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Advantages for immigrants, disadvantages for Blacks: employment, property, family structure, and literacy in post-abolition Western São Paulo

Based on data from a municipal census in 1907, this study compared the situations of Blacks, White Brazilians, and various immigrant groups in early 20th century Western São Paulo. Contrary to assertions in the literature, many Black families were small coffee farmers, and Blacks competed with Europeans in various other manual occupations. Meanwhile, Blacks were almost completely absent from the elites, and literacy rates were extremely low among Blacks, including in the new generation, born after Abolition. The study analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of these various groups, thereby contributing to new hypotheses on the consequences of large-scale European immigration for the Black population.

immigrants; Blacks; racism; post-Abolition


Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos (IESP) da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) R. da Matriz, 82, Botafogo, 22260-100 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil, Tel. (55 21) 2266-8300, Fax: (55 21) 2266-8345 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
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