The cognitive reserve (CR) concept posits that there is individual variability in processing task demands and coping with neurodegenerative diseases. This variability can be attributed to the protective effects derived from continuous cognitive stimulation throughout life, including formal education, engagement in cognitively stimulating activities and occupation. These can result in protection against age-related cognitive decline and reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the main features of CR formation and to discuss the challenges in carrying out CR research in developing countries.
cognitive reserve; aging; Alzheimer's disease; occupation attainment; schooling; cognitive stimulation.