect of ethanol extracts of Sanguisorba Officinalis L. Original Article

    BYUN, Na-Young; CHO, Joong-Hyun; YIM, Soon-Ho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sanguisorba officinalis L., the dried roots of which are referred to as cucumber herb is a perennial herb belonging to the family Rosaceae. This study was showed the correlation between the antioxidant activity and its anti-wrinkle effects of ethanol extraction concentration of S. officinalis L. The extraction yield of the S. officinalis extracts was all 10% or more, which was judged to be economical. 80% ethanol extracts was the highest in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and the best total antioxidant activity. The correlation between total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity was 0.830 and 0.872, respectively, with a significant correlation was confirmed. In addition, in 80% ethanol extracts, superoxide anion and NO radical scavenging activities were the most effective. These results validated that the optimum extraction concentration for S. officinalis was 80% ethanol.
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