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Food Science and Technology, Volume: 43, Published: 2023
  • Characterization, enzymatic and biological properties of a dominant lactic acid bacteria strain of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei isolated from stinky mandarin fish Original Article

    WU, Yong-Xiang; YU, Chang-Hao; DONG, Xin-Yu; JIANG, Xiao-Xuan; LIU, Gang; NIE, Shao-Peng; DAI, Qi-Qi; KWON, Tae-Hyung; ZHOU, Xun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Presently in order to excavate suitability of resources of lactic acid bacteria for fermentation of mandarin fish, a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which was cultivated from stinky mandarin fish via using traditional MRS medium (CMC 1-8), was firstly isolated and purified. Subsequently, it was discovered that the as-harvested LAB was recognized as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei with assistance of technology of phenotypic identifying and 16S rRNA sequencing. Concurrently, relevant characteristics in aspects of growth curve, acid production capacity, temperature and salt tolerance of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei were plainly investigated. Furthermore, the preliminary research on protease properties and biological properties was revealed. The results unfolded that the strain could grow and produce acid normally at 37 °C, and deliver a strong tolerance even under 3% NaCl at 12 °C, which could be significant sufficiently to satisfy the low-temperature and salty fermentation of mandarin fish. The best compatible temperature and pH value for protease production were at 70 °C and 9.0, respectively. Resultantly, the main metabolites, containing polyphenols, flavonoids and soluble polypeptides, performed a remarkable effect on scavenging abilities of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) free radical and ferricyanide reducing ability, of which the IC50 were 1.05, 6.87, and 4.62 mg/mL, respectively. And, the metabolites displayed partial inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis. Therefore, CMC 1-8 can potentially serve as a functional microorganism to directionally ferment mandarin fish.
  • Functional potential of Aloe vera juice against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in animal model Original Article

    AHMAD, Mateen; ALI, Shinawar Waseem; HAMEED, Aneela; AMIR, Mamoona; ASHRAF, Jawad; Afzal, Muhammad Inam; UMER, Muhammad; ALSAGABY, Suliman A.; AWAIS, Muhammad; IMRAN, Muhammad; IQBAL, Sanaullah; AHMED, Aftab; RIAZ, Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate functional potential of Aloe vera juice against (CCl4 induced) hepatotoxicity using animal model. Biochemical analyses including liver, renal enzymes, bone biomarkers and lipid profile were conducted after 4 weeks of oral Aloe vera juice administration. Liver enzymes, AST, ALP and total bilirubin were reduced up to 15-7%, 60-32.52% and 29-48%, respectively in Aloe vera juice treated rats i.e., 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg doses. Reduction in serum cholesterol (8%), LDL (12%) and triglycerides (15%) were observed. Urea was significantly reduced up to 11% which further reduced up to 30% at higher dose. Increased content of serum proteins (23-50%) and albumin (40-116%) were found at the different doses. Vitamin D was found maximum in G4 i.e., 38.63 mg/dL as compared to lowest i.e., 5.12 mg/dL in G2, similarly improvement in calcium i.e., 11-22% was observed in G3 and G4. The serum oxidative stress markers indicated raised superoxide dismutase (9%), glutathione (15%), catalase (9%) and reduced lipid peroxidation 78% at higher concentration of Aloe vera juice consumption. In addition, histological evaluation also depicted positive impact on hepatic and renal portfolio in all treated rats. All of the findings enlighten the potential of Aloe vera juice as a functional beverage.
  • Experiment and meta-analysis on the effects of grass cultivation in the orchard on fruit yield and quality Original Article

    MA, Xueting; LIAO, Jiean; ZHAO, Jinfei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Grass cultivation in orchard technology has been implemented in some parts of the world, and different regions have different effects on fruits due to their different geographical environments. In this paper, Xinjiang, China, which has a temperate continental climate, is selected as the research area. Through orchard experiments and meta-analysis, the influence of grass cultivation on orchards in this area is studied. Experiments and the meta-analysis both showed that the single fruit weight, yield per plant and fruit quality were improved after grass cultivation in the orchards. This indicates that grass cultivation is of great significance to orchards in Xinjiang.
  • Classification of chocolate according to its cocoa percentage by using Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy Original Article

    CRUZ, Jimy Frank OBLITAS

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Feasibility of a non-destructive classification of chocolate based on its cocoa content was examined by using a Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system combined with a multivariate analysis. For this purpose, the spectra from 0.5 THz to 10 THz of 5 chocolate samples (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of cocoa) were examined. The acquired data matrices were analyzed by using a Fourier Transform, obtaining the dielectric function and the absorbance curve. Based on the latter, samples were classified by using 24 models of mathematical classification, achieving differences of around 93% through the model of Gaussian SVM algorithm with a kernel scale of 0.35 and a one-against-one multiclass method. This was reduced by using a Main Component Analysis, obtaining most of the spectral variations with PC1 (63.8%) and PC2 (36.2%). It was concluded that the combined processing and classification of images obtained from Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, as well as the use of machine learning algorithms, can be used to successfully classify chocolates with different percentages of cocoa.
  • Effect of the drying air conditions on the drying rate and milling quality of a long-grain rice variety Original Article

    GARCIA-LLOBODANIN, Laura; BILLIRIS, Alejandra

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This work aims to study the effect of different drying air conditions on the drying rate and milling quality of a Uruguayan long-grain rice variety. It was observed that increasing the drying air temperature or lowering the drying air relative humidity decreased the milling quality. At temperatures above glass transition, this effect was greater. However, it was possible to dry the rice at a drying rate of up to 3 percentage points of moisture per hour (on a dry basis) maintaining a high milling quality. This was achieved when a 1-hour tempering was performed after drying. At higher drying rates, the milling quality decreased sharply even when tempering was performed. These results aim to contribute to the understanding of the drying process, allowing its optimization by increasing the drying rate without losing milling quality.
  • Mechanisation of the primary processing of watermelons without destroying the rind Original Article

    TLEVLESSOVA, Dinara; MEDVEDKOV, Yevgeniy; KAIRBAYEVA, Ainura; NAZYMBEKOVA, Aigerim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the sown area of watermelon in recent years does not exceed 85 thousand hectares, although in the early 90s it was almost 132 thousand hectares, 2/3 of these areas are located in the southern regions. One of the key problems of industrial cucurbit crops production is the transition of production from large-scale agricultural enterprises to small-scale private farms, the share of which today is more than 90%. At the same time, the transfer of production to the private sector provides additional profits for small producers and can be almost the only source of their income. The scientific originality of the paper is determined by the fact that the current situation indicates that the private farms have turned out to be more adapted to the specifics of market relations. Without considerable capital investments, using production technologies that are less dependent on the rise in the price of energy carriers and other material and technical resources, agricultural producers increase the output volume. The transition to the cultivation of cucurbit crops in households and small farms led to an increase in the separation of the real manufacturer from scientific achievements, the latest technologies, high-quality seeds, significantly limited the opportunities for the development of this industry.
  • Morphological and physicochemical changes in the cassava (Manihot esculenta) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batata) starch modified by pyrodextrinization Original Article

    REYES-LÓPEZ, Zeniff; BETANCUR-ANCONA, David; BLE-CASTILLO, Jorge Luis; JUÁREZ-ROJOP, Isela Esther; ÁVILA-FERNÁNDEZ, Angela; HERNÁNDEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, Maloy; GARCÍA-VAZQUEZ, Carlos; SANDOVAL-PERAZA, Valentino Mukthar; QUINTANA-OWEN, Patricia; OLVERA-HERNÁNDEZ, Viridiana

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In recent years, resistant starch (RS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) have been linked to the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as obesity and its complications. Southern Mexico has an important role in the tuber crop production of M. esculenta and I. batatas, which contain considerable amounts of starch. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and physicochemical changes of M. esculenta and I. batatas after pyrodextrinization, including the production of RS and SDS. The factors used in this study were the starch/acid ratio (2.2 HCl) (80:1 and 160:1 p/v); temperature (90 °C and 110 °C) and reaction time (1 and 3 h). The highest production of RS in M. esculenta was obtained with the highest starch/acid ratio and temperature, and the lowest reaction time. For pyrodextrins, loss of crystallinity and an increase in swelling power and water absorption capacity were observed. The highest production of RS in I. batatas was obtained with the highest starch/acid ratio and reaction time, and the lowest temperature. Crystallinity and enthalpy of gelatinization decreased in modified starches. The solubility, swelling power and water absorption capacity increased in both sources.
  • Bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata) nut oil: composition and metabolic impact in an experimental study Original Article

    SILVA, Laleska Pâmela Rodrigues da; RODRIGUES, Elisana Lima; HIANE, Priscila Aiko; NUNES, Ângela Alves; FILIÚ, Wander Fernando; CAVALHEIRO, Leandro Fontoura; NAZÁRIO, Carlos Eduardo Domingues; ASATO, Marcel Arakaki; FREITAS, Karine de Cássia; BOGO, Danielle; NASCIMENTO, Valter Aragão do; GUIMARÃES, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to obtain physicochemical characteristics and the fatty acid profile of bocaiuva nut oil and to evaluate the impact of its daily consumption on glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism in mice. The acidity content in the bocaiuva nut oil exceeded the maximum limit for crude oils (5.68 mg KOH g-1). However, the peroxide value is within the standard considered adequate for crude oils (3.33 mEq O2 kg-1). In the fatty acid profile, lauric (42.25%) and oleic (23.96%), saturated and monounsaturated, respectively, stand out. After 90 days of in vivo experimentation, the administered oil doses had not influenced the animals' food intake and body weight. Regarding the biochemical parameters, only the non-HDL fraction showed a significant difference, considering that this parameter represents the sum of atherogenic lipoproteins directly linked to atherogenic cholesterol. However, there was no statistical difference between the groups regarding histological changes in the liver, showing that the bocaiuva oil does not cause considerable damage to the liver, even though it is saturated oil. Results show that daily consumption of bocaiuva nut oil did not produce metabolic changes in mice.
  • A new way to expand the application of starch and tung oil: tung oil anhydride modified starch Original Article

    LIU, Xuncai

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to expand application of starch and tung oil, tung oil anhydride modified potato starch (TOA starch) was prepared in this work. The structural property, degree of substitution, pasting properties, rheological properties and emulsifying ability of the TOA starch were investigated. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis proved formation of modified starch, and degree of substitution of TOA starch was 0.021 ± 0.001. Compared with natural potato starch and its gel, TOA starch had lower pasting temperature and breakdown while higher trough viscosity, final viscosity and setback, and its gel had higher recovery capability. In addition, oil-in-water emulsion was prepared using TOA starch. Its particle size and ζ-potential was 551 ± 9.7 nm and -44 ± 0.1 mV, respectively. More importantly, it had similar storage stability with emulsion stabilized by octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch, which was stable stored for 20 d. These result further confirmed feasibility of modifying starch using tung oil anhydride and expanded application of starch and tung oil.
  • Effects of coffee and cocoa as fermentation additives on sensory quality and chemical compositions of cigar tobacco leaves Original Article

    HU, Wanrong; ZHOU, Quanwei; CAI, Wen; LIU, Jie; LI, Pinhe; HU, Dejun; LUO, Cheng; LI, Dongliang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Exogenous additives applied for cigar tobacco leaves fermentation played an important role in sensory quality of cigar. In this study, effects of additives including coffee and cocoa on the quality of cigar tobacco leaves were explored. The changes of sensory quality, conventional chemical components, nonvolatile organic acids, and aroma compositions in tobacco leaves were studied. Results showed that the richness, mellowness and matureness of aroma, as well as the fluentness and sweetness of smoke in cigar were improved with the introduction of coffee or cocoa. According to chemical composition analysis, fermentation with coffee or cocoa increased the contents of alkaloids and sugar in tobacco leaves, which endowed the tobacco a relatively good performance on the sweetness and aroma richness. Besides, the decrease of citric acid, as well as the increase of saturated fatty acid and aroma components were found with additives, which was beneficial to improve the mellowness and aroma richness of cigar. It was suggested that coffee and cocoa exhibited positive effects on the chemical composition, especially increased the contents of sugar, saturated fatty acids and aromatic components, thus improving the sensory quality of tobacco leaves.
  • Study on the detection of apple soluble solids based on fractal theory and hyperspectral imaging technology Original Article

    MA, Xueting; LUO, Huaping; LIAO, Jiean; ZHU, Lixia; ZHAO, Jinfei; GAO, Feng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To explore a new method for the detection of soluble solids content (SSC) in apples, the reflectance spectra of apples with different SSC were obtained based on hyperspectral imaging technology in this paper, and fractal measurement of the reflection spectrum curve was carried out based on fractal theory, for using fractal dimension to quantitatively reflect its SSC. The results show that the samples with different SSC have little difference in fractal dimension, and are not sensitive to the change of apple SSC, which cannot show an obvious linear relationship. It can be considered to conduct a study on discrimination with obvious differences between spectral curves, such as variety discrimination and damage discrimination.
  • Honey quality detection based on near-infrared spectroscopy Original Article

    ZHOU, Man; LONG, Tao; ZHAO, Zhengyang; CHEN, Jie; WU, Qingsong; WANG, Yue; ZOU, Zhiyong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract As a natural agricultural product, honey is favored by consumers, and its variety and adulteration have a huge impact on the quality. Acacia honey, red jujube honey and rape honey were used as experimental objects, and their spectral reflectance curves were obtained through a near-infrared spectral image acquisition system. Spectral features were extracted from the preprocessed spectral reflectance curves, and a honey variety classification model based on near-infrared spectral features was established by machine learning. After statistical analysis, Principal Component Analysis Support Vector Machine after processing data through Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA-SVM) is the optimal classification model for three varieties of acacia honey, red jujube honey and rape honey, and the correct rate of honey variety classification reaches 95.83%. The spectral reflectance curve was used to establish a honey adulteration identification model based on the partial least squares-discriiminate analysis (PLS-DA), and the classification accuracy was 97.92% in the test set.
  • Effect of the addition of bacterial cellulose on the texture and color properties of sausages obtained from mechanically separated meat from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) Original Article

    OLIVEIRA, Alyne Alves Nunes; GUIMARÃES, Jonas de Toledo; FURTADO, Angela Aparecida Lemos; MESQUITA, Eliana de Fátima Marques de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bacterial cellulose has been considered a potential ingredient in food development. In this study it was used to replace fat in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) mechanically separated meat sausages. Response surface methodology with complete Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) 22 was used, including 4 axial points and 3 center points, with fat ranging from 0 to 8% and bacterial cellulose ranging from 0 to 13.66%. The variables BC and fat had no significant effect (p>0.05) on hardness, gumminess and color parameters c and h of sausages. BC had a significant effect (p<0.05) on cohesiveness, adhesiveness and luminosity, and tests 1 and 2 provided the best formulations.
  • Fast and nondestructive discrimination of fresh tea leaves at different altitudes based on near infrared spectroscopy and various chemometrics methods Original Article

    JIANG, Qinghai; MEI, Song; ZHAN, Caixue; REN, Caihong; SONG, Zhiyu; WANG, Shengpeng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with various chemometrics methods was tried to identify the fresh tea leaves at different altitudes quickly and nondestructively. Three kinds of samples were collected, then scanning NIRS, conducting spectral preprocessing to remove noise information, using backward interval partial least squares to screen characteristic spectral intervals, going on principal component analysis, respectively. Finally, least squares support vector machine method (LS-SVM) was applied to establish NIRS models, whose robustness was tested by prediction set samples. The best pretreated method was the combination of multivariate scattering correction and the first derivative. Six characteristic spectral intervals were screened, and the corresponding spectral wavenumbers were 4821.2-5091.2 cm-1, 5368.9-5638.8 cm-1, 6190.4-6460.4 cm-1, 7011.9-7281.9 cm-1, 8924.9-9191.1 cm-1 and 9734.9-10000 cm-1. The cumulative contribution rate of the first three principal components was 99.92%. The root mean square error of the cross validation and the determination coefficient of the calibration set model were 0.027 and 0.973, respectively. The root mean square error and the determination coefficient of the prediction set model were 0.034 and 0.968, respectively. The discrimination accuracy in prediction set was 100%. The results showed NIRS combined with LS-SVM can realize fast and nondestructive discrimination of fresh tea leaves at different altitudes.
  • Expression of sclerostin and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) in serum of patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and their correlation with calcium and phosphorus metabolism Original Article

    TAO, Lijiang; HE, Minjuan; LU, Yisheng; ZHENG, Jie; YE, Yili

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Calcium and phosphorus metabolism involves in patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Sclerostin and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) are closely related to bone formation. This study aims to assess sclerostin and BMP-7’s role in renal function, blood calcium and phosphorus in CKD-MBD. 86 CKD-MBD patients were collected as the case group and 86 healthy subjects were selected as control group. ELISA was used to detect Sclerostin and BMP-7 serum level. The automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect liver and kidney function. Blood calcium and phosphorus level, and iPHT level was detected by immunoradiation. No differences were found regarding age, gender, and BMI between case group and control group (P > 0.05). Compared to controls, CKD-MBD patients had significantly reduced blood calcium and eGFR level, and increased Scr, BUN, blood phosphorus and iPTH level (P < 0.05) with increased Sclerostin (t = 33.86, P < 0.001), and reduced BMP-7 level (t = 329.38, P < 0.001). Scr, BUN, blood phosphorus levels and iPTH were correlated with Sclerostin positively (P < 0.05) and BMP-7 negatively (P < 0.05). eGFR and blood calcium were correlated with Sclerostin negatively (P < 0.05) and BMP-7 positively (P < 0.05). Scr, eGFR, blood calcium levels, blood phosphorus levels, and iPTH are independent risk factors for serum Sclerostin and BMP-7 level. Sclerostin and BMP-7 changes may be important factors affecting the occurrence of CKD-MBD. Renal function, blood calcium and blood phosphorus are independent risk factors for serum Sclerostin and BMP-7 level.
  • Evaluation of volatile flavor compounds in rice with different degrees of roasting based on GC-IMS and PCA analysis Original Article

    WANG, Zi-yan; DOU, Bo-xin; MA, Chun-min; ZHANG, Yun-liang; LIU, Ying; ZHANG, Na

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The differences of volatile odorants of rice at different roasting levels were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) using fingerprints combined with principal component analysis (PCA). GC-IMS and PCA could distinguish the different roasting levels of rice and the results showed that a total of 47 representative flavor compounds were detected in four samples from all roasting stages. The aroma components of roasted rice are mainly aldehydes and ketones, furans and pyrroles, as well as a large number of phenols, esters and alcohols, which make up the special aroma flavor of roasted rice. It can be seen that the flavor characteristics of roasted rice can be reflected more fully when the rice is roasted in medium (18 min), and can have more fruit wood, cream and roasted aromas. The PCA based on the signal intensity of the detected volatile compounds revealed effective differentiation of samples from different stages into comparatively independent spaces. Thus, the differences of volatile compounds from different roasting stages of rice were determined, and the flavor fingerprints of that can be successfully established using HS-GC-IMS and PCA.
  • Steaming and vacuum drying preserve active components, sensory and antioxidant properties of Flos Sophorae Original Article

    GUO, Xiulan; ZHANG, Feng; LIU, Yu; XIE, Mingzhu; TANG, Renyong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Flos Sophorae (FS) is medicinal and edible, while fresh FS is highly perishable. Thus, this study investigated the effects of different drying methods (hot air drying, HAD; vacuum drying, VD; freeze drying, FD) after steaming on the bioactive components and sensory quality of FS. The results indicated steaming for 1 min maximally retained the contents of total flavonoids, rutin, and quercetin in thermal drying (HAD and VD), meanwhile, the freeze-dried FS without steaming also had higher total flavonoids and rutin contents. Moreover, FD samples had the highest protein content and organoleptic properties, with closer color parameters to fresh FS, followed by the VD group. Considering comprehensively all data with processing cost, the sample of VD after steaming for 1 min was chosen to measure the antioxidant activity, which showed that FS extract was superior to Vc in ABTS• and •OH scavenging rates, and its DPPH• scavenging rate was stronger than Vc in the low concentration. These results demonstrated that vacuum drying after steaming for 1 min was suitable postharvest processing for fresh FS, which was beneficial to maintaining higher flavonoids, rutin, and sensory characteristics of FS, and its flavonoid extract had better antioxidant activity than Vc.
  • Rapid prediction of Yongchuan Xiuya tea quality by using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods Original Article

    ZHANG, Ying; WANG, Jie; LUO, Hongyu; YANG, Juan; WU, Xiuhong; WU, Quan; ZHONG, Yingfu

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The current developmental trend is to evaluate the quality of Yongchuan Xiuya tea rapidly. After spectrum pre-processing, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS), principal component analysis (PCA) and back propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was applied to rapidly and non-destructively predict the quality of Yongchuan Xiuya tea. External Yongchuan Xiuya tea samples were used for the actual application of the proposed model. The best pre-processing method was multiple scattering correction coupled with second derivative, and the characteristic spectral regions selected by siPLS were 4381.5-4755.6 cm-1, 4759.5-5133.6 cm-1, 6266.6-6637.8 cm-1 and 7389.9-7760.2 cm-1. The cumulative contribution rate was 99.05% for the first three principal components of the characteristic spectra regions. The transfer function, root mean square error and determinant coefficient of the best BP-ANN prediction model were the tanh function, 0.384 and 0.977, respectively. The root mean square error and determinant coefficient of the external 10 Yongchuan Xiuya tea samples were 0.406 and 0.969, respectively. These results showed that NIRS combined with BP-ANN algorithm can be used to evaluate the quality of Yongchuan Xiuya tea rapidly and accurately.
  • Protective effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) extract mediated mitochondrial fission and glucose uptake inhibition in SW1417 Original Article

    ALWAILI, Maha Abdulla

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study investigated the anticarcinogenic effect of lemongrass extract on human SW1417 colon cancer cells. SW1417 cells were cultured and allocated into five groups to apply the treatment with the lemongrass extract using 5 separate fluctuated concentrations: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μg/mL for 24 h. The mRNA expressions of the oxidative pressure genes (HO-1 and NQO1) were measured using the RT-PCR technique. Additionally, mitochondrial morphology was evaluated using Biotium (100 nM MitoView™ 405-Blue) within a free culture. The antitumor activity value (IC50) in SW1417 cells was done at 150 µg/mL. Besides, the changes of mitochondrial morphology in the treated SW1417 cells at all the concentrations of lemongrass extract were markedly observed as mitochondrial fission, which increased with increasing the concentrations and led to an apoptotic effect. For more validation, mRNA levels of the oxidative pressure genes HO-1 and NQO1 were confirmed the obtained data, HO-1 and NQO1 genes expressions recorded significant (P < 0.05) increase which associated with increasing the concentrations of lemongrass extract standardized to β-actin housekeeping gene and contrasted to untreated cells (0 μg/mL). In conclusion, our findings indicate that lemongrass extract provided an anticarcinogenic action against the cell proliferation of human colon cancer cells.
  • Effects of pre-processing on the active compounds before drying Eucommia ulmoides leaves Original Article

    CHEN, Bo Wen; PAN, Hong Fang; ZHAO, Wei; HE, Jia Le; ZHAO, Fang; PANG, Xiao Ling; ZHANG, Qiang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aiming to provide a new way that preserves more active components in Eucommia ulmoides (EU) leaves, this paper utilizes 4 methods, i.e., microwave, steam, air heating, and frying, to process EU leaves before drying, and their respective effects on the leaves were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of EU leaves in vitro was measured by the DPPH free radical method; the contents of total flavonoids (TFC) and total phenols (TPC) were analyzed by spectrophotometry; and the contents of main active components were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed the pre-process improved the quality of the EU leaves. As a simple and fast process, the microwave process is the most effective technique in the retention of flavonoids and four active ingredients except aucubin. High power (800 W) and short time (2.5 min) are more conducive to the retention of active ingredients, with high antioxidant activity. Appropriate steam and frying processes also exhibited benefits for the active components. In particular, the samples treated with steam for 10 minutes showed great potential for industrial application with the highest antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. Therefore, proper pre-processing before drying should be conducted to effectively protect the active components of EU leaves.
  • Impact of charged ionic species (NaCl and KCl) on the generation of color and volatile aroma compounds during caramelization Original Article

    XU, Su; LIU, Yuze; MU, Xingyan; CHEN, Haijiang; TAO, Guangcan; SUN, Zhenchun; YANG, Ni; MA, Fengwei; FISK, Ian D.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract During the process of caramelization, volatile and non-volatile flavor and color are generated via the degradation of carbohydrates. This research investigated the effect of the types and concentrations of salts including NaCl and KCl on the generation of volatile aromas and color during caramelization. The solid phase microextraction-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was used to measure the volatile compounds generated in caramelization. The results demonstrated that increasing content of salt (NaCl or KCl) could significantly improve (P<0.05) the generation of some essential volatile compounds during caramelization such as furfural, 5-methylfurfural, 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF), propionic acid and butyric acid. However, the ascending amount of salt (NaCl or KCl) had no significant impact (P<0.05) on the color generation of caramel. In conclusion, the usage of salt was beneficial to the generation of more aromatic compounds during caramelization.
  • Insights into sub-chronic toxicity effects of enzymatic hydrolysate of peony seed meal derived Maillard reaction products in SD rats Original Article

    LOU, Peng-Xiang; ZHANG, Wang-Wei; CAO, Heng; THAKUR, Kiran; SHANG, Ya-Fang; ZHANG, Jian-Guo; WEI, Zhao-Jun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Despite the use of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) as food flavoring and coloring agents, they are also known to constitute acrylamide, heterocyclic amines, advanced glycosylation end products, and precursors of low molecular weight compounds. The very little is known about the toxicology of peony seed meal-derived MRPs. In this study, sub-chronic toxicity of peony seed meal derived MRPs was evaluated in Sprage-Dawley (SD) rats. Results showed that the body weight, hematology and serum biochemistry, organ coefficient and histopathology of SD rats with daily intake of peony seed meal-derived MRPs lower than 0.45 g/kg were not affected. After feeding with peony seed meal-derived MRPs for 13-weeks, there were no significant toxic effect on either male or female rats. This study provides a theoretical basis for the safety of MRPs derived from the reactants of enzymatic hydrolysis of peony seed meal.
  • Structural characterization and stability of microencapsulated flavonoids from Lycium barbarum L. leaves Original Article

    FAN, Yanli; PEI, Yufang; CHEN, Jinghua; ZHA, Xiaotong; WU, Yuxing

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Lycium barbarum L. leaves are rich in flavonoids, which have been proven to show poor stability and solubility in the external and gastrointestinal environment. To improve the stability and water-solubility of Lycium barbarum L. leaves flavonoids (LBLF), sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan (CS) were utilized as the wall materials to prepare the microcapsules of LBLF (M-LBLF) by polyelectrolyte cross-linking method. The spectrum of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed M-LBLF had an absorption peak at 1735 cm-1, which might be the electrostatic interaction between the positive and negative charges of SA and CS. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum showed the diffraction peak at 2θ = 51.8° was due to the microencapsulation and transformation of the amorphous structural part into a crystalline state. As demonstrated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), the M-LBLF displayed wider and higher endothermic peaks due to the electrostatic interaction between SA and CS. The release of main monomers from M-LBLF in different stages of the in vitro digestion were detected, and it was shown that M-LBLF could resist the digestion in simulated oral fluid (SOF) and gastric fluid (SGF), and enhance the slow-release ability of LBLF in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), indicating that microencapsulation can improve the stability of LBLF and play a slow-release role.
  • Use of water-soluble soy extract and inulin as ingredients to produce a fermented dairy beverage made from caprine milk Original Article

    RIBEIRO, José Evangelista Santos; SANT’ANA, Amanda Marília da Silva; SILVA, Flávio Luiz Honorato da; BELTRÃO FILHO, Edvaldo Mesquita

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A yogurt-like fermented dairy beverage was elaborated from a mixture containing 70% (v/v) caprine milk and 30% (v/v) water-soluble soy extract (WSSE), supplemented with inulin (4 g∙100 mL-1). Physicochemical, sensorial, and microbiological analyses were carried out to characterize the product and evaluate its stability during 28 days of refrigerated storage (5 °C). To compare the results, a yogurt made from whole caprine milk, without inulin supplementation, was elaborated as a control. The use of WSSE and inulin showed favorable to the physicochemical and physical properties of the product, increasing the water holding capacity, improving the rheological properties, and preventing over-acidification during refrigerated storage. Regarding the sensorial evaluation, the control treatment was better evaluated for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability. No differences were observed between the treatments concerning the microbiological parameters.
  • Biogenic production of selenocysteine by Enterococcus faecium ABMC-05: an indigenous lactic acid bacterium from fermented Mexican beverage Original Article

    ESCOBAR-RAMÍREZ, Meyli Claudia; RODRÍGUEZ-SERRANO, Gabriela Mariana; SALAZAR-PEREDA, Veronica; CASTAÑEDA-OVANDO, Araceli; PÉREZ-ESCALANTE, Emmanuel; JAIMEZ-ORDAZ, Judith; GONZÁLEZ-OLIVARES, Luis Guillermo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Lactic acid bacteria have been studied for their ability to accumulate inorganic selenium, which is reduced to its elemental form or could be integrated into selenoproteins in the form of selenocysteine. This ability to produce bioavailable organic selenium for humans is an advantage that could be exploited in the production of functional foods. In this work, Enterococcus faecium ABMC-05 isolated from a traditional Mexican beverage (tepache) and with NCBI entry number OL413240 was used. Microorganism selenization was performed after the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration of Na2SeO3 (184 mg/L), which was calculated using the graphical method of Talmadge and Fitch. The selenium concentration of accumulated selenium was calculated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The concentration of selenium at 48 h of fermentation was 39.92 mg/L, which represented 23.8% of selenium at medium. This value was consistent with those reported for other lactic acid bacteria. Finally, it was determined the selenocysteine presence in biomass recovery after fermentation using RP-HPLC technique. With these results it was confirmed the biogenic production of selenocysteine by Enterococcus faecium ABMC-05 using an inorganic source.
  • Preparation and characterization of PH-responsive polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/anthocyanin films Original Article

    XU, Hongyu; SHI, Ying; GAO, Li; SHI, Nan; YANG, Junyan; HAO, Rui

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Anthocyanin/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan composite membrane was prepared by solution casting method using chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as matrix and natural pigment anthocyanin as filler. The structures of the composite films were characterized by Uv-visible reflectance spectrum (UV-VIS), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of adding anthocyanins on the physical properties, water resistance, degradation, antibacterial properties and pH responsiveness of the films were investigated. The experimental results showed that the prepared anthocyanin/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan composite indicator films show color changes from pink to purple to blue and then to yellow-green when the pH value ranges from 2 to 14. The total color difference ΔE value is greater than 12. The antibacterial properties and other properties of the composite film can enhance by adding anthocyanin. The tensile strength of anthocyanin/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan film is more than 70 MPa, which is larger than that of polyvinyl film and polyvinyl alcohol/chitosanfilm. The film has excellent physical, antibacterial properties and obvious pH response performance, making it ideal for food packaging.
  • Goji berry effects on hamburger quality during refrigerated display time Original Article

    CARDOSO, Melina Aparecida Plastina; VITAL, Ana Carolina Pelaes; MEDEIROS, Aylle; SARAIVA, Bianka Rocha; PRADO, Ivanor Nunes do

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Research on natural additives to replace or reduce synthetic ones in meat products is still being highlighted. The effect of goji berry (GB) (extract, powder and incorporated in an edible coating) in hamburgers during 10 days of refrigerated (2 ºC) and illuminated (fluorescent lamp, 1200 lux, 12 h day-1) display were evaluated. Four treatments were studied: control (CONT) - hamburger without GB; GBEX - hamburger with GB extract, GBPW - hamburger with GB powder and GBEC - hamburger with GB edible coating. pH, color, water losses, shear force, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS assays) and lipid oxidation (TBARS) were evaluated. The use of GB positively affected the quality of hamburger during display and the coated samples presented better results, with reduced weight and color losses, lower pH, and shear force values. The inclusion of GB in hamburgers increased the antioxidant activity and inhibited lipid oxidation. GB has potential application in hamburgers to maintain or improve their characteristics during the shelf-life.
  • Characterization of quinoa-wheat flour blend for the preparation of dry cake Original Article

    AKHLAQ, Muhammad; FAROOQ, Muhammad Umer; ALI, Shinawar Waseem; AMIR, Mamoona; SIDDIQUE, Farzana; JAVED, Muhammad Arshad; AFZAL, Muhammad Inam; UMER, Muhammad; MUJTABA, Ahmed; IQBAL, Munawar; AHMAD, Mateen; AWAIS, Muhammad; MURTAZA, Ayesha; IMRAN, Muhammad; RIAZ, Muhammad; AHMED, Aftab; AMIR, Rai Muhammad; MUNIR, Muhammad Mubasher

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The current study aimed at the quinoa-wheat composite flour's characterization (including total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity) as well as its effect on dry cake sensory quality. Findings revealed a rise in ash content, fat, protein, and crude fiber of composite-flour (0.56-1.23%, 1.13-1.76%, 10.14-11.02%, and 0.23-1.04%, respectively) with an increase of quinoa flour (5-20%). The addition of quinoa flour to the composite flour enhanced cake texture (0.26-.70 kg), but it also decreased L-value of cake crumb (55.29-50.73). Total flavonoids (56.44-59.48 mg QE/100 g) and antioxidant activity (4.66-9.76%) increased as quinoa flour was increased, whereas total phenolics (8.68-5.46 mgGAE/g) decreased. By mixing wheat flour with quinoa flour, the nutritional value of wheat flour was increased. During sensory evaluation, the cake made from composite-flour containing 10% quinoa-flour scored the highest overall acceptability. Sensory quality of last two treatments, which included 15% and 20% quinoa flour, was lower. Quinoa seeds had a better nutritional profile than wheat, with higher levels of amino acids, minerals, dietary fibers, and oil. Since wheat is a staple food in Pakistan, adding quinoa-flour would help to reduce malnutrition in Pakistan. Furthermore, no previous research on the suitability of quinoa-wheat flour for dry cake has been conducted on Pakistani wheat flour.
  • Improvement effect of enzymic polypeptide from Paeonia ostii seed meal on protein-energy malnutrition mouse model Original Article

    WEI, Liang; YANG, Huiying; YU, Xinxin; PU, Duowen; LU, Qi; ZHU, Minghua; ZU, Yuangang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The improvement effects of enzymatic polypeptide of Paeonia ostii seed meal (APHP) on model mice of protein-energy malnutrition were evaluated by body weight changes, organ indices, levels of SOD, CAT, MDA, total protein and albumin in serum, staining images of major organs and macrophages phagocytosis. The results indicated the mice body weight recovery was dose-dependent with APHP and the body weight change of model mice fed with high-dose APHP (5.0 g/kg) and normal diet showed a same recovery effect. The model mice had higher thymus and spleen indexes than other groups. And the values of SOD, CAT, MDA, total protein and albumin in serum returned to normal level after 30, 60, 45, 30 and 45 days respectively, which was better than those of normal diet. Our research will provide basic data support for new potential applications of APHP and increase the added value of Paeonia ostii processing enterprises.
  • Proteolysis of burley tobacco-leaf extracts and antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates Original Article

    WANG, Xian-Xian; TAN, Jia-Neng; GAO, Jia-Ming; REN, Xiao-Hong; WANG, Wei-Min; GAO, Lin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Burley tobacco-leaf protein extracted by alkali and precipitated by acid was hydrolyzed enzymatically, and optimum protease and hydrolysis parameters were determined. Pepsin was best and gave the highest hydrolysis rate (15.55%). As per results of the single-factor test, optimum hydrolysis conditions were: temperature 37 °C, pH 2, and an [E]/[S] ratio of 5%. These hydrolysis conditions were optimized by an orthogonal experiment that rendered the same results as the single factor experiment. The ratio of essential to total amino acids and that of essential to non-essential amino acids contained in the burley tobacco-leaf protease hydrolysate were higher than the FAO/WHO standard values of 0.4 and 0.6, among which hydrophobic amino acid content was the highest, followed by negatively and positively charged amino acid contents. In vitro antioxidant experiments showed that the scavenging rates of DPPH, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radicals of tobacco-leaf protein hydrolysates were higher than those before hydrolysis. Further, the hydroxyl radical-scavenging rate was the most significant, and total antioxidant capacity was improved. The nutritive value of the burley tobacco-leaf protein hydrolysate improved upon pepsin-mediated hydrolysis, and the antioxidant activity was better. These results provide a theoretical basis for further development and utilization of tobacco protein resources.
  • Identification of sesquiterpene glycosides from Dendrobium nobile and their α-glycosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities Original Article

    TAN, Daopeng; SONG, Yeyang; WANG, Jianmei; GAO, Chunxue; QIN, Lin; ZHAO, Yongxia; LU, Yanliu; YANG, Zhou; HE, Yuqi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dendrobium nobile is a traditional Chinese medicine and functional food in China, with anti-aging, immunity-enhancing, glucose-lowering and lipid-lowering health functions. In recent years, the research value of D. nobile has attracted the attention of more and more experts and scholars. Today, phytochemical investigation of the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., led to the isolation of five sesquiterpene glycosides, including dendromoniliside D (1), dendronobiloside A (2), dendronobiloside C (3), dendronobiloside D (4), dendroside G (5) and their α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activities were also investigated. Among them, dendromoniliside D (1), dendroside G (5) were first isolated from D. nobile. And dendronobiloside A (2) and dendronobiloside C (3) exhibited better inhibitory activity against α-glycosidases, respectively. In the case of α-amylase inhibition, dendroside G (5) has a relatively good effect. These results suggest that sesquiterpene glycosides of D. nobile have potential hypoglycemic activity and deserve further research and development.
  • Prediction of fatty acids in rice storage based on odor characteristics by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry Original Article

    CHEN, Tong; ZHOU, Chuanyue; LI, Haiyu; CHEN, Bin; WANG, Yong; CHENG, Qianwei; MENG, Luli

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to develop a quick method for predicting fatty acid in rice storage, gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) was applied to detect and analyze volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at different rice storage stages, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was used to establish a linear regression model between fatty acid values and characteristic VOCs. The results showed that rice fatty acid values increased gradually with extension of storage time. Odor components of rice mainly included alcohols and aldehydes. Except for 1-octene-3-alcohol, the content of other VOCs showed an overall downward trend during the storage period. After variable optimization using two different algorithms, the correlation coefficient of the PLSR cross validation model could reach 0.9544, and the corresponding root mean square error was 2.4093. In conclusion, fatty acid values of rice with different storage periods could be accurately predicted by using characteristic VOCs variables and chemometric tools, which would provide a rapid and nondestructive detection method for rice quality during storage based on odor information.
  • Effects of different storage temperatures on microbial spoilage and bacterial community structure of fresh beef by high-throughput sequencing technology Original Article

    WANG, Xinhui; ZHANG, Tingyang; YANG, Yidan; LIU, Lijia; TIAN, Tian; ZHU, Dandan; MA, Maolan; XIE, Simin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Comparsion of the effects of the chilling (4 ºC), superchilling (-2 ºC) and frozen (-18 ºC) storage on microbial spoilage and bacterial community structure of fresh beef was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing technology in this study. The results indicated that storage temperature can significantly affect the degree of microbial spoilage and bacterial community structure of fresh beef during storage. At the species level, the primary dominant bacterial species in beef samples was Pseudomonas fragi with relative abundance of 37.78% followed by Myroides phaeus and Brochothrix thermosphacta with 10.95% and 4.64%, respectively, at the beginning of storage. Both superchilling and frozen storage can effectively inhibit the growth of P. fragi, while the chilling storage failed to demonstrate strong inhibition for growth of P. fragi. Similar result was found for Myroides phaeus. The chilling, superchilling and frozen storage can not effectively inhibit the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta and Acinetobacter johnsonii. The difference of microbial spoilage in beef stored in three kinds of storage may be related to the difference of the bacterial community structure and the formation of dominant spoilage bacteria. These results revealed that superchilling and frozen storage can effectively inhibit the formation of dominant spoilage bacteria, resulting in a good freshness preservation.
  • Preparation, characterization, and bioactivities of polysaccharides fractions from sugarcane leaves Original Article

    MO, Mengmiao; JIANG, Fengyu; CHEN, Weiming; DING, Zhendong; BI, Yongguang; KONG, Fansheng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Three new polysaccharides (SLP-50, SLP-70, and SLP-90) were fractionated successively by gradient concentrations of ethanol. This study aimed to investigate the initial structural characterization and bioactivities of these sugarcane leaves polysaccharides (SLPs) obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results, which were further validated by IR spectrometry, revealed that the three SLPs contained uronic acids, proteins, and sulfate groups in addition to carbohydrate. SLP-50 (36.40 kDa), SLP-70 (12.97 kDa), and SLP-90 (3.52 kDa) were acidic heteropolysaccharides mainly comprised of mannose (Man), rhamnose (Rha), glucuronic acid (Glc A), galacturonic acid (Gal A), galactose (Gal), glucose (Glc), xylose (Xyl), and arabinose (Ara), in different molar ratios. SLP-90 exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than SLP-50 and SLP-70. In vitro, all fractions showed significant hypoglycemic potential and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The IC50 values of SLP-50, SLP-70, and SLP-90 were 0.11, 0.05, and 0.67 mg/mL on α-glucosidase, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of acarbose (0.80 mg/mL). These findings could provide a reference for developing and applying SLP-based functional foods.
  • Papaya seeds (Carica papaya L. var. Formosa) in different ripening stages: unexplored agro-industrial residues as potential sources of proteins, fibers and oil as well as high antioxidant capacity Original Article

    MESQUITA, Mércia da Silva; SANTOS, Priscila Dayane de Freitas; HOLKEM, Augusto Tasch; THOMAZINI, Marcelo; RODRIGUES, Christianne Elisabete da Costa; FERNANDES, Andrezza Maria; FAVARO-TRINDADE, Carmen Silvia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The use of whole fruits and vegetables, including the parts usually discarded during food processing, is an alternative to reduce the quantity of agro-industrial wastes. This study aimed to evaluate papaya seeds' nutritional and bioactive potential in two ripening stages. The seeds in the stages 0 and 5 of ripening were analyzed regarding their physicochemical composition, while the oil and the hydroethanolic extracts of the seeds were studied in respect of their fatty acid profile, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities. The seeds in both ripening stages show good nutritional quality, because they are sources of protein, fiber, and oil. The oil extracted from the seeds is majorly composed by oleic fatty acid (around 70%). The seeds extracts did not present antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enteritidies, Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus. However, they presented high contents of total phenols (58.1 and 36.0 mg GAE⁄g dry extract for seeds in the ripening stages 0 and 5, respectively) and good antioxidant capacity, according to the FRAP and ABTS●+ assays. Papaya seeds provide nutrients and bioactive compounds and their use is a promising alternative to reduce the disposal of food wastes in the environment.
  • Effect of slice thickness and hot-air temperature on the kinetics of hot-air drying of Crabapple slices Original Article

    JIANG, Ningning; MA, Jiyang; MA, Rongge; ZHANG, Yang; CHEN, Panyu; REN, Manni; WANG, Cuntang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study was investigated the effects of hot-air temperature and slice thickness on drying characteristics of Crabapple slices. Drying experiments were carried out in the ranges of 60-90 °C. The thickness conditions of Crabapple slices for thin layer drying were 3mm and 5mm. The increase in the temperature of the hot-air and the decrease in the thickness of the slicing causes the drying time to be significantly shortened. Fick’s diffusion model was applied to describe the water transfer of the Crabapple slices, and the effective diffusion coefficients varied from 0.6142 × 10-8m2/s to 1.9867 × 10-8m2/s in a given range of drying temperature. The effective diffusivity increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy values of Crabapple were 17.46 and 23.82 kJ/mol for the thickness of 3 and 5 mm, respectively. The Page model was revealed to be a better fit to describe the drying curve of Crabapple compared to other models.
  • Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on physicochemical and functional properties of soybean protein isolate Original Article

    ZHAO, Fei; LIU, Xuemei; LIAN, Meng; YANG, Yongqi; LI, Chunlei; XU, Haicheng; CAO, Wenchao; ZHENG, Limin; DONG, Haizhou; WANG, Wentao

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Impacts of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pretreatment on the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of soybean protein isolate (SPI) were investigated. Changes in the secondary and tertiary structures were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectra and fluorescence spectra. The particle sizes reduced from 217.20 nm to 192.70 nm while the zeta potential increased. It’s revealed by scanning electron microscopy that the HHP treatment could result in the formation of large aggregation, leaving the SPI with irregular and uneven surface. Moreover, hollow spheres were also observed in SPI by means of dynamic and static light scattering. As a result, the foaming capacity of HHP-treated SPI and antioxidant activity of the HHP-treated SPI hydrolysates were improved significantly.
  • Interaction mechanism of icariin and whey protein based on spectrofluorimetry and molecular docking Original Article

    LI, Gang; GE, Xiaohong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Icariin has low bioavailability and poor stability, which limits its wide application. The complexation of icariin and whey protein is expected to solve this problem, but there is no research on their interaction mechanism. In view of this, the related mechanism was studied systematically by spectrofluorimetry and molecular docking method in this study. The fluorescence analysis showed that icariin and whey protein could form a non-covalent complex driven by hydrophobic force, which led to the fluorescence quenching of whey protein. In this process, the microenvironment around the tyrosine residue and tryptophan residue of whey protein changed. The molecular docking analysis confirmed the existence of hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding in the complex, which well confirmed fluorescence results. The obtained results can promote the application of icariin in food.
  • Hygienic-sanitary characterization and proposal for the elaboration of essential operational requirements for street foods sold in Brazilian food trucks Original Article

    DIAS, Juliana Ribeiro; RAMOS, Gustavo Luis de Paiva Anciens; HORA, Iracema Maria de Carvalho da; AZEREDO, Denise Rosane Perdomo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Food Truck segment has become a food option with quality and reduced cost. The objective of the present work was to analyze the hygienic-sanitary quality of street foods sold in food trucks and to propose essential operational requirements for the control of hazards associated with this food sector. The cross-sectional descriptive study model was used with the application of a questionnaire to verify the hygienic-sanitary conditions of the food handlers of the trucks in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and a checklist to evaluate the structural conditions and compliance with the standards provided for in legislation. Among the handlers, 60% did not wash their hands properly, 62.9% did not have a training course and 18% of the trucks did not have a sink with potable water. Non-conformities were also observed at the points of sale, mainly due to the absence of an exhaust system and protection gutter for lamps. Thus, a proposal of essential operational requirements for food trucks was elaborated. There is a clear need to recognize this segment as an integral part of the commercialization of street food, proposing a specific control, increasing inspection, and use of a training program.
  • Penicillium fermentation combined with enzyme treatment to enhance the release of phenolic acids from wheat bran Original Article

    LI, Guangyao; CHAI, Xinxiang; ZHONG, Zhiyi; FENG, Yan; SUN, Haiyan; WANG, Baoshi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Phenols from wheat bran play an important role in improving the physiological function of human body because of their potential antioxidant capacity. However, most of the phenols in wheat bran exist in the form of insoluble binding, which limits their application in the field of food and medicine. In this paper, the modification of wheat bran by Penicillium solid-state fermentation (SSF) was studied. It was found that the content of free phenolic acids in wheat bran was significantly correlated with the activity of key hydrolytic enzymes in the fermentation process. On the fifth day of Penicillium fermentation, the content of free phenolic acids was the highest, which was 750.98 μg/g, which was 1.78 times higher than that of the control. The release of free phenolic acids was highest when wheat bran was treated with compound enzyme at 300 U/mL. Furthermore, the structure of wheat bran was significantly changed by fermentation with enzyme addition. On the 5th day of fermentation, the content of free phenolic acids was as high as 1500 μg/g, which was twice as much as that of fermented bran and 3.56 times that of unfermented bran.
  • Bacteriological quality and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolated from organic and conventional fresh cheese Original Article

    SALEH, Mariana Marques; CARVALHO, Alice Marqui de; ANDRADE, Nayara Martins de; FONSECA, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; KELLER, Luiz Antonio Moura; DUARTE, Maria Carmela Kasnowski Holanda; FRANCO, Robson Maia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract One of the appeals of the rising organic market is the guarantee of offering healthier foods with less impact on the environment, from a more sustainable production method. Dairy market is one of the most popular in the sector but studies on organic dairy products safety are still scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of organic and conventional Minas Frescal cheese samples, and the antimicrobial sensitivity of isolated strains of Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus to different antimicrobials. Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the samples analyzed. Regarding coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, 70% showed higher counts than that is established by Brazilian legislation, but with no significant difference between the systems. In the determination of the Most Probable Number of E. coli was observed significant difference between the systems, with a higher contamination index in cheeses derived from the organic system. All strains isolated showed 100% resistance to β-lactams and both in the conventional and organic systems were observed multiple resistance characteristics. Considering the similarity of the results obtained, it is necessary to analyze other parameters such as production system, herd health and good manufacturing practices to compare deeply both systems.
  • Compatibility characterization and storage stability of Ficus hirta Vahl. chicken soup powder during storage Original Article

    TAN, Minhua; WANG, Biying; LIU, Wei; ZENG, Xiaofang; ZHANG, Yuanhong; YU, Limei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Ficus hirta Vahl chicken soup (FHV+C-S) powder is one of the most popular Chinese-style soup powders due to its high nutritional value and special flavor. In this study, infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the compatibility between FHV and chicken after decoction, and result showed new absorption peaks (1871 and 1522 cm-1) generated in the mixed soup of FHV-chicken, indicating the interaction between FHV and chicken. The storage stability and shelf life of FHV+C-S powder were also estimated, and results indicated that storage temperature and time greatly influenced the acid value (AV) and peroxide value (POV) of FHV+C-S powder. The regression equations of FHV+C-S powder simulated by the first-order kinetic equation and the Arrhenius equation showed a high fit coefficient (R2 > 0.9), and the shelf-life of the powder was predicted to be 568 days. Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) was employed to analyze the changes in volatile compounds in FHV+C-S powder during storage, and results indicated the fluctuation of flavor compounds, with some decreased with storage time prolonged, such as 2-phenylethanol, hexanal, butanone, butyraldehyde, while some other increased, such as amyl alcohol, valeraldehyde, 2-octanone, 2-heptanone. This demonstrated GC-IMS as a visualized tool for flavor compounds and stability analysis.
  • Optimization of total polyphenol extraction and flavonoid screening by mass spectrometry in mango (Mangifera indica L.) waste from Peru Original Article

    LEÓN-ROQUE, Noemí; ROMERO GUZMÁN, Blanca Margarita; OBLITAS-CRUZ, Jimy Frank; HIDALGO-CHÁVEZ, Davy William

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This research aims to optimize the extraction yield of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and quantify flavonoids by mass spectrometry in peel and kernel of mango (Mangifera indica L.), varieties: Edward, Kent, Haden, and Criollo from the department of Lambayeque, Peru, which resulted in eight samples. Mango peels and kernels were manually separated, frozen at -20 °C, freeze-dried, and ground (300 μm). For the extraction, the Central Composite Design was applied with the factors of ethanolic solution, time, and sample/volume ratio. The extracts determined TPCs by Folin-Ciocalteu and UV-Vis spectrophotometry expressed as gallic acid equivalent. Optimization was performed by the desirability function; Quercetin was also quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (m/z). The highest yield of TPC content for Criollo mango kernel was obtained with 67.99% ethanolic solution, 89.94 min, and 0.343 g sample/10 mL ethanolic solution with R2 of 0.8966, and for Edward mango peel with 73.996% ethanolic solution, 58.5 min, and 0.432 g sample/10 mL ethanolic solution with R2 of 0.8020. For peel, the methanolic extract from Criollo mango peel had the highest Quercetin value at (23.28 ± 2.35 mg QE/100 g) (p < 0.05), and for kernels, in both extractions (ethanolic and methanolic), the four varieties did not present differences (p > 0.05).
  • Diagnosis of the impact of Covid-19 on artisanal cheese production in the semi-arid region of Brazil Original Article

    BEZERRA, Joadilza da Silva; RANGEL, Adriano Henrique do Nascimento; MARQUES JÚNIOR, Sérgio; SALES, Danielle Cavalcanti; GALVÃO JÚNIOR, José Geraldo Bezerra; BRITO, Acácio Sanzio de; MEDEIROS, Pedro Alexandro Azevedo de; ARAUJO, José Rangel de; MENDONÇA, Fabio de Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to present information on the impacts resulting from Covid-19 on the artisanal coalho cheese production chain about: access to information; socioeconomic; income and government support; healthcare. The interviews were conducted using the Google Forms tool, with milk and artisanal coalho cheese producers in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The producers obtained a lot of information transmitted on television (66%); the majority to adhere to health protocols. There was instability in the production, with an initial need to reduce production resulting from prohibitive measures to trade. The level of demand with regard to the consumer market increased with the quality of milk and cheeses. An allegation of lack of support from the government to maintain the activity was also verified in 78.7% of the interviewees, but 83% had resorted to emergency aid. Therefore, it can be concluded that the challenges imposed by the pandemic are not just sanitary. The study confirmed the need to restructure public services and policies. These results can provide compelling evidence about the rural context in the country.
  • The effect of the use of salep powder obtained from different wild orchid species in Turkey on the rheological, thermal, and sensory properties of ice cream Original Article

    ARSLAN, Aysen; SAGDIC, Osman; KARASU, Salih; TEKIN-CAKMAK, Zeynep Hazal

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of salep species grown in different regions of Turkey on the rheological and microstructural properties of ice cream mix and the thermal and sensory properties of ice cream. For this purpose, ten different types of salep grown in different regions (Mersin, Yozgat, Muğla, Kahramanmaraş, Adana, Van, Muş) in the natural microflora of Turkey were used in a formulation of an ice cream mix. The flow behavior, frequency sweep, and 3-ITT rheological properties of ice cream mixes were studied. All samples showed shear thinning, viscoelastic solid-like, and recoverable character. The K and n values ​​for the ice cream mixes were determined as 0.03-35.08 Pasn and 0.33-0.80, respectively, and significantly differed according to salep varieties (p < 0.05). The zeta potential values of ice cream mix samples ranged from -25.87 mV to -33.95 mV and were significantly affected by salep varieties (p < 0.05). The use of different salep varieties significantly affected the thermal properties of ice cream such as freezing point temperature (Tf), temperature range (ΔT), and enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf). In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the use of different salep varieties can significantly affect the rheological, thermal, and sensory properties of ice cream, and the selection of salep varieties may be vital for the desired quality of ice cream.
  • Effects of cobalt-sourced γ-irradiation on the meat quality and storage stability of crayfishes (Procambarus clarkii) Original Article

    LI, Hai-lan; HUANG, Jia-jun; LI, Mei-jin; CHEN, Ya-nan; XIONG, Guang-quan; CAI, Jun; ZU, Xiao-yan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to explore the influences of cobalt-sourced irradiation on the meat quality and storage stability of Procambarus clarkii. Pieces of tail meat of P. clarkii were processed, boiled, and packed in transparentretort pouchs and then exposed to 60Co-γ-ray (0, 1.25, 3.32, 5.30, and 7.24 kGy). Changes in meat indices such as pH, total plate count, and total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N), texture properties, were investigated. After irradiation at the optimum irradiation dose, crayfish meats was stored at 0, 4 and 8 °C respectively, samples were collected for determinations at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. With increased irradiation dose, the total plate count in meat significantly decreased, whereas TVB-N greatly increased (P < 0.05). The irradiation dose of 3.32 kGy can realize both sterilization effect and maintain the quality of crayfish meat to the maximum extent. Total plate count and TVB-N in crayfish meat slowly grew at a storage temperature of 0 °C, their contents reached or approached the edible threshold by 9th day of storage, thereby prolonging the shelf life to 9d. Research demonstrates that 3.32 kGy cobalt-sourced irradiation and 0 °C storage can provide some bacteriostasis to some extent and prolong the shelf life of boiled crayfish.
  • Chemical characterization of different parts of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit and its freeze-dried pulp powder with emphasis on its bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities Original Article

    FONTES, Rafaela Figueiredo; ANDRADE, Julianna Karla Santana; RAJAN, Murugan; NARAIN, Narendra

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to prepare the freeze dried powder of noni (Morinda citrifolia) pulp and determine the contents of bioactive and antioxidant capacity. Seed, peel, pulp and lyophilized powder were characterized in terms of physico-chemical, carotenoids, chlorophyll, sugars, ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidants contents. Phenolic compounds were determined by LC-MS. The lyophilized pulp powder showed high levels of phenolics and flavonoids (7486.38 µg GAE/g and 385.57 µg QE/g, respectively) and higher antioxidant activity for FRAP (10360.39 to 467970.40 mmol/100 g). Ascorbic acid has a higher concentration in the lyophilized powder (336.62 mg/100 g). Rutin, caffeic, artepillin C, quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol, vanillin and vanillic were the major compounds. The antioxidant effect present in the various components of the fruit was predominant, and the greater conservation of this potential was through the application of lyophilization. Thus, the noni may be considered as a good source of phenolics compounds having a high potential as natural antioxidants.
  • Salting in the preparation of jerked beef meat with pork Original Article

    DIAS, Victor Hugo de Luna; DANTAS, Terezinha Domiciano; FERREIRA, Valquiria Cardoso da Silva; SOUSA, Solange de; ALMEIDA, Jorge Luiz Santos de; SARAIVA, Maria Monique Tavares; ALVES, Rerisson do Nascimento; FIGUEIREDO, Caio Franklin Vieira de; OLIVEIRA, Airton Gonçalves de; CHIODI, John Edson; OLIVEIRA, Francisco Fabrício Damião de; RIBEIRO, Neila Lidiany

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Food processing allows a wide variation in the final quality of the product, which directly depends on the quality of the raw material used, the processing conditions, storage and commercialization. Salting, for example, is one of the oldest methods used to preserve meat. In the meat industry, the incorporation of salts into products is commonly used to improve dietary functionality and ensure food safety. Thus, the objective of this review was to understand that the discarded matrix meat can be used to make jerky meat, adding value to the final product. The processing of jerked beef is based on the osmotic dehydration process in counter flow, promoted by the penetration of salt with consequent exit of water from the inter and extra fibrillar compartments to the surface, with subsequent drying. At the same time, myosin denaturation occurs as a result of high temperatures, as well as myoglobin oxidation, promoted by salt, increasing the susceptibility to protein oxidation. The use of discarded animal meat to make jerky adds value to the by-product, improving sensory quality.
  • The anti-oxidative capacity of fermented lemon peel and its inhibitory effects on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cell inflammatory response and cell apoptosis Original Article

    PAN, Yanni; LEE, YeonJun; CHUNG, Ji Hyung; KWACK, KyuBum; ZHAO, Xin; PARK, Kun-Young

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chronic inflammation plays a key role in the development and progression of several chronic diseases. Inhibiting the inflammatory cascade, thereby minimising the damage caused by the inflammatory mediators, can be one of the strategies in chronic disease management. In addition, inflammation is closely related to apoptosis, and inflammation can cause apoptosis. Lemon peel has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory biological activities. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of fermented lemon peel (FLP) by Lactobacillus plantarum PNU and the effect of its extract (FLPE) on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. The results show that FLP has better antioxidant activity than unfermented lemon peel (UFLP). Compared with UFLP extract, FLPE more effectively inhibited the release of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ) and down-regulated pro-inflammatory genes (IL-1β, IL-6, NF-κB p65, COX-2, IFN-γ, iNOS, IL-5), and pro-apoptotic genes (caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, p21 and Bax), meanwhile, promoted the release of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) and up-regulated anti-inflammatory genes(IL-10 and IL-4), and anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl2) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Therefore, this study elucidates the anti-inflammatory activity mechanism of fermented lemon peel by studying the balance of inflammatory response and the inhibition of apoptosis. It provides an important reference for the future research and treatment of chronic inflammation and related diseases, as well as the development of fermented foods with anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of antioxidant activity of turmeric flour in chicken patties Original Article

    NEGRÃO, Isabela Dante Alves; MENDONÇA, Fernanda Jéssica; PAVANELLO, Ana Clara Longhi; SOARES, Adriana Lourenço

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the use of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) flour as a natural antioxidant in chicken patties. Patties were prepared with different concentrations of turmeric flour: 0% (Control), 0.25% (TC0.25%), 0.50% (TC0.50%), and 0.75% (TC0.75%). A “treatment-as-usual” patty with 0.25% sodium erythorbate (SE) was prepared. Turmeric flour showed high contents of carbohydrates (78.12%), phenolic compounds (8.13 mg GAE g-1), and flavonoids (29.68 mg QE g-1), as well as high antioxidant activity, determined by DPPH (48.71% inhibition) and FRAP (9.11 mg QE g-1) assays. Patties were analyzed after 1, 15, 30 and 45 days of storage at -18 °C. The addition of turmeric resulted in less reddish, and darker, more yellowish patties. Changes in chemical composition, pH, or shrinkage percentage were not observed. TC0.75% obtained the highest cooking yield (91.27%). TC0.25% was the softest, while TC0.75% and Control had the lowest cohesiveness. Differences in resilience between TC0.25%, TC0.75%, and Control were not observed. Changes in springiness and chewiness were not observed. Turmeric patties showed similar oxidative stability to the SE formulation, differing from Control throughout the entire storage period. Turmeric flour prevented lipid oxidation in chicken patties to the same extent as the synthetic antioxidant, demonstrating potential as a natural antioxidant.
  • Fast aging technology of novel kiwifruit wine and dynamic changes of aroma components during storage Original Article

    ZHANG, Yu; QIU, Qing; XU, Yanghui; ZHU, Junying; YUAN, Meng; CHEN, Maobin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A novel kiwifruit wine (KW) fermented by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae was developed with elegant flavor and poor alcoholic strength. The effects of natural aging, microwave and ultrasonic treatment on the quality of KW were investigated. A total of 61 aroma components were detected in the KW fermented by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. The results showed that microwave and ultrasonic treatments could promote the maturation of KW and increase the aroma components of KW. The variety of flavor components increased with a longer storage time. Combined with the taste evaluation analysis. The esters, alcohols, acids, and aldehydes in ultrasonic-aged wines were in dynamic balance and harmony with each other. The wine was soft and mellow, making the kiwi wine more typical.
  • Study on meat color stability of Qinchuan cattle during post-slaughter storage Original Article

    CHEN, Xueyan; YANG, Bo; LI, Yalei; LUO, Ruiming; ZHANG, Meng; ZHANG, Qian; WANG, Jinxia; LI, Rong; HU, Lijun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To study the stability of meat color in the post-slaughter storage process of Qinchuan cattle, three different bovine muscles, including longissimus dorsi (LD), knee round (KR) and psoas major (PM) muscles of Qinchuan cattle, were selected as research objects to determine the changes in meat color, myoglobin (Mb) relative content, pH, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), total iron, heme iron (HI) and other contents during storage. With the prolongation of the storage time, the relative content of oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) decreased, the relative content of metmyoglobin (MetMb) gradually increased, and muscle browning was due to the increase of a* value and hue value; Among them, HI and non-heme iron (NHI) reduced the stability of meat color by accelerating lipid oxidation, which was consistent with the results of Mb content and meat color index determining meat color stability. Therefore, the total iron content in muscles can also be used as an indicator of meat color stability.
  • Characteristics of protein and amino acid in various poultry egg white ovomucoid Original Article

    NURLIYANI,; ERWANTO, Yuny; RUMIYATI,; SUKARNO, Ari Surya

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Ovomucoid (OVM) is one of the glycoproteins in egg white which is heat resistant protein and to have protease inhibitor activity, that has potential as an anti-cancer. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize ovomucoid from four types of poultry eggs (commercial chickens, native chickens, ducks and Muscovy ducks). We analyzed the protein profile on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the secondary structure on Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy, amino acid profiles and protease inhibitor activity. The results showed that the ovomucoid profile on SDS-PAGE of most eggs was in the range of 35 kDa, except for commercial chicken egg which was 40 kDa. The ovomucoid spectra on FTIR of poultry eggs were similar, and indicate the presence of a specific band for carbohydrate contents at the wavelength of 894 to 1249 cm-1. There was similar content in amino acid profile of ovomucoid, except duck ovomucoid showed the highest in methionine contents. The activity of protease inhibitors in duck ovomucoid was highest than other ovomucoid. In conclusion, among the ovomucoid of poultry eggs were found variations in SDS profile, specific band in FTIR spectra, amino acid content of methionine and also protease inhibitor activity.
  • Performance of chitosan/γ-polyglutamic acid/curcumin edible coating and application in fresh beef preservation Original Article

    WANG, Xinhui; LI, Kai; ZHANG, Xinyue; GAO, Tao; ZHANG, Lu; SHEN, Yilan; YANG, Liu

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A chitosan-based edible coating was prepared by incorporating γ-polyglutamic acid and curcumin. The physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the chitosan/γ-polyglutamic acid/curcumin edible coating were characterized. Furthermore, the effect of chitosan/γ-polyglutamic acid/curcumin edible coating on the shelf-life of fresh beef was investigated. The γ-polyglutamic acid and curcumin incorporation greatly improved the performance of chitosan coating, including coating formation and antimicrobial activity. After the application of coating, the chitosan/γ-polyglutamic acid/curcumin edible coating had a good protection effect on the color of beef and was conducive to prolonging the shelf life of beef with good quality compared to pure curcumin edible coating. These results revealed that application of chitosan/γ-polyglutamic acid/ curcumin edible coating will be a good way to preserve freshness of fresh beef.
  • Dynamic changes of microbial community structure and flavor compounds formation during Qingzhi compound-flavor Baijiu fermentation Original Article

    XU, Jian; ZHAO, Yu; JIANG, Yan-Ming; ZHANG, Rui-Jing; CAI, Feng-Jiao; ZHU, Zheng-Jun; CAO, Jing-Hua; YU, Qi; LUO, Zai-Yan; WANG, Jiang-Bo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A Qingzhi compound-flavor Baijiu (QZCF Baijiu) was developed and the physiochemical factors and microbial community structure in Jiupei (fermented grains) during Baijiu fermentation were revealed. Physiochemical factors of ethanol, moisture and acidity significantly increased in the fermentation, while starch and reducing sugar decreased. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that Weissella, Pediococcus, Bacillus, Pantoea, Streptococcus, Sphingobacterium, Saccharomyces, Rhizopus, Issatchenkia and Wickerhamomyces were the dominant microorganisms in Jiupei. Moreover, correlation analysis between the physicochemical factors, the dominant microorganisms and the important flavor compounds in QZCF Baijiu production highlighted that the changes of physiochemical factors would lead to the corresponding changes of core microbiota and important flavor substances. Physiochemical factors of starch, reducing sugar and temperature could significantly affect the microbial community structure at the early stage of fermentation, while the influences of ethanol content and acidity became greater at the later stage, resulting in the differences of flavor compounds in Jiupei. Therefore, the growth and metabolism of microbial communities could be regulated by purposefully adjusting the physiochemical factors, thereby improving the flavor and quality of Baijiu. This work enriched the flavor types of Baijiu and provided a reference for the Baijiu-making industries to manage their production process.
  • Optimization of blending ratios in asparagus-lemon juice using response surface methodology Original Article

    LI, Xiaoyi; LYU, Jiayin; ZHENG, Hong; PANG, Zhen; SUN, Yanfang; QUAN, Yanping; XU, Tao; LU, Hongfei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, the effects of degradation on ascorbic acid (AA) in asparagus-lemon juice with different blending ratios were investigated during storage. The R2 values of the first-order kinetic model for predicting AA loss were 0.8216-0.9990, indicating that the model described well the degradation of AA in asparagus-lemon juice with different blending ratios. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the blending ratio of asparagus-lemon juice during storage. The optimum blending ratios that selected by the RSM were: 23%, 26%, 27%, 28% and 29% of diluted asparagus juice blended with 85% of diluted lemon juice, and the desirability were 0.820. The RSM correlation coefficients (R2) between experimental and model predicted values ranged from 0.6394 to 0.9975. Therefore, RSM and the first-order model may be effective tools to optimize the blending ratio of blended juice and AA degradation in juices.
  • Effect of defatted walnut powder extract on pigment gallstones and its metabolism in vitro Original Article

    FANG, Shi-nuo; XU, Xia-jing; MA, Jing; ZHANG, Qing-zhu; WANG, Dong-mei; PAN, Ying-ni; REN, Shu-meng; LIU, Xiao-qiu

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Gallstones disease is classified as cholesterol, pigment and mixed gallstones. Pigment gallstones is a common disease, and some patients experienced complications such as biliary pain and cholecystitis. Defatted walnut powder extract (DWPE) is extracted from the main by-product after oil extraction of the functional food walnut and can treat cholesterol gallstones. However, the effect of DWPE on pigment gallstones has not been reported. Thus, this paper aimed at exploring the potential mechanism of alleviating pigment gallstones and the metabolism of DWPE in vitro by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS to elucidate potential pharmacodynamic substances. It was found that DWPE significantly reduced the incidence of gallstones, the contents of unconjugated bilirubin and calcium, the inflammation of gallbladder tissue, the edema and congestion of gallbladder tissue, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. In metabolism, a total of 35 metabolites of DWPE, including its main compounds ellagic acid and glansreginin A, were characterized in the intestine with various metabolic reactions. Presumably, the small molecular compounds generated after the metabolism by intestinal bacteria may be the pharmacodynamic substances of DWPE on pigment gallstones. This study revealed the effect of DWPE in treating pigment gallstones and their metabolism in vitro.
  • Determination of the storage possibility salmon of essential oil of Amomum Aromaticum Roxb Original Article

    LOI, Nguyen Van; BINH, Pham Thi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The study aimed to determine the ability of cardamom oil to preserve salmon. Cardamom essential oil is recovered from fresh cardamom by steam distillation. Essential oil is yellow, and transparent, hot spicy taste and characteristic aroma. Salmon is rich in components such as proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, etc., so it is a favorable environment for microorganisms to grow and develop. The study conducted experiments to preserve fresh salmon with cardamom essential oil with the content of 0.3%, 06%, and 0.9% at the temperature of 10 oC. The study has determined the biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic criteria of fresh salmon in the formulas after 2 days, 4 days, and 6 days of storage. Finally, the cardamom oil content of 0.6% was selected to develop the preservation process. Salmon after preservation has a natural bright yellow color, good elasticity, and no viscosity; has a natural smell mixed with the characteristic aroma of cardamom essential oil; Salmon broth is clear, and has a characteristic sweet taste and characteristic aroma. The biochemical indicators: water, protein, lipid, vitamins, and minerals did not change significantly compared to the original; did not detect the presence of microorganisms strains Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella in preserved salmon.
  • Preparation, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides copper from Qingzhuan dark tea Original Article

    ZHOU, Hongfu; XIE, Chen; WANG, Ziyao; CHEN, Yong; YE, Dan; GUO, Anran; XIE, Wenjing; XING, Jun; WANG, Cai; ZHENG, Min

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Tea polysaccharides was one of the active ingredients of Qingzhuan dark tea, which had antioxidant, anti-tumor, and immune-enhancing effects. The complexation of metal ions of tea polysaccharides was one of the current research hotspots. It can combine the advantages of tea polysaccharides and their complexed trace metal elements, and had great potential development. In this study, the trace element-copper required by the human body was used for complexation with Qingzhuan dark tea polysaccharides, and the structure was characterized by various chemical methods. The copper complexes of Qingzhuan dark tea polysaccharides were characterized by UV spectroscopy, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The tests results show that it was successfully complexed with tea polysaccharides. Meanwhile, the Qingzhuan dark tea polysaccharides copper complex compound (termed TPS-Cu) showed higher scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical and ABTS free radical than the tea polysaccharides (termed TPS). Therefore, TPS-Cu can be used as a potentially effective and stable copper supplement and preventive agent.
  • Nutritional and technological properties of pulp and peel flours from different mango cultivars Original Article

    IZIDORO, Maiqui; LEONEL, Magali; LEONEL, Sarita; LOSSOLI, Nathalia Aparecida Barbosa; CÂNDIDO, Hebert Teixeira; ZÜGE, Patrícia Graosque Ulguim; ASSIS, Jaciene Lopes de Jesus

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Global mango production generates significant agricultural and industrial waste, including non-standard fruits and peels. Herein, flours obtained from the immature fruits of four mango cultivars (Haden, Keitt, Parwin, and Tommy Atkins) were characterized for their physicochemical properties with the goal of valorization as an ingredient in functional food products. Regardless of cultivar, the peel flours represented excellent sources of fiber, with notable calcium, magnesium, manganese, carotenoids, and antioxidant contents as well as high percentage of large particles and good water retention capacity. Pulp flours exhibit high starch content, light color, and fine granulometry. The mango cultivars strongly interfered with the differentiation of the mango peel and pulp flours. The results presented herein show that understanding the characteristics of flours obtained by processing different parts of the fruits of various cultivars can produce composite mango flours with different nutritional and technological properties, expanding their possible uses in food products and driving sustainable agricultural production in terms of efficient crop waste management.
  • Study of addition sweet potato extract on sensory test and antioxidant activity in yoghurt Original Article

    HARIADI, Hari; SAGITA, Diang; RAHMAWATI, Laila; TRIYONO, Agus; HIDAYAT,; MAYASTI, Nur Kartika Indah; KURNIAWAN, Kiki; PURWANDOKO, Pradeka Brilyan; ANGGARA, Cahya Edi Wahyu; ANDRIANSYAH, Raden Cecep Erwan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sweet potato is a local food ingredient that needs to be preserved and its benefits are because it contains a high source of starch with anthocyanins. The utilization of local ingredients is still rarely used due to limited knowledge of sweet potato processing techniques. The purpose of this study is to create innovations by developing purple sweet potato food cultivation as a natural dye in the formulation of yogurt products through hedonic testing. The research was conducted using a Randomized Block Design (RAK) method with 4 treatments consisting of 4 levels, namely A = 0 mg, B = 5 mg, C = 10 mg dan D = 15 mg, repeated 3 times. The most preferred yogurt by the panelists was yogurt with 15 mg of purple sweet potato extract added, with a value of 3.78 for taste, 3.01 for flavor and 3.53 for color. With a protein content of 4.76 gr, fat 12.60 gr, 13.2 gr, anthocyanins 14.42 mg (in 100 mL), and antioxidant activity of 3851.13 ppm.
  • A grey comprehensive evaluation model for wheat quality incorporating PCA-EWM Original Article

    DENG, Miaolei; ZHANG, Bowen; CHEN, Si

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective and accurate evaluation of wheat quality is the key to ensuring the safety of wheat storage. Due to the complexity and variability of wheat quality, traditional methods, such as the evaluation of single physical and chemical index, have the problems of insufficient information and poor differentiation of fuzzy intervals. Based on grey systems theory, this paper proposes a new comprehensive wheat quality grading model. Firstly, eight physical and chemical indices are selected as the factor set of the evaluation model, and the key quality indices are analyzed and screened by principal component analysis (PCA). The entropy weight method (EWM) is then used to measure the importance of the contribution of selected indices to wheat quality information. Finally, the grey evaluation model is then used to determine the grey correlation of the evaluation levels of different batches of wheat, and to rank the superiority and inferiority. The model is applied to the comprehensive analysis and evaluation of wheat samples, verifying the feasibility and validity of the model and providing some theoretical guidance for the evaluation of wheat quality.
  • Effects of ozone treatment on storage quality and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut water fennel [Oenanthe javanica] Original Article

    LIN, Fan; Kaiyu, LV; MA, Shufeng; WANG, Feijie; LI, Jiangkuo; WANG, Liqiang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Water fennel is vulnerable to a loss in quality during storage. To improve postharvest quality, fresh-cut water fennel was treated with 37.04 mg m-3 ozone for 15 minutes every 5 days, and then stored at 5 °C for 20 days, and the related quality and antioxidant capacity indexes were determined. The results showed that compared with the control group, the ozone-treated water fennel had better sensory quality, color (L*, a*, ΔE, Chroma ) and firmness after 20 days of storage, and the weight loss decreased by 47%, malondialdehyde content decreased by 41%, soluble solids content decreased by 20%.The ozone treatment also effectively inhibited the increase of respiratory rate and phenolic substances during storage of fresh-cut water fennel. Meanwhile, ozone treatment maintained the content of ascorbic acid, inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase and induced an increase of peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, but reduced the content of reduced glutathione. Water fennel after ozone treatment maintained the appearance, texture characteristics and high commercial value during storage. Therefore, ozone treatment may be used as an effective preservation technology for postharvest storage and circulation of water fennel.
  • Unripe banana biomass as a dairy fat partial replacer in vanilla homemade ice cream Original Article

    CARDOSO, Isabela Gomes; ABRANCHES, Monise Viana; SILVA, Mayara Carolline Resende; CUSTÓDIO, Flávia Beatriz; PEREIRA, Ingrid Annes; FINGER, Regina Maria; BARROS, Laís Buriti de; SANTOS, Beatriz do Nascimento Corrêa dos; MATA, Gardênia Márcia Silva Campos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The homemade ice cream formulations produced from the partial replacement of dairy fat with unripe banana biomass (UBB) were elaborated and characterized. Formulations 1, 2 and 3 with 2.6%, 12.5% and 21.9% of reconstituted UBB, respectively in partial replacement of heavy cream were compared to the traditional formulation (0% UBB and 100% of heavy cream). The characterization included: physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses. Fat reduction of at least 22.6% in centesimal composition were noticed among the formulation with UBB (p < 0.05). The titratable acidity and meltdown rate of the formulations increased with the addition of UBB and fat reduction. The sensory analysis showed that the preference of the panellists reduced with substitution of cream for UBB. The traditional formulation and formulation 1 were the most preferred. There was no difference in the attributes of overall impression, appearance, creamy texture, color, sweet taste and vanilla flavor between the traditional formulation and formulation 1 in the acceptance test. It was also found that the intention to consume those same formulations was positive. Therefore, the production of ice cream using prebiotic fat replacers are an interesting option to be explored in an attempt to combine sensory acceptance with health benefits.
  • A new method for preparing the instant quinoa by piecewise gelatinization Original Article

    ZHOU, Xueyong; YU, Xin; YANG, Liyan; WEI, Zuofu; ZHANG, Lihong; GAO, Jianqiang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In recent years, the market has great demand for the instant quinoa. However, the high content of protein and fat in quinoa grain inhibited the gelatinization and extension of starch molecules. The instant quinoa prepared by conventional gelatinization method has poor rehydration. In order to solve this problem, the sectioned heating method was used according to the properties of quinoa starch and protein. The purpose of the first heating stage was to gelatinize the starch with sufficient water, and the technological conditions were: the mass ratio of water to quinoa 4:1, the temperature of water bath 70 °C, the time of water bath 60 min. The purpose of the second heating stage was to denature the protein with less water, and the technological condition was that the quinoa was heated by atmospheric steam for 5 min. The instant quinoa prepared by above method had excellent rehydration. Compared to the raw quinoa, the content of protein, fat and reducing sugar in instant quinoa increased slightly, while the content of starch and polyphenols decreased slightly. The mass loss percentage of instant quinoa was 11.5% and the score of sensory evaluation for the sample prepared under the optimum conditions was 87.
  • Split batch and coculture fermentation to regulate the organic acids and flavor profile of fruit wine-a case study of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc (greengage) wine Original Article

    LIU, Jian; LIU, Miao; LIU, Yingjie; HE, Cheng; HUANG, Jun; ZHANG, Suyi; ZHOU, Rongqing; ZHOU, Jun; CAI, Liang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The higher acidity in fruits compared with grapes was one of the main obstacles to producing high-quality fruit wines. In the present research, the effect of the split batch fermentation pattern on the metabolites of greengage wines was investigated. This fermentation pattern included whole fruit immersion in the sucrose and coculturing Saccharomyces bayanus Y4 with Torulaspora delbrueckii Y7. These results showed that the contents of total acidity and dominant organic acids were significantly reduced among the batches. Aliphatic compounds were decreased with the batches, while aromatic compounds that contributed to flavor improvement were increased oppositely. The acetate esters, ketones, and terpenes contents were significantly increased in the first batch of coculture. In addition, acidic stress largely affected the kinetics characteristics of greengage wine on a pilot scale. Interestingly, the increment of total acidity was closely associated with the rate of total sugar consumption, which was affected by microbial activities. The acidity content was significantly declined and distinct flavour profiles were formed in split batch and coculture fermentation of greengage wines. It provides a new avenue to enhance the flavor and quality of fruit wines.
  • Cross-linked graphene oxide framework to enhance pervaporation separate property of waterborne polyurethane in food packaging materials Original Article

    SANG, Lei; YAO, Lu-lu; WEI, Zhao-Jun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to improve separating aromatic/aliphatic group in adhesives or solvents of food packaging materials by pervaporation, an across linked graphene oxide (GO) framework were incorporated into waterborne polyurethane (WPU) membrane. The improved benzene solubility and expanded interlayer pathway of modified membrane have been gained based on three different reduced graphene oxide. Compared to P-phenylenediamine (PPD) and ethane-diamine (EDA) reducing agents, O-phenylenediamine (OPD) showed a relatively mild reducing ability and allowed GO to form a layer-to-layer lamella in the WPU matrix easily. When the dose of GO-OPD was 0.03%, the flux of GO-OPD/WPU membrane was 1.58 times of neat WPU or GO/WPU membranes, while the separation factor was slightly improved. The GO-OPD /WPU membrane also maintained good stability in the continuous pervaporation process of 2700 min.
  • Inhibitory activity of Gypensapogenin D against α-glucosidase and preparation of its liposomes Original Article

    WANG, Jianmei; WANG, Xianting; ZHOU, Tingting; QIN, Lin; WU, Di; DU, Yimei; ZHANG, Qianru; HE, Yuqi; TAN, Daopeng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a functional food that is commercially available worldwide. Triterpenoid saponins are the main active components in Gynostemma pentaphyllum, which are usually hydrolyzed into triterpene sapogenins in organisms to play a pharmacological role. Gypensapogenin D is a triterpene sapogenins with the highest content in the hydrolysate of gypenoside. In addition, it was found that Gypensapogenin D had a certain inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase. In view of the poor solubility of Gypensapogenin D, which affects its bioavailability, Gypensapogenin D was prepared as a liposomal formulation in this paper, which provides valuable data for the later in-depth study and drug development and utilization of this compound.
  • A simple method for distinguishing Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale by ultra performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array detector Original Article

    LIN, Tao; CHEN, Xing-Lian; WU, Guang-Wei; SHA, Ling-Jie; WANG, Jing; HU, Zheng-Xu; LIU, Hong-Cheng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Using UPLC and PDA detector, the fingerprints of Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale produced in the Longling area of Yunnan Province, China were obtained quickly and efficiently, and 26 common peaks in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale samples were obtained by automatic peak matching through the “Chinese Medicine Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System”. The relative peak areas of the common peaks were analyzed by PCA using R, and the results showed that Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale could be well distinguished by PCA, which was consistent with the analysis results of OPLS-DA. The results fully demonstrate that Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale grown in the same area can be effectively distinguished by using the method of common peaks combined with stoichiometry. The VIP value of the 13 common peaks is greater than 1.0, which has a significant contribution to the difference and it was differential marker in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale. At the same time, normal-phase silica gel column chromatography was used to separate and purify the compounds that are related to the common peaks, and a total of 7 compounds were identified, among which eupatolide and isoschaftoside belong to differential markers and characteristic compounds in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale, which have good biological health care activity. The successful identification of Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale in Longling area of Yunnan Province and the discovery of related differential markers play an important role in the further research and development of Dendrobium devonianum as a new food raw material and its products.
  • Technological prospection of aquafaba: a study of patent applications and trends in the food market Original Article

    SILVA, Ana Carolina Valle da; RAMOS, Gustavo Luis de Paiva Anciens; FERREIRA, Patricia Silva; SILVA, Marcia Cristina da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aquafaba, a liquid from the cooking of chickpeas, has technological properties that have been increasingly used in the food sector, such as emulsifying, foaming, and gelling properties. Its application occurs mainly in mayonnaise and meringues, replacing the egg. This study aims to carry out the technological prospection of aquafaba through the study of patents in national and international databases, seeking to assess current and future market demand, and thus gather relevant information that allows attracting the interest of the food industry to the use of this new functional and sustainable food. Few related patents are reported, and they are concentrated in a few countries, indicating a promising way of exploring this product.
  • An apple leaf disease identification model for safeguarding apple food safety Original Article

    LIU, Song; BAI, Haoran; LI, Fengmei; WANG, Dongwei; ZHENG, Yuhui; JIANG, Qiupeng; SUN, Fengbo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Apples are the fourth most produced fruit in the world, so it is important to safeguard them from disease damage. Although there are many deep learning-based plant disease detection models, the existing deep learning networks have complex structures and require large amounts of computational resources for support. Lightweight networks such as MobileNet and ShuffleNet designed for mobile devices could achieve better classification and faster recognition on public datasets, but their accuracy rates are not yet up to the requirements of practical applications. To address these problems, we constructed an improved apple leaf disease recognition algorithm based on MobileNetV2. We used feature reuse to improve the network structure, added a dense connection structure to the inverse residual module, and an ECA-Net attention module to increase the model's focus on diseased regions. We trained the improved model on the network on a dataset expanded by a generative adversarial network. The results showed that the improved model had a smaller number of model parameters, only 3.3 M, and a higher accuracy rate of 96.23% compared to Resnet50, ShuffleNet, and MobileNet models. The improved model had only 0.34 M addition in the number of parameters compared with MobileNet-V2, and had a 2.2% improvement in accuracy.
  • Tracing models for checking beef adulterated with pig blood by Fourier transform near-infrared paired with linear and nonlinear chemometrics Original Article

    LI, Mingdong; AHETO, Joshua Harington; RASHED, Marwan Mohammed Ahmed; HAN, Fangkai

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Faced with the aggravating issue of meat fraud caused by the addition of low-cost animal blood food, the present work aims to develop FT-NIR-based tracing models for detecting beef adulterated with pig blood. A total of 210 samples were analyzed, including raw beef, beef adulterated with pig blood-based gel, and pure pig blood-based gel prepared. For spectrum denoising, the first derivative, second derivative, centralization, standard normal variate transform, and multivariate scattering correction algorithms were performed and compared. We built, optimized, and compared partial least squares (PLS), support vector machine (SVM), and extreme learning machine (ELM) models for identifying the adulterated beef and predicting adulteration levels. Results indicated that second derivative was the best preprocessed technique for all chemometrics modeling; ELM model achieved the optimal performance when the sin function was used, achieving 100% accuracy for identifying the adulterated beef, and all root mean square errors were less than 0.16% for predicting adulteration levels in training and test sets. These results suggest the optimal ELM models could be employed for rapidly checking beef adulterated with pig blood-based gel using FT-NIR technology.
  • Fermentation box cleaning can impair cacao seed fermentation Original Article

    LEAL JUNIOR, Gildemberg Amorim; TITO, Tiago Marques; MARQUES, Marcela Borges Martins; SILVA, Ana Paula Maria da; OLIVEIRA, Marcos Pinto Monteiro de; GOMES, Luiz Humberto; COELHO, Irene da Silva; FIGUEIRA, Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The quality of the raw material for chocolate manufacture depends on the control of cacao seed fermentation. Practices affect the diversity and metabolic activities of spontaneous yeasts in fermentations. The control of the initial inoculum is important to standardize fermentations and to improve the final seed quality. We conducted fermentations using non-cleaned or cleaned fermentation boxes to evaluate the dynamics of the microorganism populations and their effect in seed composition in two consecutive years. The isolated yeasts were identified by sequencing the D1-domain of the 26S ribosomal genes. Pulp and cotyledon parameters were monitored during fermentations. Wickerhamomyces anomalus was the dominant yeast in the fermentations, but the species was less represented in cleaned boxes. In the cleaned-box fermentation, there was a delay in temperature rise of the fermentation, which retarded the suitable moment for seed-mass turning. The reduction in seed-pulp quality caused by restricted rainfall in one year limited the seed-mass heating and voided the seed turning. Thus, under substrate restriction, the initial reduced inoculum caused by cleaning the boxes impaired fermentation, mainly under environmental conditions that compromise the quality of the pulp. However, this variation had little effect on the desired degradation of cotyledon components, substrates for flavor precursors.
  • Hyperspectral image-based measurement of total flavonoid content of leaf-use Ginkgo biloba L. Original Article

    XING, Xiaoyang; ZHAO, Maocheng; WANG, Xiwei; TANG, Yuweiyi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Ginkgo biloba leaf is a kind of food raw material with high concentration of total flavonoid content (TFC). Since conventional measurements of TFC are time-consuming and destructive, the approach of hyperspectral imaging-based prediction was investigated in this study. Hyperspectral images were collected in visual near-infrared (VIS-NIR) and short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR). Initial comparative analysis on the full spans of the two wavelengths using partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) showed that the TFC of the leaves could be barely captured only when PLSR working on short-wave infrared, withRp2 and RMSEp on testing set being respectively 0.5496 and 0.6384 mg/g. To further improve prediction performance meeting industrial requirements, another comparative study on feature selection was conducted to fine-tune the PLSR on SW-NIR using a genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA). Results showed that GA-PLSR with 50 characteristic wavelengths mostly from the ranges of 1100-1200 nm and 1400-1500 nm had a significant improvement in performance, giving 0.8482 and 0.2967 mg/g for Rp2 and RMSEp, respectively. Therefore, an approach, GA-PLSR modeling on SW-NIR hyperspectral images, was established for the ginkgo leaves industry to rapidly and non-invasively predict the leaf concentration from the total flavonoid of ginkgo biloba seedling leaf.
  • Effects of some postharvest essential oil applications on the fruit quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) during cold storage Original Article

    CEYLAN, Ahu; ÜNLÜ, Halime ÖZDAMAR

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The effects of post-harvest rosemary and sage essential oils (EO) (0, 300, 600, 900 ppm) on the storage period and fruit quality of ‘Sentino F1’ tomatoes were investigated. Tomato fruits were stored at 5 °C and 90-95% relative humidity (RH)) and at +20 °C and 60-65% RH for 30 days. Physical and biochemical analyzes were performed every 5 days during cold storage and at the end of the 2-day shelf life of the samples removed from the cold storage. In conclusion, it was determined that all application groups of sage and rosemary EOs were more effective in maintaining the quality of tomato fruits compared to the control application. The most effective application of sage EO was determined as 600 ppm and 900 ppm doses.
  • Study of drying temperature variation and concentration green spinach (Amaranthus Hybridus l) on characteristics of spinach milk powder Original Article

    HARIADI, Hari; RUKMANA, Jaka; ENDAH ROHIMA, Ira; MARTHIA, Nabila; NURMINABARI, Ina Siti; NURHAWA, Shalli; NADHIRAH, Tiffany Defina; FADHILA, Rizqya Nur

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aims to determine the effect of variations in drying temperature and concentration of green spinach juice (Amaranthus hybridus l) on spinach milk powder using a rotary vacuum machine. This study uses the research design method used is a factorial randomized block design with 2 repetitions. The treatment design carried out in this study consisted of two factors, namely the drying temperature (T) consisting of 3 levels. The rotary vacuum drying method produces the best characteristics with a moisture content of 2.21%, chlorophyll content of 7.65 mg/l, antioxidant activity of 2024.22 ppm. The results of the best physical analysis were 31.50 seconds of dissolution time, 14.95% yield, 80.18% solubility, 11.35% hygroscopicity, 18.11 Cp viscosity, color intensity L* 63.21, color -a* 7, 00, color b* 26.68.
  • Lactobacillus casei enhances the apoptosis inducing effect of geniposide on U87 human glioma cells in vitro Original Article

    CHEN, Fei; TENG, Zhipeng; PENG, Xing; WU, Haibo; WAN, Wenwu; LONG, Haibo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The goal of this work was to clarify the mechanism of action of Lactobacillus casei on genipin in triggering glioma apoptosis. DPPH and ABTS free radicals could be successfully eliminated by geniposide, LC-NBRC101979 (Lactobacillus casei), and geniposide + LC-NBRC101979. Geniposide and LC-NBRC101979 had effects that were stronger when combined than when taken alone. Geniposide, LC-NBRC101979, and Geniposide + LC-NBRC101979 did not have any detrimental effects on healthy epithelial cells HBE, but they greatly decreased the growth of U87 glioma cells, according to cell studies. Additionally, the combination of geniposide and LC-NBRC101979 had a stronger inhibitory impact than either drug alone. Results from qPCR revealed that in U87 cells, geniposide, LC-NBRC101979, and eniposide + LC-NBRC101979 could up-regulate caspase-3, COX-2, p53, c-myc, p21 mRNA expression and down-regulate Bcl-2, NF-κB expression. According to the results of the study on the effects of oxidative stress on cells, geniposide, LC-NBRC101979, and geniposide combined with LC-NBRC101979 can decrease the levels of MDA, LDH, and NO in normally damaged epithelial cells caused by oxidative stress and increase the levels of CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC. According to HPLC data, LC-NBRC101979 was able to convert the majority of geniposide into geniposide. It is clear that LC-NBRC101979 may enhance geniposide's inhibitory impact on glioma.
  • Exploring the diversity of microorganisms and potential pectinase activity isolated from wet fermentation of coffee in northeastern Peru Original Article

    FERNANDEZ-GÜIMAC, Samia Littly Jahavely; PEREZ, Jhordy; MENDOZA, Jani Elisabet; BUSTAMANTE, Danilo Edson; CALDERON, Martha Steffany

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, the microbiota associated with coffee fermentation from two regions from northern Peru was evaluated. Bacteria and fungi were isolated from coffee farms in the Amazonas and Cajamarca regions and identified using molecular markers 16S rRNA and ITS. The potential pectinase activity was registered by the formation of a transparent halo around colonies. As a result, 29 and 09 species belonging to bacteria and fungi, respectively, were found. The bacterial genera Lysinibacillus and Stenotrophomonas and the fungal genus Aspergillus accounted for the highest number of species isolated from coffee ferments. Forty-one out of 71 isolates showed some type of pectinase enzyme activity, and they included 23 isolates from Cajamarca and 18 from Amazonas. Nevertheless, only three bacterial species registered the formation of transparent halos and showed relevant potential pectinase enzyme activity, namely, Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Stenotrophomonas pavanii, which were all from the Cajamarca region. These species could be further investigated by quantifying enzymes activity and performing other biochemical properties to prototype starter cultures. Accordingly, the study of indigenous microorganisms with biological potential will be essential to increase the coffee value chain and improve the incomes of farmers.
  • Comparison of different DNA preparatory methods for development of a universal direct PCR-RFLP workflow for identification of meat origin in food products Original Article

    JAFAR, Sana; KABIR, Fatima; ANJUM, Khalid Mahmood; ZAHOOR, Muhammad Yasir; SHEHZAD, Wasim; IMRAN, Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The quality and quantity of the extracted DNA are two key aspects for a successful PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) amplification. Moreover, reduction in time and cost required for DNA extraction are also two considerable factors, in cases when large number of samples are to be analyzed within a limited time-frame and budget. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare and optimize performance of five different DNA extraction methods by boiling meat tissues from cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, chicken, camel, horse and dog in PBS (Phosphate Buffer Saline), distilled water, alkaline lysis buffers 1, 2 or 3. The results indicated that the boiling of meat and its products in alkaline lysis buffers was a good method to extract crude DNA. The optimized crude DNA extraction protocol was coupled with PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) analysis for meat species differentiation. This developed workflow was tested on fifty-three commercial beef and mutton samples, out of which three samples were found to be adulterated. In conclusion, the rapid crude DNA extraction protocol has led to the development of a direct PCR-RFLP workflow that is simple, time-saving and cost-effective for PCR-based identification of different meat species.
  • Research of the rheological properties of mayonnaise with adding pumpkin and rice oils to replace sunflower oil Original Article

    BREDIKHIN, Sergey Alekseevich; MARTEKHA, Alexander Nikolaevich; ANDREEV, Vladimir Nikolaevich

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The influence of ingredients and homogenization process parameters on the rheological properties of mayonnaise with pumpkin and rice oils added was investigated in this work. Various types of vegetable oils: sunflower, pumpkin and rice were used to make mayonnaise. The mechanical process of mayonnaise homogenization was carried out at room temperature. The preparation of mayonnaise was carried out on a laboratory model homogenizer with a rotor speed range of 3500-24000 rpm. Rheological measurements were carried out on a rotary viscometer with concentric cylinders at temperatures of 25 °C and 10 °C. The following rheological parameters were calculated from the data obtained: apparent viscosity, consistency index and flow index. The investigation results revealed that the main ingredients influenced the rheological properties of mayonnaise with pumpkin and rice oils added. Empirical flow curves were described by the Herschel-Bulkley model with a high degree of adequacy.
  • How do the interview environment, sociodemographic aspects and risk perception impact attitudes related to food? A survey in the Midwest of Brazil Original Article

    REMBISCHEVSKI, Peter; CALDAS, Eloisa Dutra

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to assess the food-related attitudes through the application of a structured questionnaire to 1,000 individuals applied in three environments (groups) in the Federal District of Brazil (supermarkets, universities and hospitals/clinics) using multivariate logistic regression, with special focus on pesticides and genetically modified (GM) food. Outpatients in hospital/clinic, women and older individuals were significantly more likely to adopt diets or attitudes considered or perceived as healthy (including high consumption of fruits and vegetables, acquiring organic food, and adopting procedures to remove pesticide residues from food). When income and/or education impacted the results, the correlation was negative. Over 60% of the population believe it is possible to produce food without using pesticides, mainly the hospital/clinic group, younger individuals, and women, and 95.3% think that the presence of pesticides in food should be indicated on the labels, mainly the hospital/clinic group and older individuals. High worry about pesticides and GM food was associated with most healthy food-related attitudes. The results of this study are important for food-related communication strategies conducted by health authorities, aiming at driving specific population segments to a healthier and more conscious diet.
  • Post-harvest quality of onion bulbs in a controlled environment Original Article

    MODOLO, Alcir; DOTTO, Lucas; VARGAS, Thiago; SGARBOSSA, Maicon; BILCK, Ana

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The onion bulbs’ post-harvest quality is essential for good commercialization; the longest storage time is critical to the producer in choosing the cultivar. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the post-harvest quality of onion bulbs under storage periods in a controlled environment. The experiment was installed in a factorial scheme (6x4), represented by six onion cultivars (BR29, Itajubá, Mulata, Omega, Rainha, and Salto Grande), evaluated in four storage periods (40, 80, 120, and 160 days), in a randomized design, with three replications. The parameters of fresh matter loss, skin strength, bulb firmness, skin shine, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and soluble solids and titratable acidity were analyzed. The cultivar Salto Grande presented better conservation of the physical-defined characteristics in the post-harvest at controlled temperature, less loss of mass of fresh matter, and more significant maintenance of the feature of skin strength, bulb firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity. At the same time, cultivar BR29 showed more significant losses in the studied attributes and had less storage capacity among the evaluated cultivars.
  • Investigation of the deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A levels by high-performance liquid chromatography of cereals sold in the markets in Türkiye Original Article

    ŞAHIN, Semih; EYUPOĞLU, Ozan Emre; YAMAN, Mustafa; DOĞAN, Tuğbagül Çal; KORKMAZ, Burcu İrem Omurtag; OMURTAG, Gülden Zehra

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The current research was conducted to determine the deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) levels of 24 pieces of wheat flour, 24 pieces of rice, 24 pieces of corn flour, and 24 pieces of whole wheat flour obtained from the markets in Istanbul by HPLC. DON was detected in 4 of the 96 grain cereal samples at levels between 0.94 and 1.16 µg/kg (LOQ, 0.92 µg/kg). Besides, from the analyzed samples, DON was detected in 3 pieces of ashura wheat, 2 pieces of rice, and 5 pieces of corn flour between LOD and LOQ. The highest DON level was found in the corn flour sample (1.16 µg/kg), which was sold unpacked. OTA was detected in 11 of the samples (0.87-6.97 µg/kg) consisting of 3 corn flours (1.51-2.23 µg/kg) and 8 whole wheat flours (0.87-6.97 µg/kg). The highest OTA level was found in the packaged whole wheat flour sample (6.97 µg/kg) bought from the market. Since DON and OTA exposure can be observed frequently in cereals and may increase to possible risky levels, further work should be done to determine the precautions necessary to minimize the risks of contamination.
  • A newer source of microorganism to produce Catharina Sour beers Original Article

    GHESTI, Grace; CARVALHO, Igor; CARMO, Talita; SUAREZ, Paulo A. Z.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Brazil’s beer industry has experienced a significant growth over the recent years, driving professionals to seek brewing beer focused on quality aspects. As a result of this movement, the consumer attention to products that highlight the national or local identity has rocketed in recent times, especially Brazilian types of beers, as Catharina Sour. Catharina Sour beer was produced using the traditional method to acidify the wort by lactic fermentation and using a bee pollen, as a newer source of microorganism to produce sour beers. For that, mango and passion fruit were used, including barley and wheat malt, yeast, and hop. Some physicochemical analyses were made according to EBC (European Brewery Convention) guidelines, to raise information about the process and final product. There were close correlations between the physic-chemical, sensory and liquid chromatography analysis, showing that the presence of pollen, and consequently the presence of yeast, acetic acid bacteria and fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLABs), can bring different aromas to Catharina Sour beers, showing an excellent potential to use this newer source of microorganisms to produce sour beers.
  • Effects of hairy vetch cultivation on soil quality and productivity in Chinese orchards: a meta-analysis Original Article

    MA, Xueting; LIAO, Jiean; ZHAO, Jinfei; XI, Linqiao

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To find out the effects of hairy vetch cultivation on soil quality and productivity in Chinese orchards, all relevant papers in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) published from 2000 to 2021 were collected to quantitatively analyze the effects of hairy vetch cultivation in orchards on soil physicochemical properties and nutrient content, soil enzyme activity, microbial activity, fruit yield and quality based on meta-analysis. The results showed that the effect sizes of hairy vetch cultivation on soil quality and productivity changed in a positive direction, but part of the effect sizes did not change significantly. This paper provides some support and reference for the development of grass cultivation in orchards.
  • Effect of protein oxidation on the structural characteristics of hazelnut protein isolate Original Article

    HU, Hao; LI, Chengsheng; LYU, Chunmao; MENG, Xianjun; LI, Bin; SHU, Chi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The oxidation and structural properties of hazelnut protein prepared from a low-temperature cold-pressed hazelnut meal were evaluated using three oxidative modification methods: AAPH (2,2'-azo(2-methylpropionamidine)dihydrochloride), MDA (malondialdehyde), and H2O2. The three different oxidants gradually increased the carbonyl content of the proteins, MDA from 1.91 to 8.87 nmol/m, AAPH (from 2.13 to 12.18 nmol/mg, and H2O2 from 2.28 to 13.72 nmol/mg, indicating that the hazelnut protein was oxidized. The carbonyl content of H2O2-modified hazelnut proteins was the highest, implying that the proteins were more susceptible to oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. FT-IR, intrinsic fluorescence spectra, surface hydrophobicity, and protein electrophoresis implied that oxidative modifications altered the secondary structure of hazelnut proteins, and promoted protein aggregation and cross-linking. In addition, the oxidative modification resulted in a larger particle size distribution of hazelnut proteins and a decrease in the zeta potential absolute value, indicating a decrease in the hazelnut proteins stability and the formation of soluble aggregates. Overall, incubation with AAPH, MDA, and H2O2 significantly affected the structure of hazelnut proteins, demonstrating that hazelnut proteins in food processing systems are susceptible to structural and property changes due to different oxidation products.
  • Evaluation of the biosynthesis, structural and rheological characterization of succinoglycan obtained from a formulation composed of whole and deproteinized whey Original Article

    DELANI, Tieles Carina de Oliveira; MIYOSHI, Juliana Harumi; NASCIMENTO, Marilia Gimenez; SAMPAIO, Anderson Reginaldo; PALÁCIOS, Raquel da Silva; SATO, Francielle; REICHEMBACH, Luis Henrique; PETKOWICZ, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira; RUIZ, Suelen Pereira; MATIOLI, Graciette

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, succinoglycan was produced from whey and its rheological and structural characteristics were elucidated. Eight culture media were prepared with different ions for bioconversion of whey into succinoglycan. The formulation composed of deproteinized whey, monobasic potassium phosphate and magnesium sulfate allowed the production of 13.7 ± 0.43 g/L of succinoglycan. The apparent molar mass of succinoglycan was estimated to be 9.033 × 105 g/mol and the polydispersity index was 1.044, representing the homogeneity of the sample. Monosaccharide composition of glucose and galactose for the succinoglycan produced was 6.6:1.0. The 1H RMN analysis revealed the non-saccharide substituent content of 1.2%, 3.0% and 8.1% for acetyl, succinate and pyruvate, respectively. The rheological results showed that the apparent viscosity of the succinoglycan solutions was directly proportional to the concentration, and the solution showed pseudoplastic behavior. Dynamic frequency sweep tests identified that a concentration of 2.0% of succinoglycan is required for formation of the gel system. Temperature influenced the viscoelastic behavior of succinoglycan and revealed the melting point and reversibility of the gel. Whey was shown to be a promising carbon source for the production of succinoglycan with thickening potential and viscosity modifier.
  • Life cycle assessment of minas frescal cheese and cured minas cheese: a comparative analysis Original Article

    SILVA, Amanda Almeida da; ELABRAS-VEIGA, Lilian Bechara; SOUZA, Simone Lorena Quitério de; ARAÚJO, Marcelo Guimarães

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Brazil is a large producer of dairy products, with an important role of milk in the country's economy beyond the nutritional aspects. In turn, the dairy industry is associated with environmental impacts, such as water and energy consumption, waste generation, liquid effluents, and atmospheric emissions. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an environmental management tool used to measure the environmental impacts of goods, services, and products. This study used the LCA to assess the impacts resulting from the production of Minas Frescal and cured Minas cheese in an artisanal production facility in Casimiro de Abreu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. LCA results showed that the most significant environmental impacts were associated with the dairy farm under study, which is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from livestock, particularly methane (CH4), produced through enteric fermentation and manure decomposition, mainly contributing for the impact categories of climate change (31.56%) and human toxicity with carcinogenic effects (35.46%). The cured Minas cheese presented higher impacts when compared to Minas Frescal cheese due to the larger volume of milk used in the manufacturing process. Thus, the present study suggested mitigation measures to lower the environmental impacts based on adjustments in animal feed to reduce atmospheric emissions.
  • Effect of butterfly-pea powder (Clitoria ternatea L.) and drying temperature towards physicochemical characteristics of butterfly-pea milk powder with vacuum drying method Original Article

    HARIADI, Hari; KARIM, Mirwan Ardiansyah; HANIFAH, Umi; HARYANTO, Aidil; NOVRINALDI,; SURAHMAN, Diki Nanang; MULYANTO ASTRO, Hendarwin; ASSALAM, Syarif; FINNI LATHIFAH LUBIS, Rezqia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dairy product can be process into ready to drink or ready to serve. Dairy product that needs to be dissolved first usually powdered by drying. The drying method could be done using the vacuum Drying Method. This study used a 3x3 factorial design in a randomized block design which consisted of 2 factors, namely factor T (sea flower powder concentration) which consisted of 3 levels, namely t1: 0.2%, t: 0.3%, and t3: 0.4%, dan factor P (variation of drying temperature) which consisted of 3 levels, namely p1: 50 °C, p2: 60 °C and p4: 70 °C. The responses tested in this study were chemical responses including water content, antioxidant activity, pH. Physical responses include dissolution time, insoluble, hygroscopicity, L* a* b* color intensity, yield amount, and viscosity. Organoleptic responses include color, aroma, taste, and viscosity. The effect of different sea flower powder concentration affects the antioxidant activity, pH, and color intensity. The variation of drying temperature affects the water content, dissolution time, insoluble, hygroscopicity, and color intensity. The interaction between sea flower powder concentration and variation of drying temperature affects the antioxidant activity and color intensity.
  • Quality evaluation of table eggs under different rearing systems in China Original Article

    LIAO, Wenliang; CAI, Honghao; LIAN, Huangqian; HUANG, Zheqi; SUN, Yueyue; NI, Hui

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Because of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, more and more people are choosing to buy food online, including eggs. Although this mode of shopping is very modern, many Chinese consumers lack scientific knowledge when selecting eggs. In this study, we used the multivariate statistical analysis and sensory analysis to evaluate and compare the qualities of online sale of free-range and cage eggs. How feeding conditions influence the quality of eggs and how physical characteristics influence the price of eggs were also studied in this work. Our research showed that there is a lack of scientific support for distinguish free-range eggs from cage eggs on the appearance, the color of the yolk does not represent the amount of protein in yolk which may actually be affected by fodders. Moreover, the nutritional quality of free-range eggs is no better than that of cage eggs. Sensory analysis showed that free-range eggs taste better, which is likely because of the higher yolk ratio. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that Rearing systems, fodder type and yolk color have significant impact on the price (Price = 0.428 × Rearing system −0.235 × Fodder type + 0.191 × Yolk color).
  • The research of factors affecting the amount of aromatic compounds in white muscat wine samples Original Article

    KAMALADDIN, Fataliyev Hasil; RAZIM, Aliyeva Gulshan; ELMAN, Haydarov Elnur; TOFIQ, Cafarova Konul; GALIB, Agayeva Sudaba; HASIL, Fataliyeva Shabnam; NIZAMI, Lazgiyev Yusif; MAHIR, Imamguliyeva Maviyya; ELXAN, Aliyeva Shalala; ABBASGULU, Hasanova Aybaniz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract While the amount of free aromatic compounds in the juice prepared by the White method from the White Muscat grape variety cultivated in the foothill Agsu region located at an altitude of 800 m above sea level was 2040 µg/dm3, the amount of the same compounds was 2626 µg/dm3 in the samples prepared by storage of pomace for 5 hours. In the samples from the Samukh (79 m) region, the amount of free aromatic compounds was much lower compared to the Agsu region. A total of 35 bound aromatic compounds including 4 alcohols, 3 six-carbon compounds, 13 terpenes, 7 volatile acids, 4 volatile phenols, and 4 norisoprenoids were detected in the juice samples made from the White Muscat grape variety grown in both regions. A total of 60 volatile compounds were found in wine samples, including 17 alcohols, 15 ethers, 13 acids, 5 aldehydes and ketones, 1 terpene, 5 volatile phenols, 4 lactones, and 1 aldehyde compound. This is much more compared to the amounts of the same compounds in juice, and it is related to the new formation processes that occur during alcohol fermentation.
  • Evaluation of phenolics biotransformation and health promoting properties of blueberry juice following lactic acid bacteria fermentation Original Article

    WANG, Jun; WEI, Bo-Cheng; WEI, Bo; YU, Hao-Yue; THAKUR, Kiran; WANG, Chu-Yan; WEI, Zhao-Jun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Lactic acid bacteria are widely used as probiotics in food fermentation and exhibit various health-promoting properties. This study describes the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, and enzyme inhibition prosperities of blueberry juice. Three different strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus JYLA-16, Lactobacillus plantarum JYLP-375, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus JYLR-005) were selected to ferment the blueberry juice at 37 °C for 48 h. After fermentation, the content of total phenolics and flavonoids increased. Meanwhile, the UPLC-LTQ-MS/MS system conducted the biotransformation of phenols during fermentation. LAB fermentation induced an upgraded trend of syringic acid, ferulic acid, erucic acid, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and isoorientin. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that phenolics' metabolism probably contributed to enhancing antioxidant activities. LAB also improved active ingredient retention and antioxidant capacities after in vitro simulated digestion. Finally, we investigated the α-glucosidase inhibitory and α-amylase inhibition of the fermented juice and found that LAB fermentation could improve the inhibition of these enzymes. This study indicated that LAB fermentation could be an efficient strategy for enhancing functional activities in blueberry juice by bio-transforming the phenolics.
  • Performance, carcass quality and intestinal biometry of feed European quails with seaweed meal (Sargassum sp) Original Article

    OLIVEIRA, Airton Gonçalves de; FURTADO, Dermeval Araújo; RIBEIRO, Neila Lidiany; MARQUES, Jordânio Inácio; MASCARENHAS, Nágela Maria Henrique; LEITE, Patrício Gomes; MORAIS, Fabiana Terezinha Leal de; RODRIGUES, Raimundo Calixto Martins; BRITO, Alícia Nayana dos Santos Lima de; LIMA, Vitória Régia do Nascimento; SILVA, Ricardo de Sousa; CHIODI, John Edson

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This work aims to evaluate, at different stages, the productive performance, carcass quality, and intestinal biometry of European quails (Coturnix coturnix Coturnix), consuming diets with increasing levels of seaweed bran (Sargassum sp). A total of 240 European quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix Coturnix) were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four levels of bran inclusion (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5%), 6 replications with 10 birds in each experimental plot. In the period from 1 to 21 days, the feed intake of the control group was higher, with lower water consumption. In the period from 22 to 42 days, feed and water consumption increased with the inclusion of seaweed, but with a reduction in weight gain. In the total period, water consumption was higher at the level of 2.5 and 7.5%, with lower consumption in the control group, with a small reduction in slaughter and carcass weight with the inclusion of bran. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in carcass quality and intestinal biometry. We recommended the inclusion of up to 7.5% of sargassum meal in the diet of European quails at all stages, without compromising its productive performance, carcass quality, and intestinal biometry.
  • Sensory analysis of goat cheese feed with sorghum silage levels in forage cactus based diets Original Article

    Sobral, Gilberto de Carvalho; Oliveira, Juliana Silva de; Saraiva, Carla Aparecida Soares; Santos, Edson Mauro; Vieira, Diego de Sousa; Cruz, Antoniel Florencio da; Torres Junior, Paulo da Cunha; Albuquerque, Ítalo Reneu Rosas de; Araújo, Alessandra Oliveira de; Ribeiro, Neila Lidiany

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of milk and cheese and sensory analysis of cheese from goats that received a diet with different levels of sorghum silage in the diet. Twenty Anglonubian dairy goats were used, with an average age of 2 years, average live weight of 43.7 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design, with five replications. Moisture (P=0.001), total solids (P=0.001), fat (p=0.001), TDE (P=0.006) and protein (P=0.003) of goat cheese showed a significant difference due to the inclusion of silage from goat cheese. sorghum in the diet. The sensory attributes soft appearance (P<.0001), look (P<.0001), salty taste (P<.0001) and smooth texture (P=0.0430) showed a significant difference depending on the level of sorghum silage added to the diet. of goats. In the PC analysis, it is observed that three main components were needed to represent the variation of 64.84% of the data. PC 1 determined 29% of the data variation and was represented by the attributes with the highest averages: attractive aroma (5.87) and global acceptability (7.74). The inclusion of up to 45% of sorghum silage in the diet of goats increased milk and cheese fat, which favored high scores for the attributes of softness and global acceptance.
  • Effect of pressure-assisted thermal sterilization combining with ε-polylysine on Bacillus subtilis spore proteins, nucleic acids and other intraspore substances Original Article

    XIN, Weishan; ZHANG, Zhong; CHEN, Le; BI, Ke; ZHANG, Bianfei; LIU, Yue; YANG, Jie

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) is a new technology to inactivate bacterial spores and ensure food safety. Little has been known about the effects of PATS combining with ε-PL on the spore’s nucleic acid, enzymes and other key substances. This study aimed to investigate the inactivation effect of PATS combining with ε-PL on the spores of B. subtilis. The spores were treated with pressure 600 MPa at 25 °C, 65 °C and 75 °C, and ε-PL at 0.1% and 0.3%. After treatment, the survival rate of B. subtilis spores, leakage of nucleic acid and protein, the change in the cell membrane ATPase activity, the leakage of dipicolinic acid, and the damage on protein and nucleic acid of the spores were determined. The results showed that PATS combining with ε-PL inactivated more spores, and significantly increased the release of protein and nucleic acid compared to the control. ATPase activity reached the lowest value after the treatment of 600 MPa/75 °C combining with 0.3% ε-PL. The release of dipicolinic acid from the spores was increased by 600 MPa/75 °C combining with 0.3% ε-PL as compared with 600 MPa/75 °C treatment alone. FTIR analysis showed that a combination of PATS with ε-PL changed the spectral features of B. subtilis functional groups of proteins and nucleic acids. The PATS treatments when combined with ε-PL were found to shift the symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibrational absorption peaks of phosphodiester group in nucleic acid molecules (P=O). This change suggested that the combined treatment denatured nucleic acid. The combined treatment also changed the protein from an ordered state to a disordered state, and decreased protein stability. The results improved our understanding on the principle of spore inactivation by PATS combining with ε-PL.
  • A rapid identification method of rice protein in rice starch based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy Original Article

    ZHANG, Weiwei; LIU, Kaiqi; LV, Riqin; WAN, Tong; ZHOU, Shenao; SUN, Yanhui; GU, Haiyang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Rice protein is a protein with high nutritional value and its essential amino acids are complete. Rice protein content is related to the Nutritional value of rice powder mixture. Three-dimensional synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy combined with Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and Partial least squares (PLS) was applied for Protein content in rice starch. Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy were obtained at 250-400 nm (excitation) and 260-750 nm (wave-length deviation). Firstly, data of Rice starch were collected using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy equipment and the protein content of samples were got by Dumas Nitrogen analyzer ; secondly, three improved PLS methods, including interval partial least squares (iPLS), backward interval partial least squares (biPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS),were used to find the most informative range. Lastly, models with better predictive turbidity of fragrance vinegar using PLS was established in the whole wavelength range .The results showed that the models by siPLS method, which separated the whole spectra into 10 intervals, and combine four intervals of [1 3 4 5]had the best predictive ability, the RMSECV and RMSEP were 0.1482 and 0.1696, and the calibration and prediction correlation coefficient were 0.8513 and 0.8236. Using three-dimensional synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for rapid detection of Protein content in rice starch was feasible.
  • Effect of heat-moisture treatment on physicochemical properties of chickpea starch Original Article

    DU, Mengyao; CAO, Tiantian; YU, Mengyao; ZHANG, Chunlan; XU, Wei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chickpea starch was modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT). The effect of heat-moisture treatment on the amylose content of chickpea starch was studied, and the physicochemical properties, gelatinization properties, texture properties and digestion properties of modified chickpea starch were compared and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). After HMT, the amylose content of chickpea starch increased. Compared with the natural starch, the morphology of starch granule was changed and destroyed under the condition of higher water content (30%). It was found that the crystalline morphology had no obvious change, and the structure was still C-type. In FT-IR spectra, the position of characteristic absorption peak had no obvious change, and the internal structure and main components of chickpea starch had no obvious change. The solubility, swelling power, transparency, freeze-thaw stability and gelation ability of chickpea starch treated with HMT decreased, while the thermal stability increased and the anti-digestibility enhanced.
  • Non-destructive determination of the oil content in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) flour using NMR and NIR spectroscopies Original Article

    SANTOS, Yves José de Souza; CAMPOS, Natalia Alves; BICCA, Gerson Balbueno; SORA, Gisele Teixeira de Souza; POLESI, Luis Fernando; ALBERTE, Tania Maria; SANTOS, Poliana M.; GARCIA, Rodrigo Henrique dos Santos; COLNAGO, Luiz Alberto; OLIVEIRA-FOLADOR, Gabrieli

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The oil from the fruit of peach palm or Pupunha (Bactris gasipaes) is an example of a material with low-cost and good antioxidant capacity. However, Conventional methods for measuring oil content are time-consuming, labor-intensive and use toxic chemicals. In this sense, the aim of this study was evaluated fast and non-destructive spectroscopy methods, such as Near Infrared (NIR) and Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) (CPMG and ROSE pulse sequences), to quantify the oil content in pupunha flours collected in the amazon forest. For this, 93 samples were used and the results showed three distinct levels of oil in the samples: high, medium and low oil content. Furthermore, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values of 0.92, 0.92 and 0.70 for NIR, TD-NMR (ROSE) and TD-NMR (CPMG), respectively. Therefore, the NIR and TD-NMR (ROSE) methods demonstrate a higher prediction efficiency, with the NIR achieving 100% classification of the samples.
  • Effect of packaging method and storage temperature on the sensory quality and lipid stability of fresh snakehead fish (Channa striata) fillets Original Article

    NGUYEN, Minh Van; KARNUE, Sonkarlay; KAKOOZA, Derrick

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of packaging methods (i.e., air-packaging and vacuum-packaging) and storage temperatures (i.e., chilled temperature of 3 ± 1.0 °C and superchilled temperature of -2.5 ± 0.5 °C) on the sensory quality and lipid stability of fresh snakehead fish fillets. The results indicated that vacuum packaging and superchilled storage significantly improved the quality of fresh snakehead fillets, resulting in lower free fatty acids (FFA), hydroperoxide (PV), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values and higher phospholipid (PL) content compared to other groups. Sensory analysis using the quality index method (QIM) and Torry scores rejected the air-packaged and vacuum-packaged fillets on days 9 and 13 at chilled storage, respectively. Meanwhile, the shelf-lives of air-packaged and vacuum-packaged fillets stored at superchilled temperature of -2.5 ± 0.5 °C were 15 and 25 days, respectively. Strong linear correlations (r2 = 0.9871 for chilled-air-packaged fillets, r2 = 0.9605 for chilled-vacuum-packaged fillets, r2 = 0.9797 for superchilled-air-packaged fillets and r2 = 0.9132 for superchilled-vacuum-packaged fillets) were found between the QI values and storage time of each fillet group. It can be reasonably concluded that vacuum packaging and storage at -2.5 ± 0.5 °C was more efficient in preserving the fresh quality of the snakehead fish fillets.
  • Differential effects of medium- and long-term high-fat diets on the expression of genes or proteins related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice Original Article

    ZHOU, Tingting; CAO, Ligang; QIN, Lin; LU, Yanliu; HE, Yuqi; TAN, Daopeng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now considered to be the most common liver disease worldwide, caused by fat deposition in hepatocytes. High-fat diet is considered to be a major lifestyle factor predisposing to NAFLD. However, the effect of different cycles of high-fat diets on changes in NAFLD-related gene and protein expression is unclear. In this study, NAFLD mouse models were established by feeding C57BL/6 male mice a high-fat diet for 16 and 38 weeks. The transcriptome and proteome of mouse liver were profiled by RNA sequencing and high-resolution mass spectrometry, respectively. The results show that accumulation of liver lipids was observed at 38 weeks of treatment on a high-fat diet. At the same time, the expression profiles of 1329 genes and 802 proteins involved in NAFLD were changed, with a total of 234 genes and 37 proteins significantly changing by more than twice. These differentially expressed genes and proteins were significantly enriched in fatty acid metabolism and organic acid biosynthesis. 18 genes and their corresponding protein overlaps were identified using Venn diagrams, and most of them were regulated by high-fat diet in an aging-dependent manner. All in all, our study is valuable for understanding the high-fat diet on the developmental process of NAFLD.
  • Improve the antioxidant activity and viability of B. longum and B. animalis subsp lactis in fermented soy and almond milk Original Article

    ZAHRANI, Ashwag Jaman Al; SHORI, Amal Bakr

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This research focused on the impact of two strains of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. i.e., B. longum (Bg), or B. animalis subsp lactis (Bc) on post-acidification, the viable cell counts (VCC), total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), and antioxidant activity of fermented (F) soymilk (SM), almond milk (AM), and their combination (100%, 75%, 50%, & 25%) during 0, 7, 14, & 21 days of storage. All fermented SM, AM, and their combination showed higher (p < 0.05) post-acidification than their respective controls during the storage. All samples showed VCC ranging between 6.9 and 7.4 log cfu/mL compared to their respective controls (3-4 log cfu/mL; p < 0.05). TPC in FSM/AM (50:50)-Bg & Bc was 2 folds higher (74.3 ± 0.021 & 61.34 ± 0.037 μg GAE/mL; p < 0.05) than control (22.52 ± 0.168) on day 21. The presence of Bg improved (p < 0.05) TFC in FSM (100) after 1st day of storage. Both Bg and Bc had a positive impact on the antioxidant activity of all treated samples during storage. In conclusion, fermented soy and almond milk and their combination might serve as an effective vehicle for B. longum, or B. animalis subsp lactis with antioxidant activity.
  • Preparation of a cooked and salted chicken breast product using alcalase-hydrolyzed wooden breast fillets Original Article

    ZAGO, Iolanda Cristina Cereza; MENDONÇA, Fernanda Jéssica; BELLUCO, Caroline Zanon; MENCK, Ana Lúcia Gumiero; SOARES, Adriana Lourenço

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Wooden breast (WB) is a myopathy characterized by functional changes and excessive hardness in chicken fillets. Alcalase, a proteinase capable of hydrolyzing meat proteins, has been shown to improve protein functionality and promote meat tenderization. This study evaluated the application of alcalase in the preparation of cooked and salted chicken breast from WB chicken fillets. WB fillets were divided into two groups: an enzyme-treated and an untreated (control) group. Enzyme-treated fillets had lower pH values, total and soluble collagen contents, collagen/protein ratio, and shear force than control. No changes in color, chemical composition, or water-holding capacity compared between groups was observed. After 2 days of storage, enzyme-treated fillets had lower lipid oxidation and total color change. Alcalase hydrolysis of WB fillets improved the tenderness and nutritional value of the cooked and salted chicken meat product. This strategy shows promise for minimizing economic losses caused by the WB myopathy.
  • Quality characteristics of gluten-free muffins fortified with watermelon rind powder Original Article

    ÇELİK, Cansu; ISIK, Fatma

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of the study was to obtain gluten-free muffin cakes for celiac patients with improved functional properties with the addition of watermelon rind. Muffins were produced by substituting the watermelon rind powder (7%, 14%, 21% and 28%) into rice flour, and some physicochemical and sensory properties of the samples were determined. With the substitution of watermelon rind powder, the protein, fat, ash, dietary fiber, Na, K, P, Mg and Ca contents of the muffins increased significantly. It was observed a decrease in the volume, volume index and spesific volume by the addition of watermelon rind powder. The L*, a* (crust and crumb) and b* values (crust) of the muffins were decreased and also b* value of the crumb of them was increased. Smaller pores and rough structure formation were detected with increasing watermelon rind powder ratio in SEM images. Moreover, it was determined that the addition of watermelon rind powder to muffins has increased the hardness, gumminess and chewiness, while the springiness was decreased. In sensory analysis, it was stated that 7% and 14% watermelon rind powder substituted muffins were liked similarly with control sample in terms of overall acceptance and other parameters.
  • Productive performance, egg quality and the morphometry of the organs of Japanese quails (Cotournix cotournix japônica) kept at different temperatures Original Article

    MATOS JÚNIOR, Joab Jorge Leite de; FURTADO, Dermeval Araújo; RIBEIRO, Neila Lidiany; MARQUES, Jordânio Inácio; LEITE, Patrício Gomes; NASCIMENTO, José Wallace Barbosa do; RODRIGUES, Valéria Pereira; LOPES NETO, José Pinheiro; RODRIGUES, Ladyanne Raia; SANTOS, Severino Guilherme Caetano Gonçalves dos; OLIVEIRA, Airton Gonçalves de; SILVA, Ricardo de Sousa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance, egg quality and the morphometry of the organs of Japanese quails (Cotournix cotournix japônica) when kept in comfort and under thermal stress. 192 nine-week-old quail were used, distributed in a completely randomized design at two temperatures (T1 = 24 °C and T2 = 32 °C), with 12 replicates of eight birds each, with an experimental period of 63 days, divided into three 21-day periods. Feed intake (g fowl-1 day-1), water consumption (mL fowl-1 day-1), egg production (%), egg weight (g), egg mass (g fowl- 1 day-1) and feed conversion (kg kg-1 and kg dozen-1). Laying quails after their production cycle are marketed as beef animals. It is observed that the average final live weight was reduced (P = 0.0362) by 27.58 g in birds kept at a temperature of 32 oC, which can compromise its commercial value. The feed intake of the birds was reduced (P = 0.0051) by 14.75% with an increase in ambient temperature. Birds kept at a temperature of 32 oC for 12 h daily showed a reduction in feed intake, final weight, yolk, and gizzard weight, but without affecting egg production, weight and mass.
  • Design thinking and egg processing units: a different proposal for a checklist for facilities and equipment maintenance self-control program Original Article

    SCHIAVONE, Tatiana; RAMOS, Gustavo Luis de Paiva Anciens; HORA, Iracema Maria de Carvalho da; FREITAS, Mônica Queiroz de; WALTER, Eduardo Henrique Miranda

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Eggs quickly lose their quality if they are not in adequate conditions during handling, and adequate control of the entire production chain is essential, considering that the introduction of contaminants can occur at any stage of production. The Self-Control Programs (PACs) aims to guarantee the hygienic-sanitary quality of products and the steps of the program include the description, implementation, monitoring, and verification, being considered fundamental in the quality management in companies that produce food of animal origin in Brazil. The checklist for maintenance of facilities and equipment proposed in this study was developed by a multidisciplinary team covering egg processing units with a production of up to 3,600 units/day. The design thinking methodology was used in this context to facilitate the search for better ideas through discussions that could develop creative thoughts in an empathic and user-centered way. The proposed list collaborated as a quality measurement instrument with simple language and applicable to the small producer. It reinforced the need to meet the prerequisites for the proper functioning of the PAC, serving as a stimulus for the search for knowledge of the quality culture, through the constant observation of the paradigm required by regulatory agencies.
  • Quickly determination of sesame lignans in sesame oil using a portable near-infrared spectrometer Original Article

    JIAO, Wen-Cong; LI, Ya-Ke; JIA, Mian; WANG, Dong-Min; QI, Kun; WANG, Xue-De

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sesame oil is one of the most commonly used oils in life. It contains a special antioxidant substance called sesame lignans, which has high nutritional value and pharmacological activity. Chromatographic methods are accurate and reliable but not suitable for quality control due to time-consuming. Near-infrared (NIR) quantitative models for quickly determining sesamin, sesamolin and sesame lignans in sesame oil were built using a portable NIR spectrometer combined partial least squares(PLS) algorithm, and the optimal PLS models were developed by comparing the performance of the models with different spectral pretreatment methods and bands selection, the correlation coefficients (R2) were RC2 = 0.98, 0.99, 0.99, RP2 = 0.99, 0.97, 0.94, and the root mean square error (RMSEP) was 2.69 μg/mL, 3.73 μg/mL, and 7.96 μg/mL, respectively. The acceptable results demonstrated that portable NIR spectrometer could be used for monitoring the contents of sesamin, sesamolin, and sesame lignans in sesame oil during the production process to carry out quality control.
  • Organoleptic, antioxidant activity and microbial aspects of functional biscuit formulated with date fruit fibers grown in Qassim Region Original Article

    KHALIL, Nazeha; ELBELTAGY, Alaa ElDein; ALJUTAILY, Thamer; ALI, Asmahan; GADALLAH, Mohamed

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Al-Qassim is superabundant date fruits production in kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); considers the plentiful region for producing date syrup resulting in massive amounts of crude date fibers (DFs). Current study aimed to valorizes powdered DFs usage by formulating biscuits with different DFs levels (5, 10 & 15%). Chemical compositions, antioxidant activity and total phenolic levels as well as physical and microbiological properties for dough and DFs were evaluated. The quality attributes (physical, texture, microbiological and sensory traits) of formulated biscuits were evaluated. The magnesium was the highest element in DFs powder (124.40 mg/100g) followed by potassium (30.39 mg/100g). Biscuits formulated with 5% DFs had the lowest water activity aw (0.354; P ≤ 0.05) that was increased with 15% DFs. Increasing the DFs substitution level increased the darkness of biscuit crust color. Biscuits with 5% DFs addition showed the lowest total phenolic, scavenging activity (7.82 mg GAE/g & 9.59% respectively) and hardness (17.28). Date fruits had the lowest total viable count (TVC; 4.6 log cfu/g) while Salmonella and E.coli were totally absent. In conclusion, the powdered DFs significantly improved overall acceptability of formulated biscuits at levels up-to 10% and could be recommended for marketplace.
  • The developing of reduced-sugar ready-to-drink cocoa beverages: optimization of stabilizers and sugar replacers concentration Original Article

    NURHAYATI, Rifa; LAILA, Umi; HERAWATI, Ervika Rahayu Novita; PRABAWA, Sigit; MUHAMMAD, Dimas Rahadian Aji; SURWINANTO, Alvian Maulana

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sugar has a role in the intrinsic properties of the product and gives a satiety effect after consumption. Nevertheless, its adverse effect on the human body becomes an essential reason to reduce the sugar content including in ready-to-drink (RTD) cocoa beverages. Besides the sugar, the properties of the beverages are also affected by the stabilizers. The development of reduced-sugar RTD cocoa beverages was studied in two steps. Initially, the stabilizers comprising kappa-carrageenan (κ-carrageenan) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were optimized in the full-sugar RTD cocoa beverage by which the concentrations of the stabilizers could stabilize cocoa particles and the beverage met its prominent characteristics regarding the sensorial properties also physical properties (sedimentation, rheology, and color). The CMC and κ-carrageenan respectively varied into formulas, which were F0(0%;0%), F1(0.025%;0.01%), F2(0.025%;0.02%), F3(0.025%;0.03%), F4(0.05%;0.01%), F5(0.05%;0.02%), F6(0.05%;0.03%), F7(0.075%;0.01%), F8(0.075%;0.02%), and F9(0.075%;0.03%). The chosen formula given by this first optimization, F5, was used as a basic formula for reducing the sugar of the beverage in which isomalt together with one of the high-intensity sweeteners (HISs), sucralose, was used as sugar replacer. The research revealed that the F5 within its sugar content was reduced until a portion of 37.04%, could still be tolerable based on sensorial properties.
  • Determination of pyraclostrobin residue in wax gourd and its dietary risk assessment Original Article

    YAN, Zhenmin; CAI, Guanghui; JIN, Zhong; FU, Yanyan; MA, Jingwei; LI, Meng; HAN, Wenhao; WU, Yanbing

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To study the residue behavior of pyraclostrobin in wax gourd, and evaluate the risk of dietary intake. Wax gourd samples were extracted with acetonitrile, purified with PSA and C18, detected by HPLC-MS/MS. In 2017, the supervised field trials of pyraclostrobin in wax gourd were carried out in Henan, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Beijing, Hunan, and Guangxi. The STMR of pyraclostrobin in wax gourd was acquired, and then the risk of dietary intake was evaluated. At the three spiked levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg-1, the average recoveries ranged from 95% to 104%, the RSDs ranged from 2.1% to 3.8%, and LOQ was 0.01 mg kg-1. The dissipation of pyraclostrobin in wax gourd in Sichuan fitted to the first order kinetics with the half-life of 4.1d. The 250 gL-1 emulsifiable concentrate of pyraclostrobin was sprayed at 150 and 225 g a.i./hm2 for 2-3 times on wax gourd. The final residue level of pyraclostrobin in wax gourd was between <LOQ and 0.11 mgkg-1. The national estimated daily intake (NEDI) of pyraclostrobin was 0.3722 mg, accounting for 19.69% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for general population, which means that it will not pose unacceptable risks to the health of the general population.
  • Developing a nutritious soup product using purple sweet potatoes supplemented with composite of vegetables and freezed-dried chicken Original Article

    THUY, Nguyen Minh; GIAU, Tran Ngoc; TIEN, Vo Quoc; THANH, Nguyen Van; TAI, Ngo Van

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This research aimed to develop a nutritious instant purple sweet potato soup (PSP) combination with a variety of vegetables and freeze-dried chicken. The nutritional characteristics of the product were evaluated. The current study employs principal component analysis (PCA), consumer preference mapping, and check-all-that-apply (CATA) data processing to describe sensory instant mixed soup attributes. The results showed that the soup was made from the formula F2 (PSP flour 47.5%, orange-fleshed sweet potato flour 12.5%, potatoes 6%, banana 7%, mushroom 8%, petit poise 3%, pumpkin 5%, protein powder 5% and cream powder 6%) gave good quality, high sensory value and attractive colors product. The PCA identified important soup attributes such as sweetness, milk flavor, vegetable odor, and color. Adding 15% freeze-dried chicken improved the quality of mixed soup products with energy distribution from macronutrients: proteins 24%, carbohydrates 65%, and lipids 10%. The anthocyanin and β-carotene content analyzed from the product was 13.1 mg/100 g and 370.2 μg/100 g. Score analysis according to the CATA model with two main components accounting for 95.57% of the variance in sensory attribute data, showing liking attributes of mixed soup sample that the panelists preferred in color, flavor, chicken meat distribution, and sweetness. The essential nutritional characteristics of mixed soup have been carefully analyzed.
  • In vitro studies for the antiparasitic activities of Azadirachta indica extract Original Article

    ABU HAWSAH, Maysar; AL-OTAIBI, Tahani; ALOJAYRI, Ghada; AL-SHAEBI, Esam Mohamed; DKHIL, Mohamed Abdelmonem; ELKHADRAGY, Manal Fawzy; AL-QURAISHY, Saleh; ABDEL-GABER, Rewaida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Coccidiosis and helminthiasis are two parasitic diseases that harm both health and the economy. The present study aimed to assess the effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extracts (AILE) as an anti-parasitic modulator during murine coccidiosis as well as helminthic infection. Phytochemical analysis using FT-IR showed the presence of eleven compounds. A dose-dependent efficacy was observed in all experiments. At the highest concentration (200 mg/mL), time consumed to induce paralysis and death for worms was recorded at 9.329 ± 2.183 and 10.024 ± 1.542 min, respectively. Histological study revealed conspicuous deformity of surface architecture in all treated worms. SEM also revealed cuticular shrinkage of the body surface in all treated worms. In vitro study showed that incubation with AILE (100 mg/mL) for 96 hr inhibited sporulation by approximately 60%. AILE (50 and 25 mg/mL), amprolium, DettolTM, phenol, and formalin-induced variable inhibition levels at 96 hr of 28%, 44%, 37.33%, 81.33%, 89.33%, and 0% respectively. In addition, IC50 of AILE was obtained at 66.214 µg/mL with a percentage of antioxidant activity to be 74.76 ± 2.23. Our results indicate that AILE exhibits powerful anthelmintic and anticoccidial activities and it could be exploited further for the development of a novel therapeutic agent.
  • Determination of vitamin D level in chicken eggs from conventional and free range systems Original Article

    GUL, Burcu; YEREBASAN, Ulku; BAYGELDI, Yavuz; KORKAK, Fatih Ahmet; BAYKALIR, Yasin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the vitamin D levels and some quality features of eggs. A total of 150 eggs (75 conventional and 75 free-range) were selected for the study. The levels of 25-OH vitamin D were determined by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in egg yolks. Furthermore, we evaluated the weights of egg, yolk, albumen, and yolk color as well as shape index, shell thickness, and percentages of albumen, yolk, and shell. The 25-OH vitamin D levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the conventional than in the free-range eggs. Furthermore, the weights of egg, albumen, yolk, percentage of yolk and yolk color were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the conventional than in the free-range eggs. However, the shape index, percentage of albumen, percentage of shell and shell thickness were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the free-range than the conventional eggs. It can be concluded that vitamin D levels in eggs can be related to yolk color. However, egg quality characteristics can also be influenced by various environmental factors.
  • The effect of aged pork fat on the quality and volatile compounds of Chi-aroma Baijiu Original Article

    LI, Xiangluan; HUANG, Qingyi; FEI, Yongtao; ZHAO, Wenhong; BRENNAN, Charles; BAI, Weidong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to explore the effect of aged pork fat on the quality and volatile compounds of Chi-aroma Baijiu during the ageing stage. Result showed that glycerol and total ester contents of CBN, CB1, CB3 and CB5 were significantly higher than that in BL (P < 0.05), but total acid contents did not change significantly (P > 0.05). Moreover, there was a difference in volatile compounds concentration and OAVs among the Chi-aroma Baijiu samples. With the year of aged pork fat increased, concentrations of esters and aldehydes were increased and then decreased, which reached highest in CB1. CB1 had highest OAVs of medium and long-chain ethyl esters and four aldehydes ((E)-2-nonenal, octanal, (E)-2-decanal, (E)-2-octenal) were the characteristic volatile compounds of Chi-aroma Baijiu during ageing process owing to their OAV > 10. Therefore, CB1 had the highest sensory score, with intense Chi-aroma and pleasant aftertaste. OPLS-DA further effectively distinguish different Chi-aroma Baijiu soaking with different years of aged pork fat, and confirmed 31volatile compounds (especial ethyl esters) were the key volatile compounds responsible for significant differences in Chi-aroma Baijiu. Combined with the results of sensory evaluation, GC-MS and OAVs, one-year aged pork fat was the best to product Chi-aroma Baijiu.
  • Consumer acceptability of infant food with oregano essencial oil by children diagnosed with cerebral palsy Original Article

    KEMPINSKI, Emília Maria Barbosa Carvalho; VITAL, Ana Carolina Pelaes; PINTO, Laura Adriane Moraes; CARDOSO, Melina Aparecida Plastina; GUERRERO, Ana Kechuana; RAMOS, Tatiane Rogelio; VALERO, Maribel Velandia; PRADO, Ivanor Nunes do

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Essential oils (EOs) are natural compounds extracted from plants that exhibit antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. and therefore attract interest as additives in the food industry. especially food for special populations. In the case of children diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy. another factor has to be considered. such as the consistency of food. This study evaluated consumer acceptability of infant food with oregano essential oil by children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and a questionnaire was applied to assess consumption habits and profile of the studied population. Samples were evaluated according to odor. flavor. color. and texture acceptability. Consumers were divided by days. with 35 children each day per sample (CONT without essential oil and EO with different concentration of oregano essential oil). Total number of children was 103. In relation to acceptability of color. odor and flavor of the CONT and EO-0.01% received higher grades. the infant food with 0.05% oregano essential oil showed lower scores compared with the other treatments. However. in relation to acceptability. all samples received satisfactory scores. In relation to texture. differences were not observed. The use of oregano essential oil could be an alternative for the development of an infant food.
  • Determination of colorant type in yellow tofu using Vis-NIR and SW-NIR spectroscopy Original Article

    RAHMAWATI, Laila; WIDODO, Slamet; KURNIADI, Deni Permana; DAUD, Pamungkas; TRIYONO, Agus; SRIHARTI,; SUSANTI, Novita Dwi; MAYASTI, Nur Kartika Indah; INDRIATI, Ashri; YULIANTI, Lista Eka; PUTRI, Devry Pramesti; KUALA, Seri Intan; ANGGARA, Cahya Edi Wahyu; PRISTIANTO, Eko Joni; KURNIAWAN, Erry Dwi; APRIYANTO, Ignatius Fajar; KURNIAWAN, Dayat

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A method that can detect colorant type in food is requisite against illegal practices that used non-food-grade colorants in food. In this study colorant types of yellow tofu were identified using visible near-infrared (Vis-NIR) and shortwave near-infrared spectra (SW-NIR) spectroscopy. Chemometrics analysis using partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) were used to classify natural colorants, non-food-grade colorants, and food-grade colorants in yellow tofu. The best model obtained using Vis-NIR had calibration accuracy and reliability of 100% for both PCA-LDA and PLS-DA. The best model yielded by SW-NIR had calibration accuracy of 76% and 28% reliability for PLS-DA, and accuracy of 92% and 76% reliability for PCA-LDA. The result showed that Vis-NIR spectroscopy was superior to SW-NIR spectroscopy to distinguish the colorant type used in yellow tofu. Moreover, PCA-LDA yielded better accuracy and reliability compared to PLS-DA.
  • Studies on the highly efficient catalyzation of sesamin to asarinin by phosphotungstic acid Original Article

    LU, Cai-Cai; LI, Xin; SHEN, Wan-Ling; LIU, Hua-Min; WANG, Xue-De

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The conversion of sesamin to asarinin is a promising route for the production of asarinin. This work reports the affection of acid type and strength of the catalyst on the conversion of sesamin to asarinin and the effect of various reaction conditions in anhydrous ethanol using phosphotungstic acid (HPW) as catalyst. The experimental results indicate that the activity of sesamin conversion is determined by strong B acids. L acids are not active for the reaction, and do not show synergy with B acids for the formation of asarinin. Reaction time, HPW dosage and temperature have significant effects on sesamin conversion. A maximum asarinin yield of 57.93% was achieved. The reaction kinetics in the temperature range 55-75 °C were studied. The kinetic curves can be successfully fitted with an opposing first-order reaction model. The activation energy (Ea) for this reaction is found to be 105.2 ± 0.4 kJ/mol.
  • Rapid determination of cadmium residues in tomato leaves by Vis-NIR hyperspectral and Synergy interval PLS coupled Monte Carlo method Original Article

    ZENG, Shupeng; WU, Xiaohong; WU, Bin; ZHOU, Haoxiang; WANG, Meng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Excessive heavy metal cadmium in tomatoes is harmful to human health. The detection of heavy metals in tomato leaves can determine whether the heavy metals in tomatoes exceed the standard. In order to quickly, non-destructively and efficiently detect whether heavy metals on the surface of tomato leaves exceed the standard, a new wavelength interval selection method called Synergy interval PLS couple with Monte Carlo method (MC-siPLS) was proposed. From the seedling stage, concentration of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 mg/L cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was used for irrigation under normal nutrient elements respectively. A total of 405 leaf samples were collected. Using the VIS-NIR hyperspectral instrument, the tomato leaves were set as the region of interest to obtain hyperspectral data, then used Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) method to detect heavy metals in tomato leaves. In addition, 5 different PLS algorithm were used to compare with MC-siPLS. Furthermore, the best model was given by MC-siPLS with RMSEP = 0.5378, R2 = 0.9870. The results show that MC-siPLS was better than similar wavelength interval selection methods, which had great application potential in the nondestructive detection of heavy metals in tomato leaves. This method maybe determines whether tomatoes contain excess cadmium early.
  • Transcriptome analysis reveals the gene expression changes in postharvest goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) in response to hydrogen sulfide treatment Original Article

    WANG, Wei; NI, Zhi-Jing; AN, Ya-Jing; SONG, Chang-Bing; MA, Wen-Ping; MA, Jia-Hui; WEI, Zhao-Jun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized for its beneficial role in postharvest fruit and vegetable preservation. Postharvest goji berries are easy to mildew and rot which reduce the nutritional value, flavor, and shelf life. Hydrogen sulfide treatment could improve the quality attributes of postharvest goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.); however, it is not clear that the effects of H2S at the transcriptional level in postharvest goji berries. Our data revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of fresh goji fruits after H2S treatment were different with different storage time. There were 523 DEGs in the three comparison groups after H2S treatment on the 2nd, 4th and 6th day of storage. In the pathway of KEGG metabolic function, most of the DEGs were conserved in carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, the metabolic pathways of terpenoids and polyketones. The genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, starch, and sucrose metabolism pathway were selected and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results provide insights into the effect of H2S on postharvest goji berries at the transcriptional level and provide the basis for application of H2S as gas regulator for preservation of goji berry.
  • Establishment of fingerprints and determination of various ingredients of yanlishuang pills by GC-MS Original Article

    WANG, Guopan; WANG, Jianmei; ZHOU, Zhongbiao; BAI, Lixin; QIN, Lin; HE, Yuqi; TAN, Daopeng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Yanlishuang Pills is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine used to treat pharyngitis widely. In this study, we used gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to establish a method for the fingerprint and quantitative analysis of the four major components of Yanlishuang Pills, which can provide a more reliable method for its quality control. We used the software “Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System for Traditional Chinese Medicine”, version A, 2004, to obtain fingerprint using the averaging method with a time width of 0.1. The peak with the largest peak area was used as the reference peak to determine the shared peaks and generate the common pattern. Then the main components of the Yanlishuang Pills were identified and their contents were determined in GC-MS SIM mode using internal standard method.The fingerprint established by GC-MS were reproducible, and a total of 18 common peaks were identified in the fingerprint of 13 batches of samples, and the similarity of the fingerprint of each batch of samples was above 0.99. The concentrations of camphor, menthone, borneol and menthol of the four main ingredients of the Yanlishuang Pills were linearly well within the range of 25.13-150.78 μg/mL (r = 0.9995), 28.77-172.62 μg/mL (r = 0.9991), 299.70-1798.20 μg/mL (r = 0.9997), 121.98-731.88 μg/mL (r = 0.9997), and the average recoveries were 102.02% (RSD of 1.3%), 96.10% (RSD of 1.0%), 102.71% (RSD of 1.3%), 102.58% (RSD of 1.1%), respectively, with good precision, reproducibility, and stability within 16 h. The camphor content of the 13 batches of samples was 5.6025-8.3662 mg/g, menthone content was 4.7871-5.8936 mg/g, borneol content was 88.0034-133.0969 mg/g and menthol was 40.2017-61.9466 mg/g. The fingerprints of the Yanlishuang Pills established by GC-MS were characterized by a common pattern, and the simultaneous determination of camphor, menthone, borneol and menthol in the Yanlishuang Pills was rapid, simple and accurate. In conclusion, the determination of the content of multiple ingredients combined with fingerprinting can provide a more comprehensive control of the quality of Yanlishuang Pills.
  • Effect of particle size and concentration of defatted rice bran supplemented in tomato salad dressing Original Article

    MUKPRASIRT, Amornrat; DOMRONGPOKKAPHAN, Vichai; AKKARACHANEEYAKORN, Suthida; SUMONSIRI, Nutsuda

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Defatted rice bran (DRB) is a low-cost, high-fiber, antioxidant-rich byproduct of rice bran oil production that has limited application in food systems due to its undesirable impacts on sensory attributes. This research aimed to determine the feasibility of integrating defatted rice bran into tomato salad dressing without undergoing chemical or enzymatic pretreatment. The DRB particle size (38, 90, and 150 µm) and concentration (1, 5, and 9%) significantly affected the functional properties and sensory attributes of salad dressing. The high bran concentration significantly increased viscosity and emulsion stability, although it had the opposite effect on color and texture sensory characteristics (p < 0.05). The particle size of bran significantly affected the appearance, texture, and overall liking of the product. The response surface methodology showed that the optimal DRB particle size and concentration for supplementation in a tomato salad dressing were 75 µm and 4.80%, respectively. The DRB supplementation prolonged the oxidative stability of the product compared to its control counterpart. Results demonstrated that the particle size reduction adequately modified the DRB properties to be suitable for application as a functional ingredient, which enhanced the nutritional properties and storage stability of a salad dressing.
  • Nutritional prospects of some wild edible medicinal plants of District Harnai Balochistan, Pakistan Original Article

    ULLAH, Asmat; ANJUM, Shaista; MASOOD, Ayeesha; BATOOL, Huma; KAKAR, Hidayatullah; SHAFIQUE, Munib Ahmed; NADEEM, Sidra; PONYA, Zsolt; ISMAIL, Tariq

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this research work was to evaluate the nutritional worth of some wild edible medicinal plants of District Harnai, Balochistan. Five wild edible medicinal plants (WEMPs) viz., Ficus carica L., Morus alba L., M. nigra L., Olea ferruginea Royle and Pistacia khinjuk Stocks were collected from study area. Proximate and mineral composition of leaf and fruit samples were quantified. Proximate composition revealed that leaf samples contained significant amount of dry matter, ash and protein content in O. ferruginea and fat content and Crude fiber in F.carica, Total carbohydrates and Organic matter in P. khinjuk comparatively. Further data highlighted fruit samples as rich source of organic matter, fat content and total carbohydrate (F.carica), Dry matter (P. khinjuk), Ash and protein content (M. alba) and Crude fiber (M. nigra). Similarly, mineral composition revealed a wide variability of macro and micronutrients in leave and fruit samples of selected WEMPs. The overall results obtained in this study have showed that F. carica and M. alba. may serve as good source of many important macro-nutrients viz., N, Ca, K, Mg, S and P. Whereas, M. alba followed by M. nigra may be considered as an excellent source of essential micro nutrients including Al, B, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr and Zn. Each selected wild plant manifested variable levels of mineral and proximate compositions representing that all the investigated WEMPs are rich source of nutrients that can fulfil the needs of nutrition while M. alba, M. nigra and F. carica are rich and easily available sources of essential nutrients for human diet.
  • Chemical properties of moringa milk powder used rotary vacuum drying Original Article

    WIDIANTARA, Tantan; IKRAWAN, Yusep; TAUFIK, Yusman; MUTHIAH, Haura Jilan; HARIADI, Hari; HIDAYAT,; RAHMAWATI, Laila

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the concentration of Moringa leaf extract and variations in drying temperature on the chemical characteristics of Moringa milk powder. The research design used a randomized block design with repeated 3x3 factorials, followed by Duncan’s test; The results showed that the concentration of Moringa extract and variation of drying temperature had a significantly different effect on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of Moringa milk powder. The best treatment was the treatment with the addition of 7% moringa extract at 70 °C.
  • Pitaya [Hylocereus polyrhizus (F.A.C. Weber) Britton & Rose] effect on glycemia and oxidative stress in aloxan-induced diabetic mice Original Article

    LIRA, Sandra Machado; HOLANDA, Marcelo Oliveira; SILVA, José Ytalo Gomes da; MARQUES, Chayane Gomes; COELHO, Lia Corrêa; LIMA, Carla Laíne Silva; COSTA, Joana Talita Galdino; DANTAS, Juliana Barbosa; MACIEL, Gladstone Lima; SILVA, Gisele Silvestre da; SANTOS, Glauber Batista Moreira; ZOCOLO, Guilherme Julião; DIONÍSIO, Ana Paula; GUEDES, Maria Izabel Florindo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Pitaya is a rich source of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and betalains. Moreover, these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this fruit on glycemia and oxidative stress in aloxan-induced diabetic mice. Thus, considering that In the in vivo assays, the mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 6): (a) healthy group treated with water; (b) diabetic mice treated with metformin at 200 mg/kg body weight diluted in water; (c) untreated diabetic mice; (d) diabetic mice treated with pitaya at 200 mg/kg and (e) diabetic mice treated with pitaya at 400 mg/kg of body weight diluted in water. The results shows that pitaya was able significantly to reduce blood glucose (p < 0.05) (200 mg/kg); significantly reduce cholesterol (200 and 400 mg/kg) and significantly increase HDL-c (400 mg/kg) levels. In the oxidative stress experiment, Malondialdehyde levels in the liver were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the groups treated with pitaya, when compared to the other groups, suggesting lower lipid peroxidation. The consumption of pitaya reduced the blood glucose and cholesterol and increase the HDL, in addition, the lipid peroxidation - which is common in diabetic patients, was reduced.
  • Preliminary characteristics of non-starch polysaccharide from chayote (Sechium edule) Original Article

    KE, Jingxuan; DENG, Xiaoting; ZHANG, Zhiqing

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chayote is rich in non-starch polysaccharides. The physicochemical properties of non-starch polysaccharide from chayote were not study extensively. In the present research, non-starch polysaccharide of chayote (CP-CHE) extracted by conventional heating extraction method was obtained, and the preliminary physicochemical and functional properties of CP-CHE had been carried out. The results indicated that the CP-CHE was rich in galactan, glucoses and galacturonic acid. Also, CP-CHE had the negatively charged, a wide distribution of molecular weight and particle size. Additionally, CP-CHE solutions had shear thinned fluid property when the concentrations between 1% to 4%. The results of this study would be beneficial to the application of CP-CHE in food and improve the economic value of chayote.
  • The influence of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes powder on improving the characteristics and shelf life of low-fat beef and chicken burgers Original Article

    AL-MARAZEEQ, Khaled; AL-ROUSAN, Walid; TAHA, Sadi; OSAILI, Tareq

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This research aims to investigate the influence of using cactus cladodes powder (CP) as a binder at three concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) on selected quality characteristics of low-fat beef and chicken burgers after formulation and during freeze storage (-18 °C) for 100 days, in comparison to control treatments without CP. Using CP at 3% and 5% influenced (p < 0.05) the proximate composition of the formulated burgers, while 1% CP did not influence the proximate composition significantly. Cooking loss was decreased (p < 0.05) by using CP at 3% and 5%. Oxidation stability of raw and cooked burgers formulated with 3% and 5% CP increased after formulation and during freezing storage for 100 days in comparison to control burger samples. Sensory preferences of color, tenderness, juiciness, taste, and overall acceptability were improved in samples with 3% and 5% CP in comparison to control and 1% CP burgers.
  • Biofortificatin of hen eggs with natural and synthetic apo-ester and canthanxanthin and its physiochemical evaluation for quality parameters Original Article

    BASHARAT, Muneeza; AHMAD, Nazir; UN NISA, Mahr; AHMED, Aftab

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study was planned to bio-fortify hen eggs with natural and synthetic apo-ester and canthanxanthin and evaluate physio-chemical quality parameters. Seventy-two laying hens were allocated into two main groups for eighteen natural and synthetic carotenoids fortified different diets. They were weighed and placed into cages to feed diet fortified with apo-ester and canthanxanthin for 44 days. The results showed a significant effect of natural canthaxanthin and apo-ester on egg breadth, albumin height, yolk color, yolk diameter, yolk index, and haugh units. The effect of natural apo-ester on egg length, yolk color, yolk diameter, yolk index and haugh units is also significant. Combination of natural-canthanxanthin and apo-ester significantly affects yolk color, yolk height, yolk diameter, shape index, yolk index and haugh units. A significant effect of synthetic canthaxanthin on egg breadth, shell thickness, albumin height, yolk color, yolk height, yolk diameter, yolk index, and haugh units was noted. The effect of synthetic apo-ester pigments on yolk color, yolk height, yolk diameter, yolk index and haugh unite were also significant. Synthetic canthanxanthin and apo-ester significantly affect shell thickness, yolk color, yolk height, yolk diameter, shape index, and haugh units. Thus, carotenoid feeding can significantly improve the quality parameters of eggs
  • Nematodes and acanthocephalans of hygienic-sanitary importance parasitizing Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes, 1828) (Actinopterygii) collected from fish markets of the municipality of Niterói, RJ, Brazil Original Article

    MENEZES, Priscila Queiroz Faria de; FONSECA, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; GOMES, Delir Corrêa; SÃO CLEMENTE, Sergio Carmona de; KNOFF, Marcelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Hyporthodus niveatus is an appreciated and valuable commercial fish species in the municipality of Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, due its excellent quality flesh. The constant presence of helminths in the abdominal musculature, viscera and serosa of individuals of the species has been the subject of complaints among local fish traders because of economic losses due to their repugnant aspect. Considering their hygienic-sanitary importance and significance for collective health, the presence of helminths was investigated in 20 individual fish of H. niveatus purchased from fish markets in the municipality of Niterói in 2021-2022. Nematodes, identified as third-instar larvae of Contracaecum sp., Terranova sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum and Raphidascaris sp., were found parasitizing the intestine and abdominal cavity. Acanthocephalans, identified as juveniles of Corynosoma australe, were found parasitizing the intestine. The highest parasitic indices were for H. deardorffoverstreetorum, with prevalence of 30%, mean intensity of 1.5, mean abundance of 0.45 and infection ranges of 1-2. Considerations about the zoonotic potential and hygienic-sanitary significance of these parasites are presented in order to increase food safety for consumers.
  • Composite flour production and assessment of the safety quality of gluten-free bread Original Article

    KULUSHTAYEVA, Botakoz; NURYMKHAN, Gulnur; TUMENOVA, Galiya; BAYAZITOVA, Kulbaram; IMANBAYEV, Alimzhan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Nutrition has the great importance on the human feeling. Moreover, there are some pathologies that can be cured only together with feeding correction. So, current article deals with the cause of chronic celiac disease which causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa and, as a consequence, impairs proper digestion and absorption of nutrients. The therapy for this disease consists of an exclusive and strict lifelong gluten-free diet. A few years ago it was believed to be a rare disease. Today, however, doctors come to disappointing conclusions: the number of celiac disease sufferers is increasing year by year. Wheat starch, amaranth, and chickpea flour are considered to be promising ingredients to replace wheat flour in baked goods recipes. These culinary components are gluten-free and have a rich chemical composition. The current manuscript presents an experimentally verified formulation for the production of gluten-free bread. The verified composition consists of 50% wheat starch, 25% amaranth flour, and 25% chickpea flour. This composition allows getting bread with good quality proprieties which makes ill people’s life quality style better.
  • Effect of calcium on rheological properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) pod polysaccharide and its application in Annona squamosa Original Article

    JIANG, Wei; PAN, Lichao; ZHU, Zhenyuan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The fruit softening seriously affected the quality of Annona squamosa, and the edible coating combined with exogenous calcium had a positive effect on inhibiting the softening of A. squamosa. In this paper, the rheological properties of C-AeP-P solution and the effect of Ca2+ on the rheological properties of the solution were studied. Based on this, the indicators of fruit hardness, freshness and plumpness were used to monitor the softening effect of A. squamosa. The results show that: C-AeP-P solution showed non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior over the range of 0.2-1.0%. With the increase of C-AeP-P concentration, the apparent viscosity and solids like properties increased. After the addition of Ca2+, C-AeP-P had apparent differences on apparent viscosity. The G′ and G″ of C-AeP-P were increased with increasing oscillation frequency. C-AeP-P and C-AeP-P+Ca2+ treatment can slow down rapidly decline of fruit hardness, increase of soluble solid content, loss of water, change peel color and regulate the expression of key enzyme genes AI and Ni. It was concluded that the coating treatment of C-AeP-P alleviates the adverse effects of quality changes during storage, so as to improve the quality and prolong the shelf life of A. squamosa.
  • Effects of pretreatment and drying methods on physical properties and bioactivity of sea lettuce (Ulva rigida) Original Article

    SATMALEE, Prajongwate; PANTOA, Thidarat; SAAH, Safiah; PAOPUN, Yupadee; TAMTIN, Montakan; KOSAWATPAT, Prapat; THONGDANG, Busaba

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sea lettuce (Ulva rigida) is an underutilized green macroalga. Scant knowledge and understanding exist regarding the optimal processing technologies to maximize seaweed nutrition. Pretreatment of sea lettuce before drying, either by blanching or steaming, induced diverse physical and biological property changes. Greenness increased, while lightness of the-sea lettuce reduced. Both drying processes reduced textural parameters and impacted sea lettuce bioactivity, with increased antioxidant capacity and phenolic compound content. Steaming followed by oven drying at 60 °C for 2.30 h maintained bioactivities during 4 months of storage. Food processing increased the ease of consumption and also maintained the nutritional value of the sea lettuce, thereby promoting the utilization of this seaweed as a beneficial food ingredient.
  • Necessity of Log(1/R) and Kubelka-Munk transformation in chemometrics analysis to predict white rice flour adulteration in brown rice flour using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy Original Article

    RAHMAWATI, Laila; ZAHRA, Aryanis Mutia; LISTANTI, Riana; MASITHOH, Rudiati Evi; HARIADI, Hari; ADNAN,; SYAFUTRI, Merynda Indriyani; LIDIASARI, Eka; AMDANI, Rima Zuriah; PUSPITAHATI,; AGUSTINI, Sri; NURAINI, Laela; VOLKANDARI, Slamet Diah; KARIMY, Mohammad Faiz; SURATNO,; WINDARSIH, Anjar; PAHLAWAN, Muhammad Fahri Reza

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study compared the calibration model performance of reflectance to absorbance transformation spectra combined with pre-processing spectra to find the best model to predict white rice flour adulteration in brown rice flour using the visible and near-infrared spectrometer. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and principal component regression (PCR) were compared using reflectance, Kubelka-Munk (KM), and Log(1/R) spectra. Area normalization (AN) and Savitsky-smoothing Golay's (SGS) were pre-processing methods. The sample was white rice flour mixed with brown rice flour at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. Reflectance spectra outperformed KM and log (1/R) spectra in this study. Reflectance spectra provided the best model for PLSR and PCR. Pre-processed SGS spectra were best for PLSR, while raw reflectance spectra were best for PCR. PLSR and PCR both had an R2 of prediction of 0.96, while the overall average R2 of prediction favors PLSR over PCR. The present study led to the discovery of a simple novel method for developing adulteration flour and showed that a visible near-infrared spectrometer combined with PLSR, or PCR, could predict white rice flour adulteration in brown rice flour.
  • NMR-based metabolic analysis of Bacillus velezensis DZ11 applied to low-salt fermented coarse fish involved in the formation of flavor precursors Original Article

    ZHOU, Yue; MA, Xiaoyan; WU, Junxiao; RAZAK, Monto Abdul; YUAN, Li; GAO, Ruichang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Microbial fermentation can be responsible for flavor production and increasing the nutritional quality of fermented fish foods. The study aimed to isolate non-halophilic bacteria possessing proteolysis and lipolysis properties as starter cultures for low-salt content fermentation of coarse fish. The strains with high enzyme activities were screened and multiple growth characteristics were analyzed. The content of amino acid nitrogen and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides in fermented fish was also investigated under different fermentation conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics analysis was utilized to monitor the metabolite profile of fermented fish paste. The isolate was identified as Bacillus velezensis DZ11. The strain DZ11 exhibited obvious hydrolysis properties of lipids and proteins. During the fermentation of fish paste, a total of 40 differential metabolites were identified, of which multiple metabolites changed significantly, including nutrient-related substances and flavor precursors. Salt concentration and strain DZ11 had important effects on the differential metabolites. B. velezensis DZ11 under longer fermentation time promoted the formation of flavor precursors and potentially increased the nutritional substances of low-salt fermented fish.
  • Quantitive analysis of flavonoids in ainaxiang tablets by high-performance liquid chromatography Original Article

    TAN, Daopeng; WANG, Guopan; WANG, Jianmei; FENG, Yidong; HE, Yuqi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Blumea balsamifera is a very famous medicinal plant and functional tea in many countries of Asia. Ainaxiang tablets are a preparation consisting of flavonoids from B. balsamifera. Today, a high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 15 flavonoids in Ainaxiang Tablets. The analysis was performed on a Kromasil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a binary gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.2% aqueous acetic acid. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, stability, precision and accuracy. It was found that this method had linearity with R2 at 0.9992- 0.9999 in the test range of 0.15-276.40 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 15 tested reference compounds were 0.01-0.28µg/mL and 0.02 - 0.55µg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for intra-day and inter-day repeatability were not more than 3.18%. The analyzed samples were stable for at least 18 h. The spike recoveries for 15 analyzed samples were 106.17 - 95.02%. The results suggested that this newly developed HPLC method could be used for quantitative analysis of flavonoids in Ainaxiang Tablets and its raw materials.
  • Interpreting the production, characterization and antioxidant potential of plant proteases Original Article

    KHAN, Usman Mir; AADIL, Rana Muhammad; SHABBIR, Muhammad Asim; SHAHID, Muhammad; DECKER, Eric Andrew

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cheese has become an important food item that may provide great nutritional benefits to consumers all over the world. Rennet is the most important milk coagulant obtained from calf stomach but nowadays due to lesser availability of ruminant stomach, higher rennet prices, religious concerns (Islamism; Halal / Haram) or the ban of recombinant calf rennet has given rise to the need for other substitutes than rennet. The present study was conducted to develop vegetative extracts of Citrus aurantium flowers, fig, pineapple, and melon extract as vegetative coagulants as an economical, easily available and halal source and their evaluation on basis of pH, dry matter protein content, milk clotting, and proteolytic activities potential in comparison with rennet and acid. The protein contents of CAFE, fig latex and bromelain were much greater than melon extract. The trend in milk clotting activity (MCA), proteolytic activity (PA) and MCA/PA ratio was rennet > acid > bromelain ˃ CAFE ˃ fig latex> melon extract. ORAC assay for antioxidant potential of extracts showed the following trend: fig latex 592 µM (TE)>CAFE 566 µM (TE)>bromelain 130 µM (TE)> melon extract 120 µM (TE) using Trolox as standard. These plant extracts proved a better substitute for animal rennet in the cheese industry.
  • Challenges and alternatives for the production of cyclodextrins from the CGTase enzyme from recombinant Bacillus subtilis WB800 Original Article

    CROZATTI, Thamara Thaiane da Silva; LARENTIS, Paula Vitória; FENELON, Vanderson Carvalho; MIYOSHI, Juliana Harumi; BRITO, Júlia Rosa de; SALINAS, Giovanna da Silva; MAZZOTTI, Beatriz de Oliveira; TELES, Giovanni Cesar; LIMA NETO, Quirino Alves de; MATIOLI, Graciette

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cyclodextrins (CDs) have the ability to encapsulate numerous molecules and have applicability in several industrial areas, however, their cost has made their use difficult. To seek alternatives that may enable the use of DCs, the present study evaluated the efficiency of the ultrafiltration process in a continuous system to produce CDs from the enzyme cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) from recombinant Bacillus subtilis WB800. The possibility of using the crude enzyme as an alternative means of producing CDs was also evaluated. All strategies evaluated in this research proved to be promising for the production of CDs, with the production of β-CD being the most efficient (average of 15 mmol/L) using crude recombinant enzyme and a temperature of 50 °C. Therefore, the results obtained can contribute to the reduction of stages and costs of production of CDs, favoring their industrial application.
  • Evaluation of a Jordanian commercial chocolate brand fortified with micronutrients of vitamins B12 and D3, iron and zinc Original Article

    ALKURD, Refat Ahmad; AL-AKAYLEH, Faisal Tawfiq; AL-REMAWI, Mayyas Mohammad; HASAN, Mohamad Rafiq; MAQOUSI, Ali; RAMADAN, Khaled; ARAFAT, Tawfiq Abdulraheem

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chocolate is a preferred food for children and adults. Micronutrient deficiencies are still prevalent worldwide. This study aims to manufacture and evaluate a type of sugar-free dark chocolate fortified with vitamins and minerals. Three types of chocolate were fortified with vitamin D3, vitamin B12, and iron and zinc. The fortified chocolate was evaluated in terms of chemical composition using FTIR and DSC methods, visco-mechanical, sensory and stability. The FTIR studies indicated that the spectrum of all fortified chocolates was similar to that of the control, unfortified chocolate. The DSC studies indicated that there were no characteristics differences in crystallinity and degree of crystallization between the fortified and the control products. The addition of vitamins and minerals to chocolate strengthened the structure, increased the melting point, didn’t cause significant variation in the rheological properties and had no significant effect on the overall sensation of the taste when compared with controlled chocolate. The stability results indicated that the fortified chocolate was stable for 9 months at room temperature. It was concluded that the fortified chocolate was a good vehicle for the vitamins and minerals with acceptable properties that may be used for supplementing vitamins and minerals.
  • Effects of microbial preparation on production performance and rumen microbial communities of goat Original Article

    YUAN, Kaixin; MA, Jiayin; LIANG, Xuhui; TIAN, Guangjie; LIU, Yuyang; ZHOU, Guangchen; CHEN, Yulin; YANG, Yuxin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study explored effects of microbial preparation (MIP, developed by our research team) on production performance and body health of Boer goat to reveal the function of it in goat breeding industry. Compound yeast and enzyme preparation (CYP) was used to compare the function of MIP. Healthy male Boer goats (n = 15, BW = 25.31±4.06 kg) were allocated randomly into three groups as NC (Basal diet), MI (Basal diet + MIP) and CY (Basal diet + CYP). This study lasted for 71 days including 15 days for adaptation and 56 days for growth trial. Both MIP and CYP enhanced production performance such as average daily gain of goats, MIP enhanced the level of fat synthesis such as total cholesterol level significantly on day 28. As for rumen fermentation and microbial communities of goat, MIP decreased rumen pH. PCoA analysis showed that the rumen bacterial community on day 28 was significantly separated. In conclusion, MIP increased production performance, ameliorating rumen fermentation and shifting microflora. Our findings provide the evidence for the influence of probiotics on goat production performance as well as health condition.
  • Effect of enzyme types on emulsifying properties of walnut emulsion Original Article

    FENG, Hong-xia; ZHENG, Shu-wen; CHANG, Yun-he; MA, Li-zhi; JIANG, Lian-zhou; SUN, Ming-yue

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to explore the efficient investigate and utilization of emulsion produced by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of walnut oil, the effects of different enzyme treatment (including Alcalase 2.4L, Ban 480L α-amylase, Neutrase 0.8L, Pectinex SP-L, Celluclast 1.5L) on the characteristics of emulsion were studied to characterize its emulsifying characteristics The emulsion composition, particle size distribution, Zeta potential, rheological properties and protein surface hydrophobicity of emulsion were determined to characterize its emulsifying properties. The results showed that the particle size of the emulsion obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis showed a smaller trend and the absolute value of Zeta potential showed a larger trend in the presence of enzymes. On emulsion protein, hydrophobicity of emulsion protein was obtained by hydrolysis with different enzymes showed that the trend followed the order: Celluclast 1.5L> Ban 480L >Neutrase 0.8L >Pectinex SP-L >control> Alcalase 2.4L. The particle size, zeta potential, ability to increase emulsion viscosity and interfacial hydrophobicity of emulsion proteins affected the emulsion physical stability and the effect of demulsification. The results of rheological analysis show that emulsions from Ban 480L α-amylase, Neutrase 0.8L and Celluclast 1.5L hydrolysate still maintained their elastic structure damaged by shear rate and were more stable, and the emulsions obtained by Alcalase 2.4L and Pectinex SP-L were unstable which was easy to be broken.
  • Extracts from sojae semen germinatum ameliorated carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice Original Article

    LIU, Xiwei; HU, Xianmin; WU, Shuzhe; LIU, Juan; WANG, Jun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sojae semen germinatum (SSG) prepared from the germinating black soybean Glycine max L. Merr. is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with heat-clearing, dampness-removing, and detoxifying properties. In the present study, we explored the effects and possible underlying mechanisms of petroleum ether extract (PEE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE), n-butanol extract (NBE) and aqueous fraction (AF) of SSG on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in mice, an animal model representing pathological features of “dampness-heat” syndrome from the perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Results showed that the EAE and NBE of SSG significantly protected mice against the CCl4-induced increases of liver tissue index and serum transaminase levels, ameliorated the CCl4-induced liver morphological changes. Compared with CCl4 model controls, EAE and NBE of SSG decreased malondiadehyde (MDA) levels, enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in liver tissues, as well as reduced the number of apoptotic hepatocytes. Moreover, the CCl4-induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in livers was markedly suppressed by pre-treatment with EAE of SSG. Data suggested that SSG extracts showed protective effect on the CCl4-induced liver injury via multiple pharmacological mechanisms including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis. EAE and NBE appeared to be superior to other fractions.
  • Characterization of polysaccharide-based antibacterial films properties of loaded with Nisin and preservation of fresh-cut watermelon Original Article

    SONG, Xuejian; WANG, Xinhui; ZHANG, Hongyang; ZHANG, Dongjie; LI, Zhijiang; WANG, Hong jiang; YU, Jinchi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The study aimed to improve polysaccharide-based packaging to extend the shelf life of fresh produce; a composite film with antimicrobial function was developed and tested. The packaging film is a blend of agar, a film-forming substrate; carrageenan, as a reinforcing agent; glycerol, as a plasticizer; and Nisin, an antimicrobial agent. The film was evaluated for its antibacterial, mechanical, and barrier properties at different humidity levels, using fresh-cut watermelon as the test food material. The film effectively inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Under relative humidity of 20%, 50%, and 90%, the tensile strength of the antibacterial film containing 0.28% Nisin was 23.08 ± 0.65, 16.09 ± 1.73, and 6.52 ± 0.56 MPa, respectively, and the film also had excellent barrier and heat-sealing properties. The packaging test using fresh-cut watermelon sealed in the antibacterial film containing 0.28% Nisin, under controlled atmosphere storage at either 4 °C or 20 °C, effectively inhibited microbial colonization in the melon and slowed the deterioration of the fruit, as indicated by measures of hardness, weight loss, and soluble solids. This method can extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruit and provide a reference for further research on polysaccharide-based protective film for fresh produce.
  • Development and characterization of biscuits with olive pomace Original Article

    TRINDADE, Pamela Cristiele Oliveira; DALFOLO, Alice de Carvalho; MONTEIRO, Camila Sant’Ana; WAGNER, Roger; SANTOS, Bibiana Alves dos; DALLA NORA, Flávia Michelon; VERRUCK, Silvani; ROSA, Cláudia Severo da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This work developed biscuits with the partial substitution of wheat flour with olive pomace flour (OPF). The wheat flour contents substituted by OPF in the biscuits were 0%, 10%, and 20%. The effects of the flour on the chemical composition, lipid profile, and sensory aspects of the reformulated biscuits were evaluated. The data showed that the OPF has a high concentration of dietary fiber (43.75%) and 27.70% lipids. The biscuit with 10% of the wheat flour replaced by OPF has 4.29% of total dietary fiber and 22.61% of lipids, whereas the biscuits made by substituting 20% of the wheat flour with OPF have 8.52% of total dietary fiber and 23.78% of lipids. The incorporation of OPF increased the contents of lipids, minerals, and dietary fiber. Sensorially, the sensory descriptors were not beneficial to characterize the biscuits reformulated with OPF. Also, the lightness, texture, and brittleness decreased in the biscuits with added OPF, as did the loss from baking. Hence, the BIS10 biscuit proved to have the potential to be better explored from the physicochemical and sensory viewpoint.
  • Soybean crushing forms by mechanical harvesting and factors affecting the proportions of different forms Original Article

    NI, Youliang; JIN, Chengqian; CHEN, Man; QIAN, Zhenjie; YANG, Tengxiang; XU, Jinshan; LIU, Gangwei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aiming at the problem of serious damage in the process of soybean harvesting and production, this paper analyzes the soybean harvesting process, and determines the main crushing forms of soybeans: epidermal breakage, splitting into two flaps, and overall crushing. The influence of different operation links on soybean crushing during the harvesting process, such as header feeding auger, horizontal seed spiral conveyor, horizontal miscellaneous residue spiral conveyor, and threshing roller was studied. The influence of the operating parameters such as the forward speed of the harvester, threshing roller speed, and deflector angle on the soybean crushing form was studied experimentally. The results showed that, the degree of influence on the proportion of sepidermal breakage from high to low was the forward speed of the harvester, deflector angle and threshing roller speed. The degree of influence on the proportion of splitting into two flaps from high to low was the deflector angle, threshing roller speed and the forward speed of the harvester. The degree of influence on the proportion of the overall crushing from high to low was the forward speed of the harvester, threshing roller speed and deflector angle.The research results can provide a reference for the subsequent structural improvement of soybean harvester and optimization of operating parameters.
  • Physicochemical properties of carrot (Daucus carota L.) milk produce from rotary extraction Original Article

    HARIADI, Hari; RIANA, Asysyifa; HIDAYAT,; RAHMAWATI, Laila; QUDDUS, Ati Atul; DANGGI, Erni; JUDIONO,

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate how the concentration ratio of trehalose and Carrot Extract affected the features of carrot milk powder. The experiment utilized a random block design with repeated 3 x 3 factorials, followed by Duncan's test. Trehalose concentrations (5%, 7.5%, and 10%) and Carrot Extract concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) comprised the experimental variables. This study's results include water content, total carotenoids, antioxidant activity, yield, viscosity after rehydration, solubility, dissolving time, color intensity, as well as hygroscopic and hedonic tests on color, flavor, and aroma. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of trehalose and Carrot Extract influenced the water content, yield, viscosity after rehydration, solubility, dissolving time, color measurement, and hygroscopic and hedonic tests on color, flavor, and scent. The relationship between trehalose content and Carrot Extract had an effect on yield, viscosity after rehydration, solubility level, solubility time, color intensity, and hygroscopic and hedonic tests. The t1w1 sample (trehalose 5% and Carrot Extract 10%) produced the best organoleptic findings.
  • Effect of Lactobacillus isolated from Chinese fermented food on antibiotic induced intestinal microflora disorder in early life of mice Original Article

    YI, Ruokun; LIU, Tongji; XUE, Rui; YANG, Zhennai

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study investigated the effect of Lactobacillus isolated from Chinese fermented food on antibiotic-induced intestinal microflora disorder during the early life of mice. The experimental strain Lactobacillus fermentum (LF) CQPC04 was isolated from naturally fermented pickles in Chongqing, China. Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) KFY02 was isolated from naturally fermented yogurt from Korla in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The results showed that LF-CQPC04 and LP-KFY02 alleviated the decrease in bacterial diversity caused by the antibiotics, maintained the abundance of beneficial bacteria, and reduced the abundance of harmful bacteria. These results suggest that LF-CQPC04 and LP-KFY02 can be used as probiotics to alleviate antibiotic-induced intestinal microfloral disorder.
  • Optimization of extraction technology of alkaloids in lotus leaf based on BP neural network Original Article

    DONG, Zhigui; SONG, Qingfeng; YANG, Jinghong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to overcome the bad precision of fitted error, lower accuracy optimization results and other flaws, when extraction technology of the lotus leaf alkaloids was optimized by response surface method or regression analysis method, a linear constraint optimization method based on BP neural network is proposed. The testing program of three factors, three level was designed, which selected the hydrochloric acid mass fraction, ultrasound time, liquid-solid ratio as experimental factors. Taking the experiment data as training sample, the BP neural network model of the lotus leaf alkaloid yield and the influencing factors was obtained, and it was optimized by the proposed optimization method. The optimal parameter combination of extraction technology for lotus leaf alkaloid was obtained as follows: extraction temperature 60 °C, ultrasonic power 500W, hydrochloric acid mass fraction 0.3%, ultrasonic time 43 min, liquid-solid ratio 27, the yield of lotus leaf alkaloids under this process condition is 4.26 mg/g. It better than the best extraction technology obtained by response surface method. The obtained results is used for verification experiment, the verification results shown that the method has high fitting accuracy and stable optimization results, which optimize the extraction technology for lotus leaf alkaloid.
  • Survival of lactic acid bacteria when using the developed yogurt from the milk of small cattle under in-vitro conditions Original Article

    OSPANOV, Assan; VELYAMOV, Shukhrat; TLEVLESSOVA, Dinara; SCHETININA, Elena; KAIRBAYEVA, Ainura; MAKEEVA, Raushan; TASTANOVA, Raushan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Functional nutrition is the use in everyday life of products of natural or artificial origin, which have a regulatory effect on the physiological functions, biochemical reactions of a person through the normalization of his microecological status. Cow remains a common raw material for yoghurts. In this article, the milk of small ruminants is considered as a raw material. The functionality of yogurt, shelf life, survival of bacteria in in vitro conditions are being studied. The purpose of the article is to identify the number of live microorganisms in terms of storage from - days, and in vitro conditions. Therefore, we chose the second method in order to study the viability of probiotics in the developed yogurts from sheep and goat milk, by modeling the gastrointestinal tract in vitro in comparison with the information available in the scientific literature. The studies were carried out in two stages: the stage of activation and preparation of strains, the second stage of modeling the gastrointestinal tract and checking at each stage of digestion. In this study, there were 8 samples, all samples showed a constant number of viable cells during 14 days of storage, even at 21 days there were viable bacteria. The number of viable cells was maintained at 107 and 106 CFU/mL until the 21st day of storage at 4 °C. The difference between BB counts may be related to its sensitivity to oxygen. Based on the experimental data obtained, it can be concluded that the samples showed a good initial concentration of probiotics - above 1010 CFU/g, after activation, as well as after simulating passage through the gastrointestinal tract with an average decrease of 106 and 107 CFU/g, which proves the therapeutic ability yoghurts from sheep's milk obtained according to the claimed method.
  • Use of pigmented rice as carrier and stingless bee honey as prebiotic to formulate novel synbiotic products mixed with three strains of probiotic bacteria Original Article

    SWE, Zin Myo; CHUMPHON, Thapakorn; PANGJIT, Kanjana; PROMSAI, Saran

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to produce a synbiotic product containing Thai-pigmented rice as the carrier and the honey of the stingless bee as the prebiotic agent. From antibacterial activity results, all of the tested probiotic bacteria (Limosilactobacillus reuteri KUKPS6103, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus KUKPS6007 and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei KUKPS6201) had a high ability to inhibit six strains of intestinal pathogens. All three probiotic bacterial strains had high antioxidant activity according to the ABTS and DPPH scavenging assays. The three tested probiotic bacteria produced substantial reductions in the cholesterol removal percentage of 33.9-78.99%. In the prebiotic studies, stingless bee honey had high enhancing activity and the main carbohydrate components were sucrose, glucose and fructose. A synbiotic product was produced containing Thai-pigmented rice grains (cultivars Riceberry, Tubtim Chumphae and Sangyod) and stingless bee honey. During 8 weeks of storage, the viability of the probiotics in terms of mixed-strains was 7.96 ± 0.06 log CFU g-1 (90.25% survival rate). Microbiological safety testing stated that the amounts of contaminants were acceptable. This is the first report of an application of Thai-pigmented rice, stingless bee honey and mixed-culture probiotics as a novel functional synbiotic product.
  • Effect of lipoxin A4 methyl ester from arachidonic acid on JAK2/STAT3 pathway after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury Original Article

    YE, Xihong; WU, Yan; CHEN, Qinyi; SONG, Hua; CHENG, Jin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract It was determined if lipoxin A4 methyl ester (LXA4 ME) affects JAK2/STAT3 pathway following transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats. Adult male SD rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated, CIRI group, DMSO + CIRI, AG490 + CIRI, and LXA4 ME + CIRI. Neurologic deficit was evaluated in rats after 24 h reperfusion. IL-6 levels of brain tissue were determined 6 and 24 h post-reperfusion using an ELISA assay. STAT3 and SOCS3 mRNA levels were analyzed via real-time quantitative PCR. P-JAK2, p-STAT3, and SOCS3 were measured via Western blotting, and localized by fluorescent immunohitochemistry. Transient cerebral ischemia in rats caused a significantly elevated concentration of IL-6, levels of STAT3 and SOCS3 mRNA, phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and immunoreactive glia of ipsilateral cortex 24 h post-reperfusion versus sham rats. The AG490 intervention downregulated cerebral ischemia-induced JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, and their immunoreactive glia located in the ischemic cortex. LXA4 ME reduced the concentration of IL-6, increased SOCS3 expression, inhibited phosphorylation and immunoreactive glia of JAK2 and STAT3, as well as ameliorated neurologic dysfunction. In conclusions, LXA4 ME inhibited JAK2/STAT3 activation, perhaps via upregulating SOCS3, as well as suppressed IL-6 expression to ameliorate cerebral ischemic injury.
  • Process optimization of deep eutectic solvent-based microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen using response surface methodology Original Article

    DU, Guojun; HONG, Wanting; LI, Zhanfeng; LIU, Yuxuan; WANG, Cuntang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Total flavonoids were extracted from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) by applying microwave-assisted extraction with low eutectic solvent (DES) as the extractant. This study investigated the effect of 21 different components of DES on the yield of total flavonoids in ZSS. The results revealed that the DES system, which consists of choline chloride and lactic acid with a molar ratio of 2:1, achieved the best flavonoid extraction efficiency. Based on the single-factor test, response surface methodology was used to optimize and determine the optimal process conditions for the extraction of total flavonoids from ZSS with deep eutectic solvent. The maximum flavonoids yields were achieved at 36.24 mg/g within the 50% DES water content, a microwave power of 600 W, a microwave time of 60 s, a liquid-solid ratio of 1:28 mg/mL, an extraction time of 66 min, and an extraction temperature of 93 °C. The macroporous resin was used to recover flavonoids from extracts. The DM130 resin showed higher adsorption/desorption performance. The total flavonoids of ZSS were extracted using the recovered DES with a yield of 32.58 mg/g and a high reusability of 89.9%.
  • A new anti-colon cancer tumor pathway of Phenyllactic acid by reducing adhesion of Fusobacterium nucleatum Original Article

    WU, Xinyu; XU, Jinzhao; WANG, Danping; YANG, Xiaoying; XU, Xiaoxi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing, with 1,931,590 new colorectal cancer patients worldwide in 2020. Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) has been widely reported as a harmful microorganism that promotes the development of CRC. Fn was found to enhance proliferation and metastasis of CRC cells by regulating cellular glucose metabolism and amino acid metabolism in trials. In a previous study, phenyl lactic acid (PLA), a natural metabolite of various probiotic bacteria, was found to have the ability to inhibit Fn as an organic acid. Therefore, further in-depth analysis of the mechanism of action of PLA in weakening Fn invasion into tumor cells provides a new therapeutic avenue for exacerbating CRC problems caused by intestinal pathogenic bacteria.
  • Preparation of pickering emulsion of cinnamon essential oil using soybean protein isolate-chitosan particles as stabilizers Original Article

    WU, Zijun; YAN, Jie; ZHOU, Zhijian; XU, Qiulin; LI, Qiaoguang; LI, Guangqing; LI, Xigui; FANG, Xitong; ZHONG, QiuLing

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study presents the preparation of cinnamon essential oil Pickering emulsion, aiming to improve the physicochemical properties, water sol ubility, and emulsion stability of cinnamon essential oil. The oil-in-water Pickering emulsion was prepared by ultrasonic emulsification, in which SPICS (soybean protein isolate (SPI)-chitosan (CS) composite granule) was used as the wall material and cinnamon essential oil was used as the core material. The emulsification performance of SPICS was evaluated, and the stability of Pickering emulsion was tested. The results showed that there was hydrogen bonding between SPI and CS, and the tertiary structure of SPI was change, which enhances the hydrophobicity of SPICS surface. When the mass ratio of SPI to CS was 14:1, the emulsification activity of SPICS was 71.92 m2g-1 and its emulsion stability was 106.29%; it also had good dispersibility in water. When the volume of the oil phase was 60%, the encapsulation rate of cinnamon essential oil was 65.23%, the Pickering emulsion did not show obvious delamination for one month; and rheological tests showed the presence of shear thinning, which was judged to be a pseudoplastic fluid. Therefore, SPICS can be used as a wall material to prepare Pickering emulsion of cinnamon essential oil with good stability.
  • Development of cottonseed-based emulsions for encapsulation of vitamin A Original Article

    IFTIKHAR, Madiha; MUNIR, Maria; WAJEEHA,; TARIQ, Muhammad Rizwan; ALI, Shinawar Waseem; SHAFIQ, Muhammad; ALI, Sajid; AHMAD, Zulfiqar; HAMEED, Amna; SAFDAR, Waseem; AHMAD, Anwar; UMER, Zujaja; KHALID, Maham; IQBAL, Munawar

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Nanoemulsions are nanoscale self-assembled entities which are manufactured for improving the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Nanoemulsion technology is one of the best ways to encapsulate the functional components as it enhances the stability and bioavailability of the compound. In the present study, nanoemulsions were prepared by ultrasonic homogenization of dispersed phase (10-22%) and surfactants (3-9%) with vitamin A (0.25-2.5%). Nanoemulsions were characterized through various optical techniques and stability was assessed using thermal shock and freeze-thaw cycle. The results revealed that nanoemulsions with high percentage of surfactants were more stable and retained smaller particle size as compared to nanoemulsions with low surfactants percentage and high dispersed phase, contributed to phase separation and colour change. These emulsions can be further tested for any toxic/allergic effect on the biological model and may be incorporated into food products.
  • Ultrasound-assisted extraction of active compounds from Beta vulgaris using deep eutectic solvents Original Article

    DEMUNER, Antonio; DIAS, Amanda; BLANK, Daiane; CERCEAU, Cristiane; SOUSA, Rita; REIS, Cesar; SANTOS, Marcelo; STRINGHETA, Paulo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the application of ultrasound in the extraction of betanin from beets (Beta vulgaris) using Deep eutectic solvents (DES). The extraction process was optimized using response surface methodology. The time variable was found to be correlated with the extraction performance. Three DES (choline chloride: urea (CC:U), choline chloride: glycerol (CC:G), and choline chloride: citric acid (CC:Ac)) were studied. The concentration of betanin extracted with CC:U, CC:G, and CC:Ac was 41.27-67.51, 82.46-104.45, and 50.06-111.93 mg/100 g. The maximum betanin extraction of 111.193 mg/100 g was achieved with CC:Ac in 38 min using 44% DES in water in an ultrasonic bath. These results demonstrate that DESs are excellent solvents for the extraction of betanin with superior efficiency to conventional extraction solvents. Ultrasound significantly improved the efficiency of betanin extraction from beets. However, a higher betanin content in the extracts did not translate into greater active antioxidant capacity, which may be related to the synergistic effects of other compounds present in the beet extracts. This study is the first attempt to optimize the parameters for ultrasound extraction of betanin from B. vulgaris using eutectic solvents.
  • Postharvest application of gamma irradiation affects fruit quality and antioxidant enzymes activities of ‘kinnow’ mandarin fruits during cold storage Original Article

    HAIDER, Sakeena Tul-Ain; AZAM, Muhammad; NAZ, Safina; HUSSAIN, Sajjad; ALI, Sajid; LIAQUAT, Mehwish; UMER, Muhammad Ali; ASIF, Muhammad; NASIR, Maryam; MUSTAFA, Zaid; HUSSAIN, Rashid; IQBAL, Muhammad Azhar; MASIH, Sharoon; AKRAM, Muhammad Tahir; NAVEED, Khalid

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Food safety with maintained fruit quality is an important challenge for postharvest industry of citrus fruits. The present study was designed to check the effects of gamma irradiation on postharvest fruit quality of ‘Kinnow’ mandarin stored at 5 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% Relative Humidity. In the first experiment, fruits were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (100-500 Gy), while after analyzing the results of first experiment, in the second experiment fruits were treated with 500, 600, 800 and 1000 Gy of gamma radiation. It was observed that higher doses of gamma irradiation exhibited lower weight loss and disease incidence as well as inhibiting the increase of soluble solid content (SSC) and retained higher titratable acidity (TA) and lower SSC: TA ratio. After 90 days of storage, maximum levels ascorbic acid, total phenolic contents and total antioxidants along with catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were recorded higher in fruits treated with 800 Gy. These fruit also exhibited higher score of taste, aroma and texture during storage. Overall results suggest that pre-storage treatment of 800 Gy is the most effective treatment and have potential application for quality management of ‘Kinnow’ mandarin under long term cold storage.
  • Characteristics of commercial single-origin organic coffee in Indonesia Original Article

    DAVID, Wahyudi; INTANIA, Mella; PURNAMA, Purba; ISWALDI, Ihsan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The increasing enthusiasm for single-origin coffee consumption creates a challenge regarding identification of its traceability. This study is the early stage for identifying the single-origin footprint that allow consumer detected the specific attribute. This study determines the dominant sensory attributes of eight commercial single-origin organic coffees using projective mapping (Napping®). The responses of 20 naive panelists who evaluated samples with a home-use test (HUT) were analyzed. The results showed that all samples had a unique dominant attribute determined by aroma, flavor, aftertaste, body, and acidity. Samples with aroma sweet and floral, flavor of sweet and nutty is most preferable. Most of the panelist prefer light medium in acidity and light for body as well as bitter and sour for aftertaste. This study was able to identify specific groups of attributes based on its origin of location. However, this study unable to identify original factor how the attribute was differs. The mapping of these attributes may be used to further study the coffee’s traceability.
  • Comparison of antioxidant activities expressed as equivalents of standard antioxidant Original Article

    HWANG, Su-Jeong; LEE, Je-Hyuk

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The quantitative antioxidant activity of foods is expressed as the equivalent weight of the authentic standard compounds with antioxidant function. Even in the same food sample, antioxidant activity is defined differently depending on the standard antioxidant compounds, making it difficult to compare them. Antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging assay using Trolox, ascorbic acid, catechin, and gallic acid as standard antioxidant compounds. The relationship between the antioxidant activity and the standard was used to convert the antioxidant activity expressed as the equivalent of a specific antioxidant standard to the equivalent of another antioxidant standard. To verify the converted antioxidant activity, the antioxidant activity of apples was analyzed with several antioxidant standards and compared with the antioxidant activity converted with other standard compounds. As a result of comparing the antioxidant activity measured using various antioxidant standards and the converted antioxidant activity of apples, it was confirmed that there was no difference. The results of this study show that antioxidant activity expressed as a specific antioxidant standard compound can be accurately converted into the equivalent of another standard antioxidant compound.
  • Green-synthesized selenium nanoparticles using garlic extract and their application for rapid detection of salicylic acid in milk Original Article

    AFTAB, Rashna; AHSAN, Samreen; LIAQAT, Atif; SAFDAR, Muhammad; CHUGHTAI, Muhammad Farhan Jahangir; NADEEM, Muhmmad; FAROOQ, Muhammad Adil; MEHMOOD, Tariq; KHALIQ, Adnan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The highly selective, sensitive, and quick interference green synthesis-based sensing of possible milk adulterants i.e., salicylic acid has been reported here. Salicylic acid interacts with nanoparticles through strong bonding interactions, hence resulting in an interruption within the formation of selenium nanoparticles which is confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. This interaction in the synthesis of nanoparticles resulted in transmittance wavelength that decrease with the increasing amount of salicylic acid, showing strong binding of selenium nanoparticles with adulterant thereby permitting in-situ fast detection of salicylic acid from milk having a limit of detection at 10-3 mol and linear coefficient correlation of 0.9907.
  • Effects of Jiawei Huangqi Guizhi Decoction on the expression of GAS, MTL, GC, and TGF-β3 signaling pathways in CAG rats Original Article

    AN, Yun; CHEN, Weigang; CAO, Yong; DUO, Hongdong; FANG, Yuan; CHEN, Boshen; LI, Qiangbin; HUANG, Fang; CHEN, Siyu; HUANG, Weihan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To study the effect of Jiawei Huangqi Guizhi Decoction on gastrointestinal hormones and TGF-β3 signal pathways in rats with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). The model was created by methylnitrosoguanidine (MNNG) comprehensive method. After successful modeling, it was divided into three groups: model group (MC group), frolic acid group (AC group), modified Huangqi Guizhi Decoction high dose group (HH group), modified Huangqi Guizhi Decoction middle dose group (HM group), and modified Huangqi Guizhi Decoction low dose group (HL group). Gastric pathology was observed by HE staining. The levels of gastrin (GAS) and motilin (MTL) in rat serum were detected by ELISA assay. After HE staining, the histopathological sections were analyzed. Inflammatory factors infiltration and disorder of mucosal epithelial cells were found in the model group, which were improved to some extent after administration. According to the pathological chart analysis and score of rats in each group, compared with the model group, the gastric tissue damage of rats in each administration group has been improved in different degrees, among which the pathological scores of HH and HM groups were lower, and the corresponding damage degree was smaller. According to the test results of ELISA, Jiawei Huangqi Guizhi Decoction could reduce the contents of GAS, TGF-β3, and increase MTL abundance in the serum of rats, thus accelerating the apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibiting cancer. Jiawei Huangqi Guizhi Decoction played a positive role in preventing the occurrence of gastric cancer through reducing the concentrations of GAS and TGF-β3 in serum, and increasing the concentration of MLT in serum. This results provided a new treatment idea for CAG.
  • Effects of different sterilization methods on sensory quality and lipid oxidation of Dezhou braised chicken Original Article

    LI, Ying; LIANG, Shan; YE, Guodong; ZHANG, Min; FENG, Sensen; WANG, Zikang; ZHANG, Qingyong; SUN, Chenxi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This work studied the effects of different time and temperature combinations [100 °C for 50 min (T1), 110 °C for 50 min (T2), 118 °C for 50 min (T3) and 121 °C for 30 min (T4)] of sterilization on the sensory quality and lipid oxidation of Dezhou braised chicken. Compared to T1, T3 and T4 groups, the T2 group had the highest colour and lower hardness. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the electronic-tongue results showed that there were distinct differences in taste between the treatment groups. Free amino acids (FAA) analysis showed that the T2 group had the highest amino acid contents. In summary, the T2 might be a more reasonable sterilization condition for Dezhou braised chicken, due to its positive effects on maintaining sensory quality. The results of this study could guide Dezhou braised chicken industry to produce better quality products.
  • Analysis of coffee thermophysical changes during roasting using differential scanning colorimetry Original Article

    MUTOVKINA, Ekaterina Alexandrovna; BREDIKHIN, Sergey Alekseevich

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the variation of dependency between physical green coffee beans characteristics and thermal effects during roasting. In this work was analyzed coffee roasting process, used differential scanning colorimetry able to describe thermophysical processes inside a coffee bean during the roasting process was developed. For the analysis of thermophysical effects inside the coffee bean were explored six samples of coffee beans with different origins. The scanning colorimetry data obtained showed differences in thermal effects, the transition from an endothermic process to an exothermic one, as well as the amount of heat required for the roasting process. The analyzed humidity and density curves were then compared with the observed data. The analysis showed a direct dependency between the physical characteristics of the grain and the thermal effects during the roasting process. The present study concludes that green coffee with different properties requires the use of different strategies for the use of energy to obtain a quality product.
  • Transcriptome-based analysis reveals the key genes of sesquiterpene glycosylation in Dendrobium nobile Original Article

    TAN, Daopeng; WANG, Jianmei; CAO, Ligang; ZHAO, Yongxia; FAN, Qingjie; WU, Xingdong; WU, Di; LU, Yanliu; QIN, Lin; HE, Yuqi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dendrobium nobile is a traditional Chinese medicine and nourishing food in China. Alkaloids and sesquiterpene glycosides are the two main active ingredients in D. nobile. The previous reports showed that alkaloids and sesquiterpene glycosides have the same upstream biosynthetic pathway, starting from sesquiterpene components, part of which is converted to sesquiterpene glycosides by the action of UDP-glycosyltransferase, and part of which is further synthesized to alkaloids. Therefore, sesquiterpene UDP-glycosyltransferases play an important role in the biosynthesis of alkaloids and sesquiterpene glycosides in D. nobile. In this study, the key glycosyltransferase genes in sesquiterpene glycosylation in D. nobile were explored, predicted and validated by transcriptome technology.
  • Effect of environmental factors on the polysaccharide content of Dendrobium officinale Original Article

    TAN, Daopeng; ZENG, Yao; WANG, Jiangmei; LU, Yanliu; SUN, Shudong; QIN, Lin; HE, Yuqi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dendrobium officinale is a traditional Chinese medicine and nourishing food in China. Polysaccharide content was used as a criterion for evaluating the quality of D. officinale. At present, epiphytic cultivation is the main cultivation method of D. officinale in China. In the present study, D. officinale was collected under various growing conditions to compare its polysaccharide content in an attempt to discover the most favorable growing conditions for D. officinale, which can be used to guide the artificial cultivation production of D. officinale.
  • Effect on myofibrillar protein gelation induced by eugenol modification under oxidative stress Original Article

    AN, Ning; ZHAO, Mou; DONG, Juan; HAN, Ping; LI, Jiamei; ZHANG, Shuyao; WANG, Qingling; LU, Shiling; JI, Hua

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effects of eugenol (Eu) at different concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, 200, and 300 μM/g protein) on the gel properties and chemical structure changes of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP). The results showed that Eu inhibited the increase of surface hydrophobicity and carbonyl content but did not prevent the oxidation-induced loss of thiol groups. Moreover, Eu intensified the loss of the α-helical conformation as well as the tertiary structure of MP under oxidative stress. The physicochemical changes at 10 and 50 μM/g Eu resulted in a significant enhancement of the gelling ability of MP and enhanced the positive role of oxidation in building elastic gel networks. Conversely, Eu at the concentrations of 100, 200, and 300 μM/g was not conducive to gelling ability, especially at 300 μM/g, and these concentrations were associated with Eu-induced protein conformational changes.
  • Study on the relationship between raw material characteristics of soybean protein concentrate and textured vegetable protein quality Original Article

    MENG, Xue-Yan; ZHU, Xue-Qing; AN, Hong-Zhou; YANG, Jia-Fei; DAI, Hui-Hui

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To investigate which protein properties affect the quality of high moisture textured vegetable protein (HTVP), we compared 12 commercial Soy Protein Concentrate (SPC). The comparison revealed that characteristics of different SPCs vary greatly, significant impact on the quality of extrusion products. There were significant differences in the degree of texturization, textural properties, and the sensory score of products. Statistical correlation analysis between SPC raw materials and products showed that the quality of products was significantly affected by the nitrogen solubility index (NSI), water holding capacity (WHC), emulsifying properties (EAI), foaming capacity (FC), gel strength, and sulfhydryl content of SPC raw materials. Our research provides a way to stabilize extrusion product quality.
  • Biological, physicochemical and antibacterial properties of pure honey harvested at the municipality of Seraïdi (Annaba, north east of Algeria) Original Article

    CHETTOUM, Ahmed; FEKNOUS, Nesrine; BOUMENDJEL, Mahieddine; MEKHANCHA, Djamel-Eddine; BOUDIDA, Yasmine; SEDARI, Abdelmoumen; BERREDJEM, Anissa; ATI, Hanène; ZAIDI, Khaled; BOUMENDJEL, Amel; MESSARAH, Mahfoud

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of our work is to assess physicochemical and antibacterial potential of two local honeys compared with two imported honeys. A carbohydrate profile was carried out by HPLC. All honeys are acid and the free acidity of Zriba (36 ± 13 méq.kg-1), Sidi Achour (36.66 ± 0.57 méq.kg-1) were in standards well above those of imported honey: San Francisco (7 méq.kg-1), Elshifa (20 méq.kg-1). Refractive index complied with the standards. Sidi Achour honey was denser (1.4206) than the others. Ash content of local honey (0.76 ± 0.07) and imported honey San Francisco (0.72 ± 0.57) were higher than those of Zriba honey (0.41 ± 0.08) and Elshifa (0.25 ± 0.038). All honeys had a sucrose content within the standard. Local honey contained Trehalose and melezitose, and richer in fructose and raffinose, F & G and maltose levels were consistent with standards. Sidi Achour contained the highest turanose content (2.15 ± 0.49%) relative to the studied honey samples. Antibacterial activity showed that all honeys have antibacterial potential when they are pure. Sidi Achour was active against E.coli (24 ± 6.08 mm), S.enteritidis (26.33 ± 1.15 mm), S.aureus (19.66 ± 0.57 mm), B.cereus (13.33 ± 8.73 mm) and E.faecalis (15 ± 1 mm). Zriba honey showed the same antibacterial honey except for B.cereus (7.66 ± 2.88 mm). The imported honeys were active on the growth of only three bacteria: E.coli, S.enteritidis and S.aureus.
  • Effects of different cold sterilization techniques on physicochemical and flavor quality of low salt sliced bacon Original Article

    ZHANG, Yunqi; SUN, Meng; HUANG, Yechuan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The effects of irradiation, ultrahigh pressure and ultraviolet combined coating (UV-coating) on physicochemical, microbial, sensory and volatile flavor compounds of low salt sliced bacon under their optimal sterilization conditions were investigated to explore the most suitable treatment for this product. The results indicated that the sterilization effect of irradiation and ultrahigh pressure was better than that of UV-coating treatment, and the nitrite content of the three treatments was far lower than the Chinese standard limit. The effect of irradiation treatment on the structure of sliced bacon was considered to be the lowest, but it promoted fat oxidation and the formation of sulfur compounds, which in turn affected the flavor. The ultrahigh pressure treatment could improve the water-holding capability and taste feeling, meanwhile remain the color as well as the composition and relative content of the main aromatic compounds such as aldehydes, phenols and hydrocarbons closest to blank group. UV-coating treatment could significantly increase moisture content, block oxygen and raise color, while its sterilization effect was poor and the sour was heavier, easily to affect the edible quality of the product. Therefore, the ultrahigh pressure process was considered as the best according to the sterilization ability and flavor quality.
  • Effect of superfine-grinding on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Dendrobium nobile powders Original Article

    JIA, Xiaohuan; LI, Lei; TAN, Daopeng; WU, Faming; HE, Yuqi; QIN, Lin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In herbal markets, an overwhelming majority the Dendrobium nobile are sold in dried strips form, and this product type would lead to the incomplete release of the active ingredient. To increase the bioaccessibility of Dendrobium nobile, we obtained powders of different particle sizes by shear-breaking and superfine-grinding to further compare its sensory properties, physical properties, the leaching rate of active ingredients and antioxidant activity in vitro. The results showed that the superfine-grinding changed the sensory properties and physical properties of Dendrobium nobile, with an increase in bulk density, a decrease in swelling capacity and water-holding capacity and an increase in water solubility index. The method also contributed to the release of total polysaccharides, dendrobine, total polyphenols and total flavonoids components, thereby increasing ABTS, DPPH and nitrite ion scavenging activity. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that superfine-grinding had no effect on the primary structure of the fractions as with decreasing particle size. This study suggested that superfine-grinding could be a promising method for producing Dendrobium nobile powders with higher contents of bioactive compounds and bioactivity.
  • Isolation, identification, and fermentation characteristics of endogenous lactic acid bacteria derived from edible mushrooms Original Article

    NIE, Yuanyang; LI, Wenhao; AL-MAQTARI, Qais Ali; NAN, Haijuan; LI, Bo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A total of 83 acid-producing strains were isolated from fresh Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus abalones, and Pleurotus citrinopileatus by CaCO3-MRS plate medium. These 83 strains were divided into 9 species, including 52 strains of Lactococcus lactis, 13 strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, 8 strains of Enterococcus faecium, 3 strains of Lactococcus garvieae, 2 strains of Enterococcus casseliflavus, 2 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, 1 strain of Enterococcus lactis, 1 strain of Pediococcus acidilactici, and 1 strain of Lactobacillus pentosus based on the catalase test, Gram staining, and 16S rDNA molecular identification. Among these P. acidilactici, P. pentosus, and L. plantarum could be used in food. P. acidilactici had a strong acid-producing capacity and fast growth rate, thus showing preferable fermentation characteristics in MRS broth and edible mushroom medium than P. pentosus and L. plantarum. In the medium of L. edodes, P. eryngii, and F. velutipes, the best sensory state can be reached within 12-24 h, among them P. eryngii had the best fermentation effect, which was characterized by uniform and bright color, moderate acidity, good flavor, and tight tissue state. This study investigated the types and fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) derived from edible mushrooms, enriched the resources of LAB suitable for the fermentation, and provided a theoretical reference for the application of LAB fermentation technology of edible mushrooms.
  • Socioeconomic analysis of bioproducts derived from babassu nut breakers pyrolysis in legal amazonia communities Original Article

    PIRES, Patrícia Silva; BORGES, Mariana de Souza; LEAL, José Eustáquio Canguçu; PEDROZA, Marcelo Mendes; SILVA, Flamys Lena do Nascimento; GRÁCIO, Héber Rogério; RAMBO, Michele Cristiane Diel; RAMBO, Magale Karine Diel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass residues can generate interesting materials for the chemical and food industries. Physical activation processes were developed by cold pressing and slow pyrolysis, as well as physical chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCl2), to produce bio-based products, including bio-oil (30%) and biochar (31%), with good yields. Charcoal and biooil provided good results, respectively, with regard to adsorption capacity (357 m2 g-1 of surface area BET) and the possibility of extracting chemical compounds (phenols with 45.81% and aldehydes with 32.76%). Moreover, the key economic performance indicators of the process were analyzed, and the results indicate that the proposed process is economically feasible and attractive with $422,416.10 profits. Finally, after dialoguing with the babassu nut breakers and understanding their needs, the feasibility of economically developing the contacted families through technology transfer for extracting the oil, cake, biochar, and bio-oil from babassu coconuts was studied, demonstrating the possibility of income generation based on the profitability achieved in this study.
  • Analysis of microbial and metabolic diversity in Jiangshui from Northwest China Original Article

    ZHANG, Haiyan; XIANG, Shuya; ZHAI, Ru; LI, Xuyang; HU, Mingzhen; WANG, Tong; ZHANG, Huiling; PAN, Lin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Jiangshui is a traditional fermented food in Northwest China with high nutritional value and special pharmacological effects. To study the microbial community structure and differences in the main metabolic pathways and metabolites in naturally fermented Jiangshui, the microbial diversity and nontargeted metabolomics analyses were performed on 18 samples of Jiangshui from three different production areas, namely, Tianshui, Gansu, Guyuan, Ningxia, and Ankang, Shaanxi. First, the microbial diversity was analyzed using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Lactobacillus was the dominant bacterial genus in the three regions, and the relative abundance of the samples in each region ranged from 72.69% to 99.95%. The dominant fungal genus was Dipodascus, with a relative abundance > 40%. Second, untargeted metabolomics was used to analyze the differences among metabolites in Jiangshui samples. Significant differences were found in 761 different metabolites detected in Jiangshui from the three different regions. Based on ESI+, 78 significantly different metabolites were screened using variable importance projection (VIP) value > 1, fold change (FC) < 1, and P-value < 0.05. Finally, based on joint analysis, the microbiome and metabolite groups of Jiangshui samples from the three different regions were evenly and closely clustered, and the microorganisms and metabolites were highly correlated. The results provide theoretical basis and reference for Jiangshui in other regions.
  • Mixed flour of wheat and Acrocomia: technological quality and shelf life Original Article

    OLIVEIRA, Letícia da Silva; DONADON, Juliana Rodrigues; MONTENEGRO, Flávio Martins; GUIMARÃES, Rita de Cássia Avellaneda; POTT, Arnildo; CAMPOS, Raquel Pires; BOGO, Danielle; NASCIMENTO, Valter Aragão do; HIANE, Priscila Aiko

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The mixed wheat and bocaiuva (Acrocomia totai) flour allow the development of new products to meet the consumer demand for foods with a healthy and functional appeal. Our study aimed to evaluate the physical-chemical and rheological quality of mixed flours during storage. Mixed flours with 10 and 20% replacement of wheat flour with bocaiuva flour were conditioned in impermeable films to water vapor, oxygen and light and stored at ambient temperature for up to 120 days. Flours were submitted to periodical physical-chemical and rheological analyses. Moisture stayed within the legal limit, and water activity was considered adequate to inhibit microbial growth. Titrable acidity increased in the first 30 days of storage. Adding 20% of bocaiuva to the wheat flour enriched the mixture with twice the carotenoids and higher total phenol content. The bioactive compounds showed a slight reduction during storage. The mixed flour can be indicated for elaborating bread, loaf, pasta, cakes and biscuits. The falling numbers point to the need for correcting the flour by adding enzymes to produce fermented foods.
  • Goat milk concentrated by nanofiltration: flow decline modeling and characterization Original Article

    CANELLA, Maria Helena Machado; AREND, Giordana Demaman; SOARES, Lenilton Santos; PLOÊNCIO, Leandro Antunes de Sá; MOLOGNONI, Luciano; DAGUER, Heitor; ESMERINO, Erick Almeida; SILVA, Ramon; HERNANDEZ, Eduard; PRUDENCIO, Elane Schwinden

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The skimmed goat milk was submitted to the nanofiltration process using a volume reduction factor (VRF) equal to 2. It was verified a rapid decrease of the permeate flux at a low time, with a continuous flux, caused by the reversible resistance, which is characterized by the standard and complete blocking. The combined fouling model was evaluated, including complete pore blocking and cake filtration mechanism, which described the skimmed goat milk nanofiltration behavior. For the VRF equal to 2 was determined the total solids, protein, lactose, ash, mineral fraction content, which increased successfully with the nanofiltration process. The Power Law and Herschel-Buckley models were fitting to describe the flow behavior for retentate, which presented the higher apparent viscosity.
  • Quality assessment of fermented soybeans: physicochemical, bioactive compounds and biogenic amines Original Article

    LIU, Xu; WANG, Jun; XU, Zihan; SUN, Jianfeng; LIU, Yaqiong; XI, Xiaoli; MA, Yanli

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this research, a total of 47 samples from five types of fermented soybeans were selected. The physicochemical parameters, biogenic amines (BAs) and bioactive compounds such as isoflavones, total phenolic (TPC) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were investigated. The results showed that the contents of isoflavones ranged from 598.06 mg/kg to 2725.03 mg/kg in all samples and it varied from 598.96 mg/kg to 2241.67 mg/kg in Semen Sojae Preparatum (SSP) which was higher than other types of fermented soybeans. The maximum variation of GABA content was found in Aspergillus-type douchi (AD) samples. The maximum value of TPC in SSP was 4.53 g/kg. For BAs, the indicator of spoilage, 4.26% of fermented soybeans samples may lead to histamine poisoning and 42.55% of samples with total BAs contents exceeding 100 mg/kg may be harmful to human body. It indicated that different types of fermented soybeans had various bioactive compounds and BAs, so different fermented soybeans could be selected according to bioactive substances. This finding could provide comprehensive information of health beneficial compounds and BAs risks of fermented soybeans. It could guide consumers to select healthy, nutritious and safety fermented soybeans.
  • Effects of different koji on aroma components of Rice Wine Original Article

    YAN, Zhenmin; LV, Linling; LUO, Huimin; JIN, Zhong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aroma composition is critical to the quality of rice wine. In order to clarify the effect of different koji on the aroma components of rice wine. The Yuanyang rice was selected as raw material, and three kinds of rice wine koji were added during rice wine fermentation. The aroma components of three wine samples fermented at 31 °C for nine days were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that a total of 81 aroma components were detected in the three groups of wine samples, including 30 esters, 18 alcohols, 4 acids and 29 other organic substances. The ester with the most content was ethyl palmitic acid, and the alcohol with the most content was ethanol. Therefore, the amount and type of esters, the ratio and interaction among esters, alcohols and acids in wine play an important role in the sensory quality of rice wine, and the joint action of various aroma components affects the quality of rice wine.
  • Kinetic evaluation and optimization of the drying process of 3D printed pasta: key factors influence on the finished product quality Original Article

    MARTEKHA, Alexander Nikolaevich; KAVERINA, Yuliya Evgenievna

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The object of study was pasta obtained as a result of 3D printing. This research was aimed to the application of the drying process as a tool to improve pasta 3D printing quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the drying process operating parameters and to find their optimal values to ensure the quality of pasta obtained by 3D printing. Hot air and infrared drying was used to heat the extruded product locally. The response surface methodology was applied for the drying process optimization. Heating power, processing time and distance from the heating source were chosen as the main variables influencing the drying process. The maximum product weight loss combined with the maximum temperature below 100 °C during the entire processing time constituted an optimization challenge. The use of infrared drying was advantageous when processing a layer of pasta dough several millimeters thick and resulted in a drier and harder surface. With a processing time of 1.5 min, the heating power was 2 units, and the distance from the support to the heating source was 1.77 cm. The noted values of the independent variables for the response function can be considered optimal.
  • The use of remote sensing, ground survey and the yield mapping system in the conditions of northern Kazakhstan for food production and food security Original Article

    ABUOVA, Altynay; TULKUBAYEVA, Saniya; TULAYEV, Yuriy; SOMOVA, Svetlana; SIDORIK, Alexandr; HUNGER, Olga; ZINCHENKO, Alyona; VYKHODTSEV, Vladimir

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Food security is among the most important aspects of our physical health; it is necessary to live a full and peaceful life. Food security is a wide term that encompasses more than crop production since it necessitates taking into consideration geographical and temporal variability, along with economic and physical availability. Drought and salt stress are two major variables that restrict agricultural yield. These pressures are expected to worsen as a result of climate change, posing even greater threats to global food security. Earth remote sensing (ERS) using unmanned aerial vehicles is operational monitoring of the state of fields, the quality of processing of fallow lands; provides control of the degree of weediness of fields during the period of spring fieldwork, which makes it possible to rationally distribute agricultural machinery for closing moisture, intermediate treatments and pre-sowing chemical treatments sowing quality control; monitoring the vegetation index makes it possible to construct effective schemes for plant feeding, as well as effectively distribute agricultural machinery during the harvesting period, depending on the degree of crop maturation. The yield mapping system allows evaluating the effectiveness of precision agriculture techniques, making it possible to accumulate data on productivity zones, considering the actual yield.
  • Effect of spray-drying conditions on the physical and antioxidant properties of a hydrolysate from red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) viscera Original Article

    SEPÚLVEDA RINCÓN, Cindy; VÁSQUEZ, Priscilla; ZAPATA MONTOYA, José

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Fish hydrolysates have become one of the most remarkable sources of bioactive peptides. However, the processing conditions for incorporating hydrolysates into food matrices can affect their bioactive performance. The effect of temperature and pH on the radical scavenging activity of tilapia hydrolysate was determined in the wet hydrolysate. Also, a central composite design was used to study the effect of the drying conditions on moisture, drying ratio, productivity, drying rate, and antioxidant activity in the tilapia hydrolysate. The results showed that the hydrolysate has high activity at acidic and neutral pH; but at pH 10, the activity decreases significantly. In the spray-drying process, the antioxidant activity was higher at 115 °C. Moreover, inlet air temperature and feed flow had a statistically significant effect (p < 0.05) on response variables. High inlet air temperature and fast feed flow decrease the moisture of the powder hydrolysate and increase the drying rate and antioxidant activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed liquid bridges between particles with irregular concavities or pores on the surface and the presence of particle agglomerations due to the hygroscopicity of the hydrolysate.
  • Evaluating the recovery of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of unripe red grape liquid extracts obtained by maceration Original Article

    MUKHAMETOV, Almas; PALIIVETS, Maxim; BERECHIKIDZE, Iza; SERIKKYZY, Mira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This paper evaluates the results of extracting bioactive compounds using modern maceration technology, which transforms food products into a liquid extract, based on the example of unripe grapes and its by-product called verjuice. During the extraction process, the indicators of niacin and pyridoxine remained stable, while pantothenic acid and choline increased significantly. During the extraction, the extraction system produced 712 kg of liquid extract, which was characterized by a high content of phenolic compounds and water-soluble vitamins, as well as a high antioxidant activity compared to the measurement obtained for green juice from unripe grapes. Since the estimated liquid extract yield from 950 kg of crushed immature grapes is 847 kg, the actual liquid extract yield was about 80%. The advantages of the maceration extraction method included avoiding the use of solvents or preservatives, low temperature treatment and little oxidative damage. Besides, it enabled enhancing the extraction yield due to introduction of certain post-extraction steps.
  • Effect of trehalose and butterfly pea (Clitoris ternatea L.) on physicochemical characteristics of drum dried milk powder Original Article

    IKRAWAN, Yusep; RUKMANA, Jaka; YELLIANTTY,; HARIADI, Hari; HIDAYAT,; RAHMAWATI, Laila

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Trehalose and Telang-Pea (Clitoris ternatea L.) which are used as fillers for Telang-Yellow milk powder. This study used a randomized block design, 3x3 factorial, and 2 replications. Trehalose concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%) and t butterfly pea flower concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 1.5%) were research factors. The results of this study included water content, antioxidant activity, viscosity, yield, solubility, dissolution time, hygroscopicity, color intensity, and preference for taste, color, aroma and after taste. The results showed that water content, hygroscopicity, dissolution time, solubility, yield, pH value, color, and hedonic assessment of taste, color, aroma, and aftertaste were affected by trehalose and eggplant concentrations. The best organoleptic results were obtained with t1b2 samples (0.5% trehalose and 15% Butterfly Pea). The best treatment was the t3b3 treatment with the results of the analysis of water content 2.86%, hygroscopicity 7.15%, amendment 20.00%, soluble time 29.13%, solubility 83.98%, pH 6.72, antioxidant activity 557.77 ppm, color intensity *L 48.01, *a 4.73 and *b 6.10.
  • Research of rheological characteristics of mayonnaise with different varieties of honey added Original Article

    BREDIKHIN, Sergey Alekseevich; ANDREEV, Vladimir Nikolaevich; MARTEKHA, Alexander Nikolaevich; TOROPTSEV, Vasily Vladimirovich

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Determination of food products rheological properties is becoming more and more important for assessing raw materials and finished products quality, as well as for predicting a semi-finished product behavior during processing. The influence of honey variety, rotor speed and homogenization time on mayonnaise rheological properties were studied in this work. The following honey varieties were used: acacia, linden, forest, spring. Refined sunflower oil was used to make mayonnaise. The mechanical process of mayonnaise homogenization was carried out at a rotor speed of 10,000 rpm and 12,000 rpm, for 2 and 4 minutes at room temperature. Mayonnaise with 75% oil phase was prepared according to a traditional recipe without preservatives added. Rheological properties measurements were carried out on a rotary viscometer with concentric cylinders at a temperature of 25 °C. The following parameters were calculated according to the experimental data: apparent viscosity, consistency index and flow index. The research results showed that the type of honey influenced the rheological properties of mayonnaise. They changed as the homogenization process duration and the rotor speed increased. The tested samples of mayonnaise with honey added belong to non-Newtonian systems, a pseudoplastic type of liquid.
  • Comparative gene analysis of beer tolerant and sensitive Lactobacillus brevis Original Article

    ZHAO, Yu; WU, Xiaoya; SIEGUMFELDT, Henrik

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Lactobacillus brevis is the major spoiler in beer, affecting product quality and causing economic losses in breweries. Although several genes involved in beer-spoilage have been identified, there are still unresolved questions about which genes that are associated with growth in beer and the potential roles of these genes. In this study, 21 Lactobacillus brevis strains were tested for beer spoilage potential; three beer-tolerant and three beer-sensitive strains were selected for comparative genomic analysis. One of the tolerant strains was exposed to growth conditions containing novobiocin that favor loss of plasmids, and subsequently became more sensitive to beer as determined by growth experiments. The genetic difference between the wildtype and the sensitive mutant confirmed that the previously identified beer (hop)-tolerance genes horA and hitA, which are usually localized on plasmids, play important roles in beer spoilage. Interestingly, horA and hitA were present in another sensitive strain whereas these genes were absent in another tolerant strain. This indicates that a beer-spoilage phenotype cannot be easily identified from the presence of a few reported beer-spoilage genes. The potential roles of additional genes involved in beer tolerance were discussed, including a ClpX protease and a manganese transporter different from hitA.
  • Extraction of bioactive components on Indonesian seagrass (Syringodium isoetifolium) using green emerging technology Original Article

    SUSILO, Bambang; SETYAWAN, Hendrix Yulis; PRIANTI, Desi Dwi; HANDAYANI, Midia Lestari Wahyu; ROHIM, Abd

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Syringodium isoetifolium was seagrass widely grown on the coast of Indonesia, and was the phytochemical source. This research was conducted to maximalize the extraction of their phytochemicals and bioactive compounds. Firstly, seagrass powder was extracted with different solvent polarities i.e. water, 50% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. Secondly, extraction was continued using different extraction techniques i.e. microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE-Bath system and UAE-Probe system), and conventional with the best solvent. Phytochemicals, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were analyzed on the seagrass extracts. As result, the total phytochemical kind (i.e. terpene, polyphenols, alkaloid, and amino acid derivative groups) in the most dominant was had by 50% ethanol extract. Accordingly, extraction using the UAE-Probe with 50% ethanol as solvent able to obtain the richest bioactive compound, the most damaged cell microstructure, and the strongest antioxidant activity. Interestingly, quercetin was only detected dominant in UAE-Probe extract. Therefore, UAE-Probe with 50% ethanol solvent was the best method for recovering the valuable components in seagrass.
  • Commercial craft beers of midwest Brazil: biochemical and physicochemical properties and their relationship with its sensory profile Original Article

    SANTOS, Daiane Costa dos; SOUSA, Tainara Leal de; SANTANA, Jeisa Farias de Sousa; ALMEIDA, Adrielle Borges de; SILVA, Fabiano Guimarães; EGEA, Mariana Buranelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Faced with changes in eating habits, consumers currently seek to enjoy moderate consumption of healthy food products that results in sensory pleasure. Here, our study aimed to evaluate the biochemical and physicochemical properties and sensory profile of craft beers produced in the Brazilian Midwest region. Our evaluation of the beverages revealed different physicochemical characteristics such as alcohol content, soluble solids, titratable acidity in citric acid, and dry extract percentage, with values ranging between 4.06-6.13%, 5.13-10.98 °Brix, 1.71-3.45%, and 3.38-7.99%, respectively. Moreover, the average density of the beverages was 0.9906 g/cm3. In addition, the antioxidant activity and total phenolic of the beverages ranged between 14.28-20.46 mMol of Trolox/100 mL and 74.84-108.45 mg/100 g, respectively. Phenolic compounds that are essential in human nutrition, such as epicatechin, catechin, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and kaempferol, were identified in the beverages. Regarding the sensory profile of the craft beers, the beers had an average acceptability index of 75.11% for appearance, 70.24% for aroma, 60.43% for flavor, and 73.53% for texture. Our study demonstrated a correlation between chemical composition and acceptability index of beer, indicating a preference for lighter colored, fuller, and less acidic beers.
  • Comparison of physicochemical properties of three types of bamboo shoot powders Original Article

    ZHANG, Wanjia; WANG, Suya; LAN, Man

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Powders were prepared from fresh Phyllostachys pubescens bamboo shoots (P. pubescens), Dendrocalamopsis oldhami bamboo shoots (D.oldhami) and Dendrocalamus latiflorus bamboo shoots (D.latiflorus), and their physical, chemical, adsorption and powder properties were determined. All three of these powders were high in dietary fiber and protein, with P. pubescens powder containing the highest concentration of dietary fiber (50.34 ± 0.65 g∙100 g-1). The water holding, oil holding, and swelling capacities of this powder were all higher than those of the other two kinds of powders. The P. pubescens powder also showed the highest capacity to adsorb glucose, cholesterol and nitrite. In addition, the measured repose and slip angles of this powder were lower than those of the other two powders, indicative of it having good fluidity. And the bulk density and tap density of this powder were significantly higher than those of the others as well, indicative of its superior filling property.
  • Identification of the active compounds and their mechanisms of medicinal and edible Heigen based on UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS and network pharmacology Original Article

    ZHAO, Qian; DING, Rong; Li, Si; WANG, Chenghui; GU, Rui

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Heigen is the root and rhizomes of Duhaldea Nervosa Anderberg., a traditional medicine food homology herb used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in China,but the potential active components and the underlying mechanism have not been clarified. In this study, the chemical compounds and the components absorbed into the blood from Heigen were assessed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. 72 chemical constituents were identified in Heigen, 13 blood prototypical constituents, and 9 metabolites were found in serum samples after intragastric administration of Heigen extracts to rats. Then, using network pharmacology and molecule docking, 10 compounds were assumed to be potentially key active compounds against RA, which may be via the multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway interaction mechanism of Heigen in the treatment of RA, and also provides a pharmacological basis for the treatment of RA.
  • Effects of variety on quality and taste of spontaneous fermented dried radish Original Article

    ZHOU, Qian; ZHENG, Zimeng; LI, Ling; GAO, Jia; WU, Yanping; YANG, Feng; ZHONG, Kai; GAO, Hong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dried radish is a kind of pickled vegetable product with a unique taste made from radish via traditional solid-state spontaneous fermentation. In this study, the effects of variety on physicochemical indexes, texture properties, and taste substances of spontaneous fermented dried radish were investigated. As a result, processing and fermentation had similar trends for all radish varieties. The pH value decreased slightly, soluble solid increased with the decrease of moisture content, the hardness and chewiness decreased, while the content of organic acids and free amino acids increased. Furthermore, the variety of raw material is the key to affecting product quality and taste. The dried radish processed by the variety P21-25 presents the best texture, the highest content of sweet amino acids, the most abundant component of organic acids, while having the lowest salinity. These results indicated that radish varieties could significantly influence the quality and taste of dried radishes under the same processing and fermentation conditions. These findings reveal the importance of variety selection for the quality and taste of spontaneous fermented dried radish, and provide theoretical support for the processing and application of green radish varieties.
  • Ultrasound-assisted extraction of a condensed tannin and its application for removal dyes from water Original Article

    ZHANG, Xue; PAN, Hongfang; ZHAO, Wei; ZHAO, Fang; ZHANG, Qiang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The woody oil industry generates a large amount of seed shell waste during its production. Therefore, this paper employs a central composite design (CCD) methodology to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction process, thus utilizing the byproduct. The infrared spectrum and thermogravimetric analysis is adopted to explore the chemical structure and thermal stability of tannin. Besides, the tannin resin (TF) is prepared to elaborate its adsorbing performance for dyes in water. The results verify the role of ultrasonic-assisted extraction method in increasing yield rate. The optimal conditions are as follows: 60% ethanol as extraction solvent, the solid-liquid ratio of 1:25 (g/mL), ultrasonic power of 160 W, and extracted at 80oC for 60min. The yield rate of tannin under such conditions stands at 32.04% (w/w). Temperature is vital for the extraction rate. Acer truncatum tannin as a condensed tannin, performs favorable thermal stability, and TF effectively absorbs cationic dye in water. The maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue peaks at 176.13 mg/g. Acer truncatum shell serves as a resource of condensed tannin, and Acer truncatum tannin resin can be potentially developed into a new biomass adsorbent.
  • Comparison of pulse electric field, microwave and ultrasonic pretreatment prior to black rice extraction on antioxidant and sirtuin1 enzyme stimulating activities Original Article

    SALEE, Nuttinee; NARUENARTWONGSAKUL, Srisuwan; CHAIYANA, Wantida; YAWOOTTI, Artit; HUNSAKUL, Kanrawee; TINPOVONG, Bow; UTAMA-ANG, Niramon

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of pulse electric field, microwave, and ultrasonic assisted water extractions on the bioactive compounds in black rice, and their antioxidant and sirtuin1 enzyme stimulating activities. The number of pulses were changed from 1,000 to 2,000 and 3,000 at a constant electric field intensity of 5 kV/cm. Microwave and ultrasonic conditions were followed by 800 W for 20 min and 60 °C for 20 min, respectively. The results found that using pulse electric field with 3,000 pulses and microwave achieved high concentrations of total phenolic compound and cyanidin-3-glucoside with non-significantly difference. Extracts from the pulse electric field with 3,000 pulses showed the significantly highest DPPH scavenging activity (30.83 ± 2.06%) and the sirtuin1 enzyme stimulating activity (27.260 ± 0.418 of fluorescence intensity) when compared with microwave and ultrasonic extractions. Scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed distinct differences between the effects of these methods on the outer surface. The overall results revealed that pulse electric field and microwave were similarly effective at increasing the content of bioactive compounds in extract and their antioxidant activities. However, the pulse electric field was considerably more effective for activating sirtuin1 enzyme activity.
  • Enhancement of bioactive compounds through bioconversion of Oenanthe javanica using Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Original Article

    KIM, Jun Hee; PARK, Jae Hoon; YEOM, Suh Hee; KIM, So Hee; PARK, Ha Young; KANG, Min Ho; KIM, Jin Woo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of bioconverted Oenanthe javanica extract (BOE) using Lactiplantibacillus plantarum SM4 on production of bioactive compounds. Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions including the extraction time, extraction temperature, and ethanol concentration for the enhancement of bioactive compounds production. The predicted optimum UAE conditions were extraction time of 26.0 min, extraction temperature of 92.8 °C, and 59.9% ethanol, respectively, and 5.14 mg GAE/g DM of TPC and 0.59 mg QE/g DM of TFC were produced under the optimum condition. Then, O. javanica extraction (OJE) has been bioconverted by using L. plantarum SM4 to increase the bioactive compounds. In HPLC-mass spectrometry analyses, higher concentration of p-coumaric acid was identified in BOE than in OJE, and chlorogenic acid in OJE was converted to quinic acid, confirming an increase in bioactive compounds by bioconversion. Thus, we have concluded that optimization of UAE and the BOE is an effective process for enhancement bioactive compounds from O. Javanica and this finding provides a scientific basis of bioactive compounds in natural product can be utilized as food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical materials from BOE.
  • Substitution of wheat flour with modified potato starch affects texture properties of dough and the quality of fresh noodles Original Article

    DENG, Chunli; MELNYK, Oksana; LUO, Yanghe

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study was undertaken to investigate the potential effects of wheat flour substitution with potato starch modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMTS) and microwave treatment (MWS) on dough texture properties and on the quality of fresh noodles. The research results showed that the substitution of wheat flour with HMTS or MWS altered the texture and tensile properties of dough and cooked fresh noodles. Moreover, the dough tensile properties of resistance to extension and extensibility were extremely significant positive correlated with the cooked fresh noodles tensile properties of tensile strength and elasticity. The optimal cooking time of fresh noodles was significantly decreased (P value < 0.05) with the increase incorporation of HMTS or MWS. The dry matter water absorption rate and loss rate of dry matter significantly increased with the increase of substitution amount of HMTS and MWS. When the incorporation amount of HMTS was less than 30% and the incorporation amount of MWS was less than 20%, the noodles could maintain good organoleptic and cooking quality attributes. More than 30% of HMTS or 20% MWS will deform the noodles and cause breakage. Therefore, the maximum incorporation of HMTS or MWS should be 30%, 20%, respectively.
  • Structural and functional properties of two phenolic acid-chitosan derivatives and their application in the preservation of Saimaiti apricot fruit Original Article

    YAN, Yingying; LI, Fangjie; GU, Chengzhi; SUN, Jiaying; HAN, Yaru; HUANGFU, Zhaoqing; SONG, Fangyuan; CHEN, Jiluan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study, we incorporated gallic acid (GA) and salicylic acid (SA) onto chitosan (CS) using free radical grafting initiated by hydrogen peroxide/Vitamin C (H2O2/Vc) redox system. We characterized the structural properties of the GA (CS-GA) and SA (CS-SA) derivatives using UV–vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and thermal stability analysis. We proved that these phenolic acids were successfully grafted onto the molecular skeleton of CS. We investigated the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of CS-GA and CS-SA and found that they had significantly higher antioxidant and antibacterial properties than native CS. Furthermore, the antioxidant ability increased with the increase in grafting ratios. Finally, in vivo tests showed that CS-GA could maintain the firmness and the content of soluble solids and titratable acids in Saimaiti apricots at cool storage. The storage period was prolonged by inhibiting the respiratory intensity of apricots. Our results suggest that CS-GA can be potentially used as an edible coating material to preserve apricots.
  • Effects of increasing dietary sodium selenite and selenium yeast levels on growth performance, meat quality and muscle anti-oxidative capacity of broilers Original Article

    ZHAO, Xiangmin; XIN, Keqi; SUN, Likun; QIN, Shizhen; LIU, Wangjing; REN, Chunyan; TANG, Defu

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of dietary sodium selenite and selenium (Se) yeast levels on growth performance, meat quality and muscle anti-oxidative capacity of broilers. A total of 360 1-day-old Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 6 weeks. Diets (corn-soybean meal based diets) were supplemented with 0 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg and 0.6 mg/kg sodium selenium, and 0.3 mg/kg and 0.6 mg/kg selenium yeast, respectively. The results showed that Feed/Gain was significantly decreased with the increase of Se supplemental level during day 1-21 (P < 0.05), and body weight gain and Feed/Gain of broilers were improved with the increase of Se supplemental level by day 22 to 42 (P < 0.05). The dietary Se levels significantly affected the a*, cohesion, adhesion, chewing and recovery values of meat as well (P < 0.05). Se supplementation in diets also increased DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and SOD, but significantly decreased TBARS and POV values compared to control (P < 0.05). The biological utilization rates of organic Se against inorganic Se were 116.0%, 123.1%, 109.7%, 109.8%, and 135.2%, respectively. The present results supported that organic Se was more bio-available and more effective in terms of growth performance, meat quality, muscle antioxidant and organ deposition efficiency compared to inorganic selenium. Therefore, the addition of 0.6 mg/kg selenium yeast (SY) during broiler breeding was the most effective.
  • Effects of Cirsium setidens extract on gene expression related to apoptosis induction and metastasis inhibition in human breast cancer Original Article

    PARK, Jae Hoon; KIM, Jun Hee; OH, Ye Sol; LEE, Eun Jae; HONG, Ji Woo; KIM, Jin Woo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cell apoptosis induction and metastasis suppression in human breast cancer cell, MDA-MB-231, were studied to assess the potential of Cirsium setidens extract (CSE) on breast cancer treatment. Cell viability and metastasis analysis using MDA-MB-231 confirmed CSE significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of cancer cell without suppressing normal cell growth in the range of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL of CSE. To analyze the anticancer effect of CSE, the expressions of major genes related to in the apoptosis, including p53, AMPK-α, Bcl-2, and Bax were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expressions of AMPK-α, p53, and Bax increased by 45, 43, and 68%, respectively, while the expression of Bcl-2 decreased by 12%, showing that CSE treatment induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231. The major compound of CSE was identified as rhoifolin, a type of flavone, through analysis using LC-MS/MS. Our findings confirmed that rhoifolin, known to possess a variety of significant biological activities, could be obtained from C. setidens and used as an effective natural compound to suppress breast cancer.
  • Antioxidant activity of Oenanthe stolonifera D.C extract and AMPK activation on human liver cancer cells by anticancer effects Original Article

    KIM, Jun Hee; PARK, Ha Young; KANG, Min Ho; YEOM, Suh Hee; PARK, Jae Hoon; KIM, Jin Woo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of Oenanthe stolonifera D.C extract (OJE) on Hep3B, a human liver cancer cell, and identify the anticancer mechanisms. When treated with 1.0 mg/mL of OJE in HEK-293 and HEP3B to test the anticancer effect based on cell viability and mobility, the extract showed no growth inhibitory effect on HEK-293, while Hep3B's cell viability and mobility significantly decreased to 62.5% and 48.6%, respectively. The RNA expression levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein-53 (p53), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which are key genes of carcinogenesis, were examined to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effect. OJE downregulated COX-2 and increased the expression of cancer suppressors AMPK and p53 in a concentration-dependent manner. HPLC analysis was conducted to quantify secondary metabolites in OJE, and 0.50 mg/g DM of chlorogenic acid was identified as the main substance. Therefore, Oenanthe stolonifera D.C containing bioactive substances is valuable as a natural source for anticancer agent in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
  • Study on the enrichment of palmitoleic acid in Sn-2 monoester from sea-buckthorn fruit oil Original Article

    LI, Ying; LEE, Xiangjun; GUO, Jianfeng; FENG, Jingjing; XU, Chenshuai; BAI, Yujie; GUO, Shiwei; WANG, Fang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7, POA), a 16-carbon ω-7 monounsaturated functional fatty acid, has been demonstrated a variety of beneficial properties to human health and a wide range of applications in nutrition, medical and chemical industries. Lipozyme® RM IM (Rhizomucor Miehei lipase), a Sn-1,3 specific lipase, was used to catalyze the hydrolysis of seabuckthorn fruit oil and produce monoglycates rich in palmitoleic acid. The fruit oil of seabuckthorn was used as the research object, the dosage of enzyme taking 10% wt.% oil, the influence of water/oil ratio, pH value and reaction temperature to hydrolysis rate were investigated, and then the response surface methodology was applied for optimizing the process conditions. Further, the relationship between the hydrolysis rate and the content of monoacylglycerol was studied under the optimal hydrolysis conditions. The result indicated that the optimal combined condition is as follows: the reaction temperature is 55°C, the pH is 7, the water-oil quality ratio is 1:1. The hydrolysis rate achieved 79.59% within 12 h in the condition above. Under the optimal conditions, the hydrolysis rate was positively correlated with the content of monoester, and the correlation coefficient was 0.999 within the first 10 h of the reaction. The hydrolysis rate was 66.76% at 10 h, and the content of monoglyceride reached the highest of 61.11%. Hereafter, the hydrolysis of monoglyceride began if the reaction continued. The content of palmitoleic acid increased from 27.11% to 40.84%, and that of linoleic acid increased from 4.51% to 33.34%, so the total amount of the two functional fatty acids reached 74.18%. Enzymatic hydrolysis can be an effective way to improve the function of seabuckthorn fruit oil.
  • In vitro role of biosynthesized nanosilver from Allium sativum against helminths Original Article

    TONI, Nada Ahmed Dahi; ABD ELMONEEM, Shahd Ashraf; GIRGIS, Julia Reda Amin; HUSSEIN, Arwa Wael; THAGFAN, Felwa Abdullah; ABDEL-GABER, Rewaida; ALI, Sheriene Esssam; MAREY, Amal Marzouk; AL-NAJJAR, Mohammad Ahmad Abdellatif; ALKHUDHAYRI, Abdulsalam; DKHIL, Mohamed Abdelmonem

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The exploration of natural materials for the production of nanoparticles against parasites is currently of particular interest due to its ecofriendly nature. In this study, we described the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles derived from methanolic garlic extract. Infrared spectroscopy and GC-Mass spectrometry were used to screen the phytochemical composition of garlic and figure out how much of active components. In this study, Allium sativum extract (ASE) and ASE loaded in silver nanoparticles (Bio-AgNPs) were used to treat helminthiasis in vitro. Three doses of ASE (100, 50 and 25 mg/mL) and three doses of Bio-AgNPs (1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg/mL) were used to study the anthelmintic activity using the earthworm, Allolobophora caliginosa. Also, Albendazole was used as a reference drug. The Bio-AgNPs exhibits IC50 of 3.2 µg/mL which indicates their lower toxicity in normal cell lines. The phytochemical screening using GC mass showed the presence of many active compounds with medicinal activities. Both ASE and Bio-AgNPs posses’ anthelmintic activities by inducing paralysis and death in a time dependent manner when compared to the reference drug, Albendazole. Collectively, nanosilver manufactured from A. sativum extract properly functions as an anthelmintic agent and can quickly and dose-dependently kill worms.
  • Biological activities of Persea americana: in vitro and in vivo studies Original Article

    AL-OTAIBI, Tahani; HAWSAH, Maysar Abu; ALOJAYRI, Ghada; Al-SHAEBI, Esam Mohamed; DKHIL, Mohamed Abdelmonem; THAGFAN, Felwa; Elkhadragy, Manal Fawzy; AL-QURAISHY, Saleh; ABDEL-GABER, Rewaida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Natural resources emerge as an essential and alternative tool for controlling parasitic agents. The present study was carried out to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effect of Persea americana fruit extract (PAFE) on helminthiasis and coccidiosis. In vitro, anthelmintic activity was performed using PAFE against Allolobophora caliginose. PAFE elicited significant anthelmintic activity comparable to mebendazole with the lesser time taken to paralysis and death for 200 mg/mL. In vitro anticoccidial activity of PAFE, amprolium, phenol, DettolTM, and formalin were studied after incubation with unsporulated oocysts. PAFE was able to significantly inhibit oocyst sporulation in a dose-dependent manner. A total 35 male mice were divided into seven groups. At day 0, all groups except first and second groups were infected with 1×103 E. papillata. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 served as uninfected-treated one. Group 3 was considered an infected-untreated group. After 60 min of infection, groups 4, 5, and 6 were treated with PAFE. Group 7 was treated with amprolium. However, not at par with amprolium, PAFE showed a good anticoccidial activity adjudged based on a significant change in body weight gain, feed intake, oocysts output, and content of carbohydrates and protein. Therefore, PAFE exhibits powerful anthelmintic and anticoccidial effects.
  • Jujube defect recognition method based on boosted convolutional neural network Original Article

    DONG, Chenchen; PANG, Mao; CAO, Miaolong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to solve the problem of difficult and slow identification of jujube defects, a convolutional neural network model based on boosted EfficientNetv2 was proposed by taking the dry, cracked, broken and normal jujube in jujube as the research object. First, optimize the model structure, and set of the first Fused_MBConv in EfficientNetv2 3*3 convolution improved to parallel 1*1 convolution, 3*3 convolution and two serial 3*3 convolution. With reference to the CSPNet idea, one part of the convolved feature map in the MBConv module is directly spliced across channels, the other part is output through the dense block through the transition layer, and then spliced with the feature map in the first part; Then, the original Swish activation function is replaced by the optimal FReLU activation function; Finally, the Coordinate Attention module is introduced to embed the position information into the channel attention to optimize the model. The experimental results showed that the recognition rates of dry jujube, cracked jujube, broken jujube and normal jujube were 95.32%, 98.79%, 98.19% and 97.81% respectively, and the average recognition rate was 97.39%. Compared with other algorithms, the model has faster speed and higher recognition accuracy for defective jujube.
  • Construction of engineered bifunctional enzymes to improve the production of kaempferol in an in vitro synthetic biosystem Original Article

    ZHANG, Zhiping; XU, Lin; DING, Li; NIE, Yesen; ZHAO, Chenhong; ZHANG, Xinyue

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Kaempferol, an important flavonol, has numerous health-beneficial bioactivities and possesses a great potential for application in medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. To improve the production of kaempferol in an in vitro synthetic biosystem, we designed and constructed a panel of bifunctional enzymes by fusing the flavanone 3-hydroxylase (AtF3H) and the flavonol synthase (AtFLS1) of Arabidopsis thaliana with different orientation and different peptide linker type and length. By comparing the output of kaempferol, we obtained a highly active bifunctional enzyme AtF3H-(GGGGS)2-AtFLS1 with a Km value of 0.129 ± 0.016 mM. After optimization of a series of reaction parameters, kaempferol was produced at 100.54 ± 0.54 mg/L, the currently highest kaempferol output in an in vitro synthetic biosystem, and the substrate conversion rate was 68.26% ± 0.05%. In addition, we observed substrate inhibition for the AtFLS1, which eventually limited the production of kaempferol. This study provides a highly active biocatalyst for production of kaempferol and an insight into biosynthesis of other valuable molecules.
  • Preparation and application of carboxymethylated and phosphatised Melaleuca polysaccharide Original Article

    YAN, You-Yu; XU, Chang-Yuan; YUAN, Shuai; SHI, Lu-Ying; ZHANG, Xi-Feng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Polysaccharides are a class of biological macromolecules made up of sugar chains with multiple glycosidic bonds. To explore the extracted, purified, carboxymethylated and phosphorylated modified to obtained carboxymethylated polysaccharides (HSPS) and phosphorylated polysaccharides (HSPP), and the HSPS and HSPP were characterized and analyzed, and their antioxidant activity measured. Response surface design was used for the synthesis process of HSPS and HSPP, the structure characterization and antioxidant activities of HSPS and HSPP were evaluated. The results showed that the Mw and Mn of HSP were 14.66 kDa and 8.39 kDa, respectively. The monosaccharides were mainly galactose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 37.68%: 24.43%: 13.63%: 9.18%. The optimal synthesis conditions for HSPS were as follows: reaction time of 2.01 h, reaction temperature of 44.61°C and the amount of monochloroacetic acid necessary was 1.18 g. The optimal synthesis conditions for HSPP were: reaction time of 4.28 h, reaction temperature of 80.78°C, and reaction pH of 8.98. HSPS and HSPP have scavenging effects on ABTS, super oxideanion and hydroxyl radicals. The HSPS and HSPP were characterized and analyzed, and their antioxidant activity measured.
  • Comparative study on the edible quality and protein digestibility of diced chicken with mushroom from Prefabricated product and traditional cooked Original Article

    CHAO, Yuchao; SUN, Lingxia; NIU, Mengyuan; HUANG, Zhongmin; LI, Miaoyun; ZHAO, Gaiming; PAN, Zhili

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The diced chicken with mushroom was taken as the research object to investigate the differences in quality and protein digestion characteristics between traditional (TD) cooked and prefabricated (ST) product. The results showed that compared to TD cooked, the acceptability and flavor of sensory evaluation of ST product decreased significantly, while the taste and chewiness improved remarkably. In addition, the bound and immobilized water were found transferred to free water indicated the water holding capacity decreased and meat softened. The analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) indicated that hexal, octanal and volatile substances from spices were the key substances causing flavor differences between the two methods and could be further distinguished by the electronic nose and tongue. The results of digestion in vitro showed that the protein digestibility, release rate of peptide and free amino-acid in the ST product were higher than that in the TD cooked. The contents of α-helix and β-sheet decreased with the increase of digestion time in the two methods, while the α-helix content of the ST product was lower during the first 60 min of intestinal digestion than that in TD cooked. These findings give a new insight into the associations of processing methods with meat quality.
  • The function of maltodextrins and ziziphus gum in cake and cake batter Original Article

    ABUDUJAYN, Abdulmajeed Abdulaziz; HUSSAIN, Shahzad; MOHAMED, Abdellatif Abdelhakim; ALAMRI, Mohamed Saleh; IBRAHEEM, Mohamed Abdrabo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Commercial maltodextrins (MD) and ziziphus gum (ZG) have been investigated for their effects on cake quality and possible use in slowing the staling process. The effects of MD and ZG were assessed by analyzing the pasting properties of the wheat flour slurry, the properties of the dough, and the quality of the cake after baking and after three days of storage. The qualities of the gel texture were assessed using a texture profile analysis (TPA) test, the qualities of the dough and cake were assessed using the Micro-doughLab and the TA-TXT texture analyzer, respectively. The evaluation of overall acceptance, texture, aroma, taste, and color was also done using 9 points hedonic sensory methods. Overall, despite their impacts were not similar, MD and ZG had a considerable impact on the quality of the cake, the dough, and the cake batter. By lowering gel hardness, which is the opposite of MD's effect, and raising setback, which appears to support amylose retrogradation, ZG appears to limit amylose retrogradation. Less mixing tolerance index (MTI) and more stability were imparted in the dough by both ZG and MD. ZG and MD both significantly increased the cake volume, although MD did so more. Although the batter density was high, MD greatly increased cake volume. The cake's sensory parameter scores indicated that MD had a positive impact on it, and both the 2% MD blends and the control blends performed equally well in terms of general acceptance.
  • The inhibition of HACE1 ameliorates inflammatory responses in citrobacter rodentium-induced murine colitis through Nrf2/ NLRP3 signaling pathway Original Article

    QIU, Ting; NIU, Lu; ZHANG, Yu; LV, Yifei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study was intended to elucidate the effects of HACE1 in Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Murine Colitis. Male C57BL/6 mice orally administered with 100 µLof Citrobacter rodentium DBS-100 (109 CFU mL−1) for 14 days. The expression of HACE1 in Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Murine Colitis was increased. HACE1 promoted inflammation and ROS levels in macrophage through the inactivation of Nrf2/NLRP3 signaling pathway. Meanwhile, si-HACE1 reduced inflammation and ROS levels in macrophage via the inhibition of Nrf2/NLRP3 signaling pathway. Sh-HACE1 reduced inflammatory responses in Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Murine Colitis through the promotion of Nrf2/NLRP3 signaling pathway. IP showed that HACE1 protein catenated with Nrf2 protein to suppress ROS-induced NLRP3 in macrophage through the promotion of Nrf2 Ubiquitination. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the inhibition of HACE1 ameliorates inflammatory responses in Citrobacter rodentium-induced Murine Colitis through the inhibition of ROS-induced mitochondrial damage by Nrf2/NLRP3. m6A promoted HACE1 stability by METTL3. Our study revealed the m6A methyltransferase METTL3 promoted HACE1 stability to promote NLRP3 activity in Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Murine Colitis by the inhibition of Nrf2.
  • New process of goji fermented wine: effect of goji residue degradation to generate norisoprenoid aroma compounds Original Article

    CHEN, Keyu; ZHAO, Lu; YUE, Yangyang; NAI, Guoya; ZHANG, Huiling; LEE, Bingfeng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the present study, we compared the color, flavor, and sensory attributes of wines prepared from undegraded (GW1), and physically (GW2) and biologically (GW3) degraded goji residue. Change in wine color showed a similar trend during the aging period; the color gradually became darker, with an increasing red and yellow hue. The wine obtained using the biological method was more clarified, transparent, and lustrous after 30 days of aging. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detected 7 norisopreniod aroma compounds in GW1 and 9 additional compounds including dihydro-β-ionone, dihydrojasmone, safranal, α-cyclocitral, β-cyclocitral, octanoic acid, 2-octenal, β-damascenon, and geraniol propionate in GW2 and GW3. However, the content of GW3 compounds was higher than GW2 and GW1 compounds. Compared to GW1 and GW2, GW3 compounds showed a more intense floral and fruity aroma with typical wolfberry notes. Sensory evaluation revealed that panelists preferred GW3, followed by GW1 and GW2. Altogether, biodegradation of goji residue produced goji wine with the best color, flavor, and organoleptic qualities. We believe this study will contribute to a better understanding of the brewing and aging process of goji wine and improve its quality.
  • Effect of different drying and cooking treatments on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in broccoli: an experimental in vitro study Original Article

    HAMEED, Amna; FATIMA, Naeem; IFTIKHAR, Hassan; MEHMOOD, Asim; TARIQ, Muhammad Rizwan; ALI, Shinawar Waseem; ALI, Sajid; SHAFIQ, Muhammad; AHMAD, Zulfiqar; ALI, Umair; GHAZANFAR, Madiha; IFTIKHAR, Madiha; SAFDAR, Waseem; AHMAD, Asif; BASHARAT, Zunaira; UMER, Zujaja; KHALID, Maham

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The current study aimed to assess broccoli's phytochemical profile and determine its antioxidant activity. Fresh broccoli was procured from a local farm and divided into two major treatment groups (cooked and dried). There were five sub-treatments in the cooking group (conventional, microwave, boiling, blanching, and steaming) and three treatments in the drying group (sun drying, freeze drying, and hot air drying). Ascorbic acid content, total carotenoids, TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for every sub-treatment. The results depicted that the antioxidant constituent of cooked broccoli was complementary to dried broccoli samples. The maximum amount of ascorbic acid content (10.80 mg/100 g), total carotenoids (3.976 mg/g), total phenolic contents (225.80 mg/g), and the total flavonoid contents (42.92 mg/g) were found in freeze-dried broccoli. Freeze-dried broccoli also showed the highest antioxidant activity for DPPH free radical scavenging assay (62.45%), hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay (53.67%), and ABTS radical scavenging assay (65.84%).
  • Volatile metabolite profiling of linolenic acid oxidation in the heating process Original Article

    LIU, Longze; LIU, Chang; DOU, Shaohua; DONG, Liang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Linolenic acid is an important fatty acid, and volatiles generated by its oxidation are the major components of food flavor. In this study, volatile components generated from linolenic acid during heating were detected and analyzed by using thermal desorption cryo-trapping system coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 52 volatile compounds were identified, including aldehydes (18), ketones (12), alcohols (6), furans (4), acids (6) and aromatic compounds (6). The forming temperature of each volatile compound was also determined. It was found that most volatile compounds with shorter carbon chains were mainly generated at lower temperatures, while volatile compounds with longer carbon chains were mainly produced at higher temperatures. Results of principal component analysis show that most of the identified volatiles were considered as the characteristic ones of the high temperature points. Potential thermal oxidation mechanism of linolenic acid was also given at the same time.
  • Pomegranate punicalagin inhibits the foam cells formation in Raw264.7 macrophages Original Article

    ZHAO, Shengjuan; ZHANG, Yujia; ZHANG, Xinyi; ZHOU, Yaxin; XU, Yunfeng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to reveal the inhibitory effect of pomegranate punicalagin on macrophage foam cell formation and its possible mechanism, Raw264.7 macrophages were as the experimental carrier to detect the effect of punicalagin on macrophage cholesterol accumulation and outflow, and evaluate the regulation of punicalagin on cholesterol accumulation related genes CD36, PPARγ and outflow related genes ABCA1/G1, LXRα by Western-Blot method. The results showed that punicalagin can inhibit the cholesterol accumulation in raw264.7 macrophages due to restraining the PPARγ-CD36 expression, and meanwhile it could also promote macrophage cholesterol efflux by regulating LXRα-ABCA1/G1 pathway.
  • Comparative analysis of the secondary metabolites of Dendrobium officinale from different growing origins by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS Original Article

    TAN, Daopeng; ZENG, Yao; WANG, Jiangmei; LU, Yanliu; YANG, Zhou; SUN, Shudong; QIN, Lin; HE, Yuqi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dendrobium officinale is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and nourishing food in China. The active constituents in D. officinale include a variety of chemical components such as polysaccharides, bibenzyl, phenanthrenes, and flavonoids etc. Among them, polysaccharide was selected as the quality control marker for D. officinale in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The previous studies found that the content of polysaccharide constituents in D. officinale from different growing origins had significant differences. To the best of our knowledge, whether the secondary metabolites other than polysaccharides are similarly different in D. officinale from different origins has not been reported. In the present continuing study, UPLC-Q/TOF-MS coupled with multivariate analysis were employed for comparative analysis of the secondary metabolites of D. officinale from different growing origins. At last, 12 differential secondary metabolites of D. officinale from different origins were identified. Network pharmacological analysis results indicated that these differential secondary metabolites of D. officinale from different origins are mainly involved in neuropsychiatric related disorder diseases. This investigation will provide a valuable information for doctors and consumers in clinical practice.
  • Prediction of growth kinetics of Bacillus tequilensis in nutrient broth under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions Original Article

    EMTIAZI, Giti; GHOREISHI, Fatemeh Sadat; DARANI, Kianoush Khosravi; YÜCEL, Özgün; TARLAK, Fatih

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The main objective of the present study was to develop and validate a new alternative modelling method to predict Bacillus tequilensis count in nutrient broth under iso-thermal and non-isothermal conditions. The bacterial growth data of Bacillus tequilensis was obtained experimentally in aerobically-kept nutrient broth medium and described with two-step and one-step modelling approaches by different primary models (the modified Gompertz, logistic, Baranyi and Huang models) under isothermal temperatures. Temperature-dependent kinetic parameter (maximum specific growth rate ‘µmax’) was described as a function of temperature via the Ratkowsky model integrated with each primary model. The Huang model based on the one-step modelling approach yielded the best fitting results (RMSE = 0.143 and adjusted-R2 = 0.977) for all isothermal conditions. Therefore, the Huang model was also used to check it’s prediction capability under non-isothermal conditions. The differential form of the Huang model provided satisfactorily statistical indexes (Bf = 1.07 and Af = 1.08) indicating reliably being able to use to describe the growth behaviour of Bacillus tequilensis in broth subjected to non-isothermal conditions.
  • Visualization and prediction of TVB-N content in chilled pork by hyperspectral imaging Original Article

    XING, Xiaoyang; ZHAO, Maocheng; QI, Liang; TANG, Yuweiyi; WANG, Xiwei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract TVB-N is one of the important indexes of the freshness of chilled pork. To present the freshness more accurately and completely, a visualization technology of chemical composition was applied and optimized for pork freshness detection. Two hyperspectral cameras covering visible and near-infrared wavebands were used to detect the TVB-N content. GA, SPA, iPLSR, and siPLSR were employed to select characteristic wavebands from the spectra data extracted from the hyperspectral images, and PLSR models were established on full wavebands and characteristic wavebands. According to the models established on the spectral data, TVB-N distribution maps were obtained, and URV and ICV were employed to evaluate the performance of distribution maps. The results showed that, both PLSR models established on the characteristic wavebands and full wavebands achieved good accuracy, and that the characteristic wavebands cluster was in the spectral range of 600-750 nm, 1020-1120 nm, and 1450-1570 nm. To optimize the performance of distribution maps, prediction models were reconstructed under the guidance of URV and ICV. This study provided a method of predicting TVB-N content of pork in both spectral and imaging aspect for online testing the freshness of chilled pork, which improves the efficiency and quality of testing.
  • Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for extraction of bioactive compounds from purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) using response surface methodology Original Article

    PARK, Ha Young; HONG, Ji woo; KIM, Jun Hee; KIM, Yeong Hyeon; KIM, Jin Woo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Statically-based optimization was employed to maximize the total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and radical scavenging activity from purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) using ultrasound-assisted extraction. To enhance the extraction of bioactive components, key variables of ultrasound-assisted extraction including extraction time (5.0 ~ 55.0 min), extraction temperature (26.0 ~ 94.5 °C), and ethanol concentration (0.0 ~ 99.5%) were chosen as independent variables and optimized using Response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were predicted as 41.9 °C, 46.1 min, and 26.0% ethanol, under these conditions, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and radical scavenging activity were found to be 16.1 mg GAE/g DM, 0.86 QE/g DM, and 25.6%, respectively, similar to the experimental values of the validation experiment. When the purple carrot extract was analyzed using HPLC, chlorogenic acid was identified as a main substance. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted extraction can effectively increase the anti-oxidant production of purple carrot, and purple carrot extract has high potential as functional food and cosmetic raw material.
  • Rapid and non-destructive determination of tea polyphenols content in Chongzhou new loquat tea lines based on near infrared spectroscopy Original Article

    ZHANG, Ying; LI, Xiaosong; LI, Hui; HUANG, Liang; HUANG, Jiacheng; TANG, Qian

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multiple algorithms was used to determinate the tea polyphenols content in Chongzhou new loquat tea lines quickly and nondestructively. Samples of 26 Chongzhou new loquat tea lines were collected, then scanning NIRS, pretreating spectral noise information, screening characteristic spectral intervals by backward interval partial least squares, proceeding principal component analysis. Finally, the artificial neural network (BP-ANN) method with three kinds of transfer functions was applied to establish models. The best pretreated method was the combination of standard normal variation (SNV) and first derivative, and the characteristic spectral regions selected were 4381.5-4755.6 cm–1, 4759.5-5133.6 cm–1, 6266.6-6637.8 cm–1 and 7389.9-7760.2 cm–1, respectively. The cumulative contribution rate of the first three principal components of the selected characteristic spectra was 95.24%. When the BP-ANN calibration set model was established with the logistic function, NIRS model had the best results, whose root mean square error and determination coefficient of the cross validation were 0.975 and 0.372%, respectively. The root mean square error and the determination coefficient of the prediction set model were 0.962 and 0.400%, respectively. The results showed NIRS can predict the tea polyphenols content in Chongzhou new loquat tea lines quickly and accurately.
  • Isolation and extraction of glansreginin A from walnut meal and its effect on the proliferation of 3T3-L1 cells Original Article

    WU, Yongling; SONG, Jiaxin; MA, Aijin; ZHANG, Zijie; CHEN, Zhou; LI, Siting; QI, Bing; JIA, Yingmin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Glansreginin A is an indicative component in walnut and is abundant in walnut meal. The aim of this study was to isolate and purify glansreginin A from the walnut meal, and to investigate the weight loss and lipid-lowering potential of glansreginin A by studying the effect of glansregin A on the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Firstly, the response surface methodology was used to effectively improve the extraction yield of glansreginin A. The maximum extraction rate of glansreginin A was 0.363%, and the optimal extraction process conditions were determined. In addition, the lipid-lowering activity of glansreginin A was investigated by cell experiments. The results showed that glansreginin A could inhibit the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. And cell cycle of different groups of cells treated with glansreginin A was also measured using flow cytometry. The results showed most of the cells were blocked in G0/G1 phase and significantly decreased in S phase. These results suggest that glansreginin A could inhibit the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by causing cell cycle arrest. These findings provided a theoretical basis for the future research of glansreginin A and the development of slimming and fat-reducing foods.
  • Frequency and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from Mexican fresh cheese Original Article

    LOEZA-LARA, Pedro Damián; MEDINA-ESTRADA, Ricardo Iván; BRAVO-MONZÓN, Ángel Eliezer; JIMÉNEZ-MEJÍA, Rafael

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Fresh cheese is one of the most consumed products of the dairy industry in México. This study aimed to determine the frequency, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in fresh cheese. From fresh cheese samples, E. coli was isolated and the production of ESBL, the antibiotic resistance patterns, the frequency of resistance genes, and the genetic relationship were analyzed. Sixty ESBL-producing E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups A, C, and B1 were isolated and were highly resistant to the beta-lactam antibiotics, tetracycline, streptomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The blaCTX-M gene was detected in all isolates, either alone or in combination with blaTEM and blaSHV. Similarly, a high frequency of resistance genes tetA, strA, and strB and class 1 integrons were found. According to their ERIC-PCR fingerprints, the E. coli were clustered into eight groups. In conclusion, a high frequency of ESBL-producing, genetically diverse, and multidrug-resistant E. coli was found in fresh cheese. The presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in fresh cheese constitutes a public health issue because these bacteria may be pathogenic or contribute to the dissemination of resistance genes to other pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.
  • Optimization and simulation of pulsed electric field treatment chamber for food sterilization Original Article

    WANG, Yuxuan; SHA, Kaiyue; GUO, Xuyao; CHEN, Jing; CHEN, Quanzhen; JIANG, Feng